The participants recruited in the Yale-Penn cohort are assessed using Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism (SSADDA; PMID: 15896927, 17590536, 19371499, 20888699, 26048641). This is poly-diagnostic assessment with detailed ascertainment of all major DSM diagnoses, with the exception of eating disorders. The structured nature of the SSADDA permits its use by well-trained lay interviewers. Computer algorithms are used to make all DSM-IV or DSM-5 diagnoses based on the edited SSADDA interviews. The SSADDA is currently available in English, Thai, and Chinese. Scientists interested to use the SSADDA in their studies should contact Dr. Gelernter and Ms. Nunez.