Skip to Main Content


Overview and History

Photo by Anthony DeCarlo

Yale School of Medicine is one of the world’s leading centers for biomedical research, advanced clinical care, and medical education.

It ranks seventh among medical schools receiving funds from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and tenth in NIH dollars per faculty member.

More than 1,700 Yale physicians provide care to patients from across the region and around the world. The Yale System of Medical Education, with its emphasis on critical thinking and independent student research, has produced leaders in every field of academic medicine.

The sixth-oldest medical school in the United States, it was chartered by the Connecticut General Assembly in 1810 as the Medical Institution of Yale College, located first on Grove Street, then at 150 York Street.

Since 1924, it has occupied Sterling Hall of Medicine at 333 Cedar Street and surrounding buildings.

It has awarded 9,492 medical degrees since 1814. There are 5,671 living alumni with MD degrees, 5,603 with MPH degrees, and 1,529 alumni of the Physician Associate Program with the PA-C certificate or MMSc degree, and 139 alumni of the Physician Assistant Online Program.

Download a PDF of 2022-23 Facts & Figures for printing.

Brief Chronology

  • 1701 - Yale College founded
  • 1810 - Medical Institution of Yale College chartered
  • 1833 - The State Hospital, precursor to New Haven Hospital, opens
  • 1839 - MD student thesis requirement formalized
  • 1857 - First African American student graduates
  • 1915 - Department of Public Health established
  • 1916 - First women students admitted
  • 1923 - Yale School of Nursing established
  • 1924 - Yale School of Medicine relocates to Sterling Hall of Medicine
  • 1941 - The Yale Medical Library is dedicated
  • 1945 - New Haven Hospital merges with Grace Hospital, becoming Grace-New Haven Community Hospital
  • 1965 - Yale School of Medicine and Grace-New Haven Community Hospital revise their affiliation, creating Yale New Haven Hospital
  • 1970 - Physician Associate Program founded
  • 1974 - Yale Cancer Center established
  • 1991 - Boyer Center for Molecular Medicine completed
  • 1993 - Yale New Haven Children’s Hospital opens
  • 1999 - Revised affiliation agreement with Yale New Haven Health System
  • 2003 - The Anlyan Center for Medical Research & Education at Yale is completed
  • 2007 - Amistad Street Building opens
  • 2007 - Yale West Campus acquired
  • 2009 - Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale New Haven opens
  • 2010–11 - Yale School of Medicine celebrates its bicentennial
  • 2012 - YNHH acquires the Hospital of Saint Raphael
  • 2018 - Physician Assistant online program launches
  • 2022 - Establishment of an aligned physician enterprise between Yale Medicine and Northeast Medical Group

YSM Mission

Yale School of Medicine educates and nurtures creative leaders in medicine and science, promoting curiosity and critical inquiry in an inclusive environment enriched by diversity.

We advance discovery and innovation fostered by partnerships across the university, our local community, and the world.

We care for patients with compassion, and commit to improving the health of all people.


Photo by Robert A. Lisak

The School of Medicine educates future leaders in medicine, public health, and biomedical science. The MD program follows a unique educational philosophy, the Yale System of Medical Education, established in the 1920s. No course grades or class rankings are given in the first two years, examinations are limited, and students are expected to engage in independent investigation. Since 1839, medical students have written a thesis based on original research, reflecting that the scientific process of investigation, attentive observation, interpretation of data, and critical evaluation of literature are fundamental to the practice of medicine.

Many medical students take a tuition-free fifth year to pursue additional study. Some conduct in-depth research or explore clinical electives and subinternships. A significant number are awarded fifth-year research fellowships and earn the MHS degree.

Each year, approximately 20 students enroll in the school’s MD-PhD Program, one of the original Medical Scientist Training Programs established and funded by the NIH. Graduate students in the Combined Program in the Biomedical and Biological Sciences earn a PhD degree through the Faculty of Arts and Sciences. The School of Medicine also offers joint degree programs with other professional schools including Public Health, Law, Management, Engineering, and Divinity.

