EEG-Neurofeedback as a Tool to Modulate Cognition and Behavior: A Review Tutorial
Thursday, May 5, 2022: 4:00 - 5:00 pm
Dr.Stefanie Enriquez-Geppert, Dept. Clinical and Developmental Neuropsychology, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands
Neurofeedback is attracting renewed interest as a method to self-regulate one’s own brain activity to directly alter the underlying neural mechanisms of cognition and behavior. It not only promises new avenues as a method for cognitive enhancement in healthy subjects, but also as a therapeutic tool.
This talk focuses on 3 questions:
- What is EEG-based neurofeedback?
- What are current topics in research and examples from clinical practice?
- What does practical implementation look like?
The talk includes 5 parts:
- An overview of EEG Neurofeedback (NF)
- 20 exercises for the participants. This will be about the experimental design of NF in groups of three, using breakout rooms, passcode MAPs. As a basis, they will work on the decision tree of the review tutorial and the CRED-NF consensus guidelines.
- Overview of the fm-theta protocol, and of reasoning behind the choices of the design.
- Summary of the current status of clinical application, tips for further training, and assessment criteria of NF studies.
An advantage of the frontal-midline (fm) theta protocol is the richer knowledge from animal models, e.g., vivo and in vitro studies as well as neurobiologically inspired models on theta and its contribution to cognition. This leads to the higher construct validity of the brain signal used as a target for neurofeedback. However, it should be noted that there are other possible brain features (theta connectivity within the cognitive network, frequency coupling etc.) and fm-theta is one example. Another advantage is the use of credible active control groups. The results of fm-theta open the possibility to develop it further for neuroergonomic purposes and clinical studies.
Prerequisites: Basic skills in programming languages: MATLAB (license)
Clinical neurofeedback implementation is currently poorly regulated by institutional and professional regulation. There is a lack of agreed upon standard, the danger of unlicensed personal (see Enriquez-Geppert et al. 2019).
Scientific and professional organizations:
- Society of Applied Neuroscience (SAN): http://www.applied-neuroscience.org/
- EU-based nonprofit membership organization: http://www.applied-neuroscience.org
- International Society for Neurofeedback & Research (ISNR): https://www.isnr.org
- Biofeedback Certification International Alliance (BCIA): www.BCIA.org
- Section Neurofeedback of the Dutch Institute for Psychologists (NIP): https://www.psynip.nl/?s=Section+Neurofeedback
- Germany: German society for biofeedback (DGBFB) for physicians and psychological psychotherapists: https://www.dgbfb.de/index.php/en/home-en
- USA: the Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback: https://www.aapb.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=1
- NeuroFeedback Suite (a MATLAB-based software package, currently under revision): https://sourceforge.net/projects/nfsuite/
- Ready-to-use software for EEG neurofeedback training studies
- Multi-subject data handling
- Real-time processing of data
- Coben, R. & Evans, J. R. (Eds.). (2010). Neurofeedback and neuromodulation techniques and applications. Academic Press. link
- Martijn Arns M. & Sternberg M. (Eds.). (2020) Neurofeedback- How it all started. link
- Enriquez-Geppert, S., Huster, R. J., & Herrmann, C. S. (2017). EEG-neurofeedback as a tool to modulate cognition and behavior: a review tutorial. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 11, 51. link
- Evidence-based practice in Biofeedbak and Neurofeedback 4th Edition, edited by the Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, released in March/April 2022.