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COVID-19 Updated Data and Developments - 5.18.2020

May 20, 2020
by Jeannette Jiang, Emily Peterson and Robert Heimer

International case numbers as of May 18, 2020, 10:00 am

  • 4,744,216 COVID-19 cases worldwide; 315,622 deaths; 1,747,403 recovered.1
  • There is a frequently updated map of COVID-19 cases online at https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html.
  • COVID-19 cases in the United States now account for nearly one-third of worldwide cases with 1,487,447 diagnosed cases.
  • Russia now has the second highest number of cases with 290,678 cases, the United Kingdom third with 244,995, and Brazil fourth with 243,968.
    • Deaths in multiple countries now exceed reported deaths in China. Deaths due to COVID-19 in 11 countries exceed China’s reported total. 
    • China revised their COVID-19 death toll in Wuhan to 3,869, a significant increase from the previous 1,290 deaths. This new total now includes deaths at home. Still, experts say that these official numbers are likely understated.2 Findings in multiple locations indicate that proactive public health interventions to reduce burden on hospitals and healthcare workers, including social distancing, increased personal hygiene, and movement restrictions, are essential to reducing transmission and fatality rates.

Epidemic curve of confirmed coronavirus cases worldwide by region (from European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control COVID-19 Situation Update, as of 5/18/2020).

Distribution of coronavirus deaths worldwide by region (from European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control COVID-19 Situation Update, as of 5/18/2020).3

US National case numbers as of May 18, 2020, 10:00 am

  • 1,487,447 cases of coronavirus confirmed by lab tests, 89,567 deaths, and 272,265 recovered cases. 11,499,203 total tests have been conducted.4
    • New York has the highest number of confirmed cases at 350,121 followed by New Jersey at 146,504 cases and Illinois at 94,191 cases.
    • A study on COVID-19 infection rates among women admitted to give birth in New York found that, in the two hospitals studied, 1 in 8 women tested positive for coronavirus. Of the total 215 pregnant women tested for COVID-19 between March 22 and April 4, nearly 14% tested positive for coronavirus but were asymptomatic. Only 2% of the women both tested positive and had coronavirus symptoms.5

Top US States, Cumulative Diagnosed COVID-19 Cases as of May 18, 2020

State

No. of Cases6

Total Tests Conducted7

% Pop. Tested Positive

New York

350,121

1,413,396

1.80

New Jersey

146,504

487,565

1.65

Illinois

94,191

581,944

0.74

Massachusetts

86,010

460,826

1.24

California

80,166

1,235,243

0.20

Pennsylvania

65,700

332,904

0.51

Michigan

51,142

396,958

0.52

Texas

48,396

693,276

0.17


Risk in population

  • The fatality rate estimate for COVID-19 has been very difficult to estimate as testing practices and availability vary widely between countries. In many areas, testing has only been given to the most severely ill patients and so many more cases of coronavirus likely have gone undetected.8 
  • The fatality rate from data already available is 1.3% in people 50-59, 0.4% in people 40-49, and 0.18% in people 30 to 39. Those that are 29 and under face mortality rates 0.09% and under, and children ages 0-9 are estimated to experience mortality at rates below 0.01%.9 Data from the CDC shows that young adults ages 20-44 face a substantial risk of serious illness and hospitalization from the coronavirus.10 

Deaths involving COVID-19 reported to National Center for Health Statistics as of May 13, 202011

Age group

Total number of deaths

Percentage of reported deaths

0-14

12

0.02

15-24

59

0.11

25-34

388

0.71

35-44

973

1.77

45-54

2,772

5.05

55-64

6,725

12.26

65-74

11,524

21.01

75-84

14,930

27.21

85+

17,478

31.86

Data from the CDC continue to confirm that individuals with underlying conditions are at greater risk of experiencing severe outcomes as a result of COVID-19. However, the CDC has reiterated that measures should be taken to protect all persons, including those without underlying conditions.12

Provisional Death Counts for COVID-19 by Demographic Characteristics (as of May 13)13

 Demographic

Population Total

Female

44.61%

Male

55.39%

White

52.30%

Black

22.40%

American Indian or Alaskan Native

0.40%

Asian

5.80%

Hispanic

16.60%

Other

2.50%

Initial findings from a CDC study of hospitalized patients diagnosed with COVID-19 suggest that male residents and black residents may face a disproportionately greater risk of being affected by and hospitalized due to coronavirus.