YSM’s Physician Associate (PA) Program, one of the oldest PA programs in the country, and its Physician Assistant Online Program train students to become compassionate, high-quality, patient-centered PAs. The online program enables students to become PAs without relocating from their home communities.

  • Students by Degree Program

    MD Program1
    360 MD Students
    158 MD/PhD Students
    18 MD/MHS Students
    14 MD/MBA Students
    2 MD/MPH Students
    0 MD/JD Students

    M/MSc (PA-C) Program
    115 Physician Associate Program Students
    164 Physician Assistant Online Students

    MPH Program
    695 MPH Students

    PhD Program
    431 PhD Students

    1,957 Total ALL Students
  • MD Program Details

    Class of 2027 Profile
    5,495 Applicants
    105 Class size
    50 Female students
    54 Male Students
    1 Another Gender Identity
    N/A Declined to specify2
    5.5% Acceptance rate
    35% URiM3
    3.92 Median cumulative GPA
    522 MCAT median
    130 MCAT median of sections
    4.2 to 1 Faculty-to-student ratio
  • Finances & Library

    $67,484 2022-2023 tuition
    $79,750 2022 median debt for those with debt

    Medical Library
    368,000+ Volumes
    23,000+ Journals
    50,000+ Online books, biomedical

Basic and Translational Research

Photo by Anthony DeCarlo
Important research collaborations bring together scientists on the medical campus, Science Hill, and the West Campus. Funding for research at YSM has increased from $808.5 million in 2021 to $836.2 million in 2022.

Research at the medical school covers a broad spectrum, from fundamental studies in the life sciences—including cell biology, genetics, immunobiology, microbial pathogenesis, neuroscience, pharmacology, physiology, biophysics and biochemistry—to translational and clinical studies aimed at improving the diagnosis and treatment of human diseases.

The school’s core research resources are built around the newest technologies:

  • State-of-the-art tools for genomics and proteomics, including whole-genome sequencing and mass spectrometry
  • High-resolution imaging and image analysis at every scale, including cryoelectron microscopy, cryoelectron tomography, and the only focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope in the region
  • High-throughput screening, including RNAi and chemical screens
  • Construction and analysis of animal models of disease
In 2020, YSM established the Office for Health Equity Research to address health disparities and inequities in underserved populations by coordinating and facilitating health equity research and partnerships at the school, across Yale University, and beyond.

In 2022, the school advanced its strategic priority in data science by creating a department for Biomedical Informatics and Data Science as a hub for biomedical collaboration. Soon after, in 2023, a new biorepository service was formed to store, retrieve, and share biological samples such as blood, solid tissues, DNA, RNA, and proteins, for current and future research studies.

  • Departments, Patents, Research Activity

    10 Basic science
    18 Clinical
    6 Public Health
    34 Total

    6 Programs and Centers

    Active Patents
    371 U.S.
    811 World (54 countries)
    1,182 Total

    132 Yale-founded Biotech Companies

    Research Activity
    3,022 Number of awards
    $836.2million Dollar total

    $549.9 million Awards
    7th Rank, total grant dollars among medical schools5
    10th Rank, grants per faculty member 6
    25 Centers and program grants

    Laboratory Space
    716,890 YSM Net Assignable Square Feet
  • About YSM Faculty

    2,260 Faculty, Teaching (ladder)
    756 Research
    371 Lecturer/Instructor
    68 Visiting
    186 Emeritus/Retired
    1,717 Voluntary/Adjunct
    5,358 Total Faculty

    1,704 Postgraduate Fellows & Associates

    Memberships & Awards4
    41 Association of American Physicians
    3 Breakthrough Prize
    1 Fields Medal
    7 HHMI investigators
    2 Kavli Prize
    4 Lasker Awards
    6 MacArthur Genius Grant
    8 National Academy of Engineering
    57 National Academy of Medicine
    65 National Academy of Sciences
    3 Nobel Prize
    2 Wolf Prize
    145 Faculty with Endowed Professorships

