Jean-Léon Thomas performed a PhD. in developmental biology with Pr. Nicole Le Douarin at Collège de France (Paris), and postgraduate studies on glial cell development with Bernard ZALC at INSERM, Salpêtrière Hospital (Paris). He was nominated Associate Professor at the University of Marne la Vallée in 1997 and Research Director at INSERM in 2005. Until 2010, he was heading a research group on ‘Oligodendrocyte development and Neurovascular interactions’ at the Research Center of the Brain and Spinal Cord Institute, Salpêtrière Hospital (Paris). JL THOMAS has an Associate Professor position at the Neurology Department of the Yale School of Medicine and is member of the Yale Stem Cell Center.