From CDC COVIDView Weekly Surveillance Summary, retrieved 5/18/20.14

  • Elderly: The death rate in elderly adults aged 80 or older is very high and believed to be over 15% and possibly as high as 22%.15 Older adults (those over 60 and particularly those over 80) and those with serious chronic health conditions (including heart disease, diabetes, and lung disease) are at a higher risk of getting very ill due to COVID-19. 16
  • Children: Data from China suggest that COVID-19 infections in children may be less severe than cases in adults and that children might experience different symptoms than adults, as fewer children experience fever, cough, or shortness of breath. Relatively few children are hospitalized due to COVID-19 but severe outcomes have been reported in children, including three reported deaths. The CDC advises children to practice social distancing and wear cloth face coverings as well as to follow other everyday preventative behaviors.17
  • Health care workers, home health aides, first responders, and teachers are among those at greatest risk of contracting coronavirus as a result of their job.18 
  • Those that work in lower-income jobs may also face increased risk as the ability to work from home may not be feasible-- only 9.2% of those in the bottom income quartile (lowest 25% income earners) are able to work from home while 20.1% of those in the third income quartile (second-lowest, 25-50% incomes earners) are able to work from home.19

New US developments

  • Moderna, who tested the first COVID-19 vaccine in humans, stated that their first trial in humans (8 individuals) appears to be safe and was able to stimulate an immune response. The next step will be to test the vaccine in 600 individuals but full scale production of the vaccine could take at least a year.20
  • Many states are beginning to reopen with certain restrictions such as limiting the number of customers and requiring masks.21As restaurants and retailers open, many are struggling to ensure their customers can maintain social distancing rules.22 The CDC has released a number of “decision trees” to help businesses safely reopen.23 On a Senate panel, Dr. Anthony Fauci and CDC director Dr. Robert Redfield, warned that opening the economy too soon could have dire consequences.24
  • More US meat plants closed as a result of significant COVID-19 outbreaks are being ordered to reopen by executive order, which is likely to place workers at increased risk of contracting COVID-19.25 The largest US beef producer, JBS, has revamped their processes in response to COVID-19 but their production has significantly slowed which could reduce the US beef market for months. 26  
  • There is increasing concern about the accuracy of COVID-19 testing in the US.27 ID, Abbott Laboratories’ COVID-19 test, is currently used in the White House for rapid testing but reports say it may miss up to 50% of positive cases compared to other tests.28
  • US jobless claims continue to rise and exceed 36 million even with business reopening.29
  • Children in the US are becoming seriously ill due to a new syndrome that appears to be linked to immune responses to COVID-19. Pediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome can affect children that were previously healthy, though many of the children that have been hospitalized with the syndrome either tested positive for coronavirus or had positive antibody tests, suggesting that they previously had coronavirus. Symptoms can include fever, rash, reddish eyes, swollen lymph nodes, and sharp abdominal pain.30
  • Research from a team lead by Daniel Weinberger at the Yale School of Public Health suggests that deaths in the US may have been significantly underestimated. These data come from analysis of the excess number of deaths, many of which could be directly or indirectly attributed to the COVID-19 pandemic.31 
  • The FDA has approved the use of Gilead’s remdesivir for severely ill COVID-19 patients. Although the drug did not significantly reduce mortality rates, it was shown to moderately reduce hospitalization time, from 15 days to 11 days.32
  • Strange lesions on the toe (termed the “Covid toe”) or swollen and reddish toes may be an indication of a COVID-19 infection. This phenomenon may be an indication of a mild or asymptomatic infection or may develop several weeks after an acute COVID-19 infection.33 
  • The FDA is beginning to enact regulations for COVID-19 antibody testing. Companies selling these tests must demonstrate they work by submitting data to the FDA within 10 days or face removal of their test from the market.34 
  • With almost 2,500 long-term care facilities reporting COVID-19 cases, the death toll in these facilities is now more than 2,000 and expected to continue to rise.35

Known cases in Connecticut (call 211 or text "CTCOVID" to 898211 for information)

As of May 16, 2020 there are 37,419 (+716 from the day before) confirmed cases, 937 (-69 from the day before) hospitalizations, and 3,408 deaths. 170,607 patients have been tested in the state.36 More than half of all CT deaths were associated with nursing home infections.37 

  • Fairfield County: 14,248 cases, 1,146 deaths
  • Hartford County: 8,723 cases, 1,069 deaths
  • Litchfield County: 1,269 cases, 116 deaths
  • Middlesex County: 909 cases, 125 deaths
  • New Haven County: 10,159 cases, 817 deaths
  • New London County: 873 cases, 66 deaths
  • Tolland County: 715 cases, 54 deaths
  • Windham County: 313 cases, 14 death
  • Pending address validation: 210 cases, 1 deaths

Increases in Cases and Deaths in CT with Percent Increase from Previous Reporting Period