Clinical Investigation

Photo by Robert A. Lisak

Clinical investigation at Yale bridges the gap between the basic and translational sciences and the practice of medicine. Research is focused on the factors that affect health and illness in populations, the evaluation of therapeutic interventions, and the assessment of health outcomes based on analysis of large data sets. The School of Medicine sponsors a wide range of clinical trials, with more than 2,063 active trials in 2022, and more than 18,000 “Help Us Discover” unique volunteers enrolled (see, and 33,159 active subjects. The school offers superb training for clinical investigators in a number of settings, including the Yale Center for Clinical Investigation, the National Clinician Scholars Program at Yale (the evolution of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Clinical Scholars Program), the Yale School of Public Health, and the Investigative Medicine Program, along with discipline-specific training initiatives in selected departments.

YCCI facilitates the training of clinical and translational scientists and provides infrastructure for innovative and collaborative research directed at improving patient care. It funds up to 20 YCCI Scholars yearly and supports investigators in the areas of biostatistics, bioinformatics, study design, core technologies, regulatory review, patient recruitment, and community-based research.
  • Programs at Yale include:

    The National Clinician Scholars Program at Yale was established in 2016 to prepare future clinician leaders to improve health and health care. Graduates of the two-year interprofessional fellowship earn a master of health sciences (MHS) degree.

    Yale School of Public Health offers training and conducts research in biostatistics, chronic disease epidemiology, environmental health sciences, epidemiology of microbial diseases, and health policy and administration.

    The Investigative Medicine Program awards a PhD degree to holders of MD degrees who pursue training in either laboratory-based or clinically based human investigation.

  • By the Numbers 2022-23

    187 - RWJ Scholars since 1974
    50 - NCSP Scholars since 2016
    59 - PhDs awarded by Investigative Medicine Program since 2003 1
    81 - YCCI Scholars trained since 2006

Patient Care

Photo by Anthony DeCarlo

More than 1,700 Yale physicians provide primary and specialty care for patients through Yale Medicine. The practice delivers advanced care in more than 100 specialties and subspecialties, and has centers of excellence in such fields as cancer, cardiac care, minimally invasive surgery, and organ transplantation.

Yale physicians have made many historical contributions, including the first use of cancer chemotherapy, the first artificial heart pump, and the first insulin infusion pump for diabetes.

In 2022, YSM played a crucial role in the trials for teplizumab, the first FDA-approved drug with the ability to change the course of type 1 diabetes, or any autoimmune disease.

Today Yale Physicians use such groundbreaking advances as DNA sequencing technology to diagnose suspected genetic diseases. Yale Medicine is a major referral center for Connecticut and New England, and treats patients from throughout the world.

  • Patient Care Overview

    Yale Medicine
    2.8 Million Patient Encounters

    1,580 Full-time
    182 Part-time
    840 Allied Providers
    437 Clinical fellows
    919 Medical residents
  • Yale New Haven Hospital

    81,750 Patient discharges
    142,659 Emergency visits 8
    1.99 million Outpatient encounters (including ED)
    1,541 Total licensed beds

Clinical Affiliations

An affiliation agreement between Yale School of Medicine (YSM) and Grace-New Haven Community Hospital in 1965 created Yale New Haven Hospital (YNHH), which expanded in 1993 with the opening of the Children’s Hospital. In 1999, a second affiliation agreement further established the relationship between the YSM and Yale New Haven Health System (YNHHS).

