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EEG-Neurofeedback as a Tool to Modulate Cognition and Behavior: A Review Tutorial

Thursday, May 5, 2022: 4:00 - 5:00 pm

Passcode: MAPs

Dr.Stefanie Enriquez-Geppert, Dept. Clinical and Developmental Neuropsychology, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands


Neurofeedback is attracting renewed interest as a method to self-regulate one’s own brain activity to directly alter the underlying neural mechanisms of cognition and behavior. It not only promises new avenues as a method for cognitive enhancement in healthy subjects, but also as a therapeutic tool.
This talk focuses on 3 questions:

  • What is EEG-based neurofeedback?
  • What are current topics in research and examples from clinical practice?
  • What does practical implementation look like?

The talk includes 5 parts:

  1. An overview of EEG Neurofeedback (NF)
  2. 20 exercises for the participants. This will be about the experimental design of NF in groups of three, using breakout rooms, passcode MAPs. As a basis, they will work on the decision tree of the review tutorial and the CRED-NF consensus guidelines.
  3. Overview of the fm-theta protocol, and of reasoning behind the choices of the design.
  4. Summary of the current status of clinical application, tips for further training, and assessment criteria of NF studies.
  5. Q&A.

An advantage of the frontal-midline (fm) theta protocol is the richer knowledge from animal models, e.g., vivo and in vitro studies as well as neurobiologically inspired models on theta and its contribution to cognition. This leads to the higher construct validity of the brain signal used as a target for neurofeedback. However, it should be noted that there are other possible brain features (theta connectivity within the cognitive network, frequency coupling etc.) and fm-theta is one example. Another advantage is the use of credible active control groups. The results of fm-theta open the possibility to develop it further for neuroergonomic purposes and clinical studies.


Prerequisites: Basic skills in programming languages: MATLAB (license)
Clinical neurofeedback implementation is currently poorly regulated by institutional and professional regulation. There is a lack of agreed upon standard, the danger of unlicensed personal (see Enriquez-Geppert et al. 2019).

Scientific and professional organizations:


  • Ready-to-use software for EEG neurofeedback training studies
  • Multi-subject data handling
  • Real-time processing of data
Reference publications:
For neuroimaging data (in particular functional connectivity):

Registration Information

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Design Your Own NF Study

MAPS - Stefanie Enriquez-Geppert