County

May 18

May 11

May 4

April 23

April 20

April 16

April 13

April 9

Fairfield

Cases (% increase)

Deaths (% increase)

 

14,248 (7.6)

1,146 (11.9)

 

13,236 (12.2)

1,024 (15.6)

 

11,801 (19.4)

886 (51.7)

 

9,883 (32.9)

584 (30.6)

 

7,434 (14.7)

447 (22.5)

 

6,480 (17.1)

365 (28.5)

 

5,534 (25.3)

284

 

4,417

Hartford

Cases (% increase)

Deaths (% increase)

 

8,723 (20.1)

1,069 (17.6)

 

7,263 (18.8)

909 (20.2)

 

6,112 (48.2)

756 (71.0)

 

4,128 (23.2)

442 (49.8)

 

3,351 (30.0)

295 (38.5)

 

2,579 (34.7)

213 (83.6)

 

1,914 (48.4)

116

 

1,290

Litchfield

Cases (% increase)

Deaths (% increase)

 

1,269 (10.1)

116 (8.4)

 

 

1,153 (11.3)

107 (16.3)

 

1,036 (43.5)

92 (46.0)

 

722 (20.3)

63 (31.3)

 

600 (22.4)

48 (37.1)

 

490 (21.6)

35 (45.8)

 

403 (38.0)

24

 

292

Middlesex

Cases (% increase)

Deaths (% increase)

 

909 (13.9)

125 (8.7)

 

798 (12.9)

115 (23.7)

 

707 (34.7)

93 (75.5)

 

525 (13.6)

53 (32.5)

 

462 (21.9)

40 (42.9)

 

379 (26.8)

28 (55.6)

 

299 (71.8)

18

 

174

New Haven

Cases (% increase)

Deaths (% increase)

 

10,159 (10.3)

817 (16.5)

 

9,209 (14.8)

701 (20.9)

 

8,024 (38.1)

580 (68.1)

 

5,811 (19.3)

345 (34.2)

 

4,871 (29.6)

257 (31.8)

 

3,758 (27.6)

195 (63.9)

 

2,946 (51.5)

119

 

1,945

New London

Cases (% increase)

Deaths (% increase)

 

873 (11.6)

66 (22.2)

 

782 (25.5)

54 (25.6)

 

623 (56.9)

43 (207.1)

 

397 (17.1)

14 (40)

 

339 (43.6)

10 (42.9)

 

236 (24.2)

7 (0.0)

 

190 (58.3)

7

 

120

Tolland

Cases (% increase)

Deaths (% increase)

 

715 (31.6)

54 (14.9)

 

543 (17.8)

47 (17.5)

 

461 (39.3)

40 (25.0)

 

331 (20.0)

32 (33.3)

 

276 (27.8)

24 (9.1)

 

216 (18.9)

22 (29.4)

 

182 (42.2)

17

 

128

Windham

Cases (% increase)

Deaths (% increase)

 

313 (38.1)

14 (100)

 

270 (28.0)

7 (133.3)

 

211 (72.3)

3 (0.0)

 

122 (22.0)

4 (100.0)

 

100 (12.4)

2 (100.0)

 

89 (34.8)

1 (0.0)

 

66 (34.7)

1

 

49


Connecticut Summary Statistics by Month for Age, Nursing Home/Assisted Living, and Race/Ethnicity per 100,000 

 

 

Age, total (deaths)

Nursing home/assisted living, total (deaths)*

Race/ethnicity rate per 100,000 population (deaths)

(end of month)

Cases, total

<20

20-49

50-69

>70

 

White

Black, not Hispanic

Hispanic

Other

Mar.

3,128 (69)

94 (0)

1,419 (3)

1,150 (25)

461 (60)

85 (11)

NA

NA

NA

NA

Apr.

27,700 (2,257)

775 (2)

10,820 (52)

9,299 (391)

6,572 (1,808)

1,713 (375) (April 17)

365 (67)

829 (89)

723 (34)

211 (11)

May to current

37,419 (3,408)

1,117 (2)

13,895 (68)

11,565 (533)

8,755 (2,613)

7,819 (1,694)

495 (100)

1200 (127)

1,101 (48)

692 (29)


*Data on nursing homes is sparsely updated   

Graphs from Connecticut COVID-19 Update38

  • As of May 18, 2020 Yale New Haven Health has 244 (a decrease of 14 from May 15) COVID-19 patients. The number of in-patients has been steadily decreasing over the past two weeks.
    • 95 (down 4 from May 11) patients are in the ICU and another 52 (down 2 from May 11) patients are on ventilators. 
    • YNHH has seen a 9-12% mortality rate among patients that test positive for COVID-19 since the beginning of the outbreak. 
    • Patients not requiring ICU care have, on average, stayed for 6 days in the hospital.