Since then, the health system has grown significantly. In 2000, YNHH expanded again with the acquisition of the Psychiatric Hospital. In 2009, the 14-story Smilow Cancer Hospital opened, and in 2012 YNHH acquired the Hospital of Saint Raphael, adding 533 beds and making it one of the largest hospitals in the United States. Over the years, the medical community has expanded to include the institutions listed at left. Today an initiative is underway to further align these institutions to enable even greater discovery and clinical care, improve operational efficiency, and provide additional support and opportunities to physicians and students.

Four miles away in West Haven, the affiliated VA Connecticut Healthcare System maintains active clinical, research, and education programs in conjunction with many medical school departments.

Extensive maps and directions to medical center destinations are available online at

Medical Center Institutions

  • Yale School of Medicine
  • Yale Medicine
  • Yale School of Public Health
  • Yale School of Nursing
  • Yale New Haven Health, which consists of:
    • Yale New Haven Hospital, including the Saint Raphael Campus
    • Yale New Haven Children’s Hospital
    • Yale New Haven Psychiatric Hospital
    • Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale New Haven
    • Bridgeport Hospital
    • Greenwich Hospital
    • Lawrence + Memorial Hospital
    • Northeast Medical Group
    • Westerly Hospital
  • Yale Health
  • Connecticut Mental Health Center
  • John B. Pierce Laboratory

Yale University & New Haven

Photo by Michael Marsland

The School of Medicine is located on the main campus of Yale University, one of the world’s great institutions of higher learning. With a residential college system modeled after those of Cambridge and Oxford, the undergraduate school is complemented by the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and 12 professional schools, including Architecture, Art, Divinity, Drama, Engineering and Applied Science, Forestry and Environmental Studies, Law, Management, Music, Nursing, and Medicine, which includes the School of Public Health. In 2007, Yale acquired the 136-acre West Campus in West Haven.

Established in 1638, New Haven was the first planned municipality in America, organized geographically in nine squares, including a picturesque town green. Today, New Haven is a vibrant coastal city located on Long Island Sound between New York and Boston. Cultural opportunities abound, from dance, theater, and music to the treasures of Yale’s art and natural history museums.

  • Community Service

    Most students volunteer, and the COVID-19 pandemic did not diminish that undertaking. Students continued creatively providing support remotely or in a socially distanced manner when necessary.

    The many community service projects and organizations for which students customarily volunteer include:

    • Columbus House
    • Downtown Evening Soup Kitchen
    • HAVEN (student-run free clinic)
    • Health Professionals Recruitment and Exposure Program
    • Hill Regional Career High School Anatomy Teaching Program
    • Hunger and Homelessness Auction
    • Neighborhood Health Project
    • Refugee Patient Navigator Program
    • Youth Science Enrichment Program
    • Integrated Refugee & Immigrant Services (IRIS)
  • Yale University Profile

    Faculty Staff Students
    Yale (includes YSM) 5,251 10,891 14,776
    YSM9 3,455 4,005 1,957

    New Haven Profile
    134,023 2020 Population
    80 miles from NYC
    137 miles from Boston

International Activities

The School of Medicine is an active partner in fulfilling Yale’s international goals, which include preparing students for international leadership and service, attracting the most talented students and scholars to Yale from around the world, and positioning Yale as a global university of consequence. Faculty members conduct research abroad, teach, and design courses in global health. Their work runs the gamut from molecular studies at the nanoscale to the analysis of social networks in disease transmission and prevention, to the improvement of health care systems

Yale Institute for Global Health is a university-wide effort led by the Schools of Medicine, Nursing, and Public Health that serves as the focal point for research, education, and engagement with global partners to improve the health of individuals and populations worldwide.

Yale Office of International Affairs offers support to faculty in establishing and maintaining collaborations abroad, drawing on existing relationships on six continents. It maintains an online faculty research database.

Norwegian University of Science and Technology is a partnership that provides support for the exchange of students, fellows, and faculty in such areas as cancer, immunology, neuroscience, and public health.

  • Programs at Yale include:

    • Office of Global Health
      Facilitates the placement of Yale medical students in global clinical electives at sites in Argentina, Chile, China, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ghana, India, Jamaica, South Africa, Uganda, and the U.S. (rural sites in Appalachia and on the Navajo Nation in Arizona as well as in free clinics in New Haven and San Francisco). The office also administers the Visiting International Student Electives Program.
    • Downs International Health Student Travel Fellowship
      Supports students who undertake health-related research, primarily in low- and middle-income countries.
    • Yale/Stanford—Johnson & Johnson Global Health Scholars
      Sponsors rotations abroad for Yale house staff and physicians from other institutions, who travel to six sites in Africa and Asia.
  • By the Numbers 2022-23

    International students at Yale
    7.5% MD
    30% MPH
    32% PhD (Sciences)

    Yale Students/ trainees abroad
    9 MD (international sites)
    1 MD (domestic sites)
    N/A MPH10
    10 Downs Fellows
    Visiting Students
    59 Visiting Students at Yale from other nations


The School of Medicine had operating income of $2.34billion in FY22. A total of $787.53 million in sponsored research funding was received and spent during the fiscal year.11 Clinical income totaled $1.30 billion. Among medical schools receiving research funding from the NIH, YSM ranked seventh and 10th in NIH grants per faculty member in FY22. Salaries and benefits totaled 64.7% of expenditures. Income including endowment and gifts totaling $195.7 million, royalties equaled $0.72 million, and tuition was $38.6 million. More about Yale School of Medicine Finance & Administration.
  • Endowment

    $41.1 billion - Yale
    $3.77 billion - YSM

    2022 Operating Income

    $4.8 billion - Yale
    $2.4 billion- YSM
  • 2022 Capital Projects

    New construction/ acquisitions

    $29.6 million - Yale
    $0 - YSM

    $348 million - Yale
    $72.8 million - YSM

  • Income Year Ending June 30, 2022

    Percent Actual Type
    54.5% $1,296M Clinical Income
    33.1% $787M Sponsored Agreements
    8.2% $195M Endowment & Gifts
    2.5% $60M Other
    1.6% 39M Tuition
    .1% $.72M Royalties
    100% $2,379M Total
  • Expenditures Year Ending June 30, 2022

    Percent Type
    64.7% Salaries & Benefits
    21.1% Non-salary expenses, net of internal revenue
    1.7% Fellowships
    3.0% Interest & Amortization
    9.5% Other
    100% Total

Footnotes & Contacts

  • Footnotes

    1 Of 552 enrolled students, 60 students are currently on extended study pursuing a joint degree, completing a fully funded year of research, or a combination of research and clinical rotations.

    2 All members of the Class of 2026 self-identified as female or male.

    3 Students who identify as underrepresented in medicine.

    4 Includes faculty across Yale University.

    5 NIH ranking is for the federal fiscal year ending 9/30/22.

    6 Per faculty rank averaged over 2021 and 2022.

    7 Yale New Haven Hospital data as of 9/30/22; includes the Children’s Hospital, Psychiatric Hospital, Smilow Cancer Hospital, and the former Hospital of Saint Raphael, which was acquired by YNHH on 9/12/12. Licensed beds include bassinets.

    8 Number of patients treated and released from the ED. This does not include those ED visitors who were admitted.

    9 Further breakdown can be found in the Education section.

    10 Due to COVID travel restrictions, some students worked remotely with agencies abroad, some did U.S.-based internships, while others worked abroad in their home countries (unable to return due to COVID travel restrictions).

    11 Research income does not equal award amounts because research dollars are not always spent in the same period in which they are awarded.

  • Contacts

    For copies of Facts & Figures:

    (203) 785-5824

    YSM Office of Communications
    50 Division Street, 2 Science Park, Floor 2,
    New Haven, CT 06511

    All data in Facts & Figures as of 6/30/22 unless otherwise noted.

Facts & Figures Archive

Previous versions of Facts & Figures are available to download in PDF form below.