Connecticut developments39

  • New rules have been announced ahead of Connecticut’s first phase of business reopenings on May 20. The revised list of businesses that will be allowed to reopen include restaurants for outdoor dining only, museums, retail stores (including malls), and office buildings. In addition to these openings, social gatherings will continue to be limited to no more than 5 people. Those that are over age 65 and/or have preexisting health conditions are encouraged to continue to self-quarantine at home.40
  • Hospitalizations in Connecticut have continued to fall from their April 22 peak. Today, hospitalizations are down 37% from the peak and deaths have decreased to 67 per day, down from 82 per day at the peak. State officials hope to conduct 42,000 COVID-19 cases per week by May 20 to ensure a safe initial reopening of businesses.41
  • Connecticut’s lab capacity to process COVID-19 tests is currently around 3,000 kits per week. Processing capacity is set to ramp up to 40,000 per week over the coming month and is projected to be at 140,000 tests processed per week by the end of June.42
  • Governor Lamont is joining fellow governors from New York, New Jersey, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Delaware to develop a regional supply chain for personal protective equipment, other medical equipment, and COVID-19 tests. The plan aims to identify the region’s needs, reduce cost, and stabilize the supply chain for these products.43
  • Governor Lamont signed an executive order requiring the use of face masks or coverings in public where close contact is unavoidable.44
  • Governor Lamont has extended Connecticut’s shutdown of schools for the remainder of the school year.45
  • Mandatory rent relief was instituted in the state. For rent due in April, landlords are required to grant a 60-day grace period for payment. The same grace period applies for rent in May, but renters are required to notify their landlord first. Additionally, no evictions can occur until July 1 unless due to a safety concern.46
  • Yale launched a multimillion dollar fund to aid New Haven and will match dollar for dollar towards its $5 million goal.47
  • Professor Marie-Louise Landry at the Yale School of Medicine and her lab have established their own test for SARS-CoV-2 with the help of YSPH researcher Dr. Nate Grubaugh. Her clinical lab tested 752 patient samples from 3/13 to 3/21. They have been able to keep up and report results the same day samples are received.48 

Known cases in Rhode Island (call 401-222-8022 for information)

As of May 17, 202049

  • 12,674 confirmed cumulative cases (+1400 from 5/10/20) 
  • 112,550 total tests conducted
  • 260 patients currently hospitalized
  • 64 patients currently in ICU
  • 499 deaths in the state

Graphs from Rhode Island Department of Health COVID-19 Disease Data dashboard as of 5/17/2020.50

Rhode Island developments51

  • Rhode Island is the first state in the northeast to reopen nonessential businesses. Businesses that choose to reopen must limit the number of customers allowed inside, based on their square footage, face coverings are required in all public spaces, and meetings of more than 5 people are still prohibited.52
  • Rhode Island has now tested more residents per capita than any other state, contributing to the rising number of positive cases in the state. Many positive cases are asymptomatic and may have been overlooked elsewhere where testing is less widespread.53
  • Rhode Island schools will remain closed for in-person learning through the end of the academic year and distance learning will remain in effect until June.54
  • On Sunday, Governor Raimondo announced that Rhode Island will open a walk-up COVID-19 testing site in the parking lot of the Robert L. Bailey IV Elementary School in Providence. The location was chosen in order to be accessible to Rhode Island’s Latinx population, as 45% of the people that tested positive for coronavirus in the state are Latinx.55
  • Governor Raimondo issued an executive order requiring all employees to wear masks while at their place of business. The governor’s office conducted spot checks for compliance on April 19 and reported that compliance was high. Additionally, Governor Raimondo has ordered that all people must wear cloth face coverings while in public.56 
  • The Rhode Island Department of Business Regulations is requesting that stores currently open to the public restrict the number of shoppers in their building to 20% of the posted Fire Marshal Capacity at any given time. This restriction is meant to reduce coronavirus spread as well as allow shoppers to maintain adequate social distance from one another while shopping.57

Key international developments 

  • China has repeatedly pushed back against international calls for an independent  investigation into the origins of the COVID-19 pandemic. 58 
  • Wuhan, the epicenter for the pandemic, is in the process of testing all 11 million residents.59
  • President Vladimir Putin announced an end to Russia’s “nonworking period” this week, despite growing numbers of COVID-19 cases and deaths in the country. The official number of cases in Russia is now 300,000, but experts believe that actual cases exceed those reported. Official counts also appear to be miscounting COVID-19 deaths, as there were 1,700 more deaths in Moscow than the average for April, but officials have only reported 642 coronavirus deaths in the city and just over 2,000 deaths in the entire country.60 
  • Oxford University has begun human testing of their COVID-19 vaccine and hopes to have it widely available by September if the vaccine demonstrates efficacy by June.61 
  • Many European countries are easing restrictions as restaurants and bars open and German children return to school. India is allowing business in less affected areas to open.62
  • As the pandemic continues, developing countries around the world are facing a global food crisis. Lockdowns and social distancing are preventing people from working and disrupting agriculture production and supply routes. More than 265 million people could be facing acute hunger, increasing from the already 135 million people who already face food shortages.63
  • Germany will begin to gradually reopen next week with non-essential business resuming operations and schools gradually resuming classes on May 4th. However, experts fear that any missteps in the process could lead to a rise in COVID-19 cases.64 
  • A French court banned Amazon from delivering anything other than “essential materials” – food, hygiene and medical products – after a ruling in a case brought by labor unions contesting that Amazon in France was not providing factory workers with sufficient protective gear. Amazon has chosen to suspend operations rather than face potential €1M daily fine for noncompliance.65
  • Leaders of Belarus, Turkmenistan, Nicaragua, and Brazil continue to deny the major health threat of the COVID-19 pandemic. Brazil’s President Bolsonaro in particular is encouraging citizens to ignore public health guidelines such as social distancing.66
  • As COVID-19 spreads around the world, developing countries may be less prepared to deal with the pandemic than developed countries because of a lack of resources, general hygiene, and overcrowding.67
  • The EU has linked Russian media outlets to disinformation about the coronavirus. The EU-produced report states that the disinformation seeks to undermine public trust in health care systems abroad.68

COVID-19 numbers sources

The New York Times may be the best source of COVID-19-related because of its interactive US map and overview of trends in states. The New York Times also includes probable COVID-19 cases. Other news sources include: 

  1. 1. New York Times 
    1. aState and local health agencies and hospitals.
      1. iNow including cases and deaths that have been identified by public health officials as probable coronavirus patients
    2. Great US map interactive 
      1. Detailed state information; identifying states that are increasing/decreasing
    3. Regular updates 
  2. CNN 
    1. Data from Johns Hopkins
    2. Great visuals of the US cases 
    3. Okay timeline charts by state 
      1. Y axis not standardized, may be misleading on first look 
    4. Regular updates
  3. NPR 
    1. Data from Johns Hopkins
    2. Okay US case visualization
    3. Great timeline visualization of cases by state (heat map)
      1. Easy comparison between states 
    4. d. Regular updates 
  4. John Hopkins 
    1. Data from Johns Hopkins, Red Cross, Census American Community Survey, Bureau of Labor and Statistics. 
    2. Very comprehensive data 
    3. Visualizations are okay (overwhelming) 
    4. Includes recovered
    5. Updated daily 
  5. 5. WorldOMeter 
    1. Official Websites of Ministries of Health or other Government Institutions and Government authorities' social media accounts
    2. Includes recovered
    3. Very comprehensive data 
    4. Simple visualizations 
    5. Daily
  6. 6. CDC 
    1. Cases and deaths reported by U.S. states, the District of Columbia, and other U.S.-affiliated jurisdictions
    2. Not very interactive 
    3. Updated daily 

What is coronavirus?

Coronavirus is a family of viruses that have been known to infect humans. Viruses in the family are known to cause the common cold, SARS, and MERS. The virus that causes COVID-19 infects people and is easily spread person-to-person but is far less virulent than SARS. Cases have been detected in most countries worldwide, including the United States, and has officially been declared a pandemic, or a global disease outbreak. COVID-19 causes a respiratory disease that may be identifiable by dry coughing, breathing difficulties, and fever. Those that suspect they are infected with coronavirus should call their health provider first and should not go to a health care facility unless directed to do so. 

Nomenclature

The novel (new) coronavirus, formally named “SARS-CoV-2,” and the disease it causes has been named “coronavirus disease 2019” (abbreviated as COVID-19) by the World Health Organization. 

Is there a vaccine?

Moderna, who tested the first COVID-19 vaccine in humans, stated that their first trial in humans (8 individuals) appears to be safe and was able to stimulate an immune response. The next step will be to test the vaccine in 600 individuals but full scale production of the vaccine could take at least a year.69

Vaccines must go through at least 3 clinical phases to ensure their efficacy and safety before they can be approved and used in the general population.70 Even with an expedited process it will be at least a year before a COVID-19 vaccine is fully developed and made available to the public.71 Johnson and Johnson will start human testing of their COVID-19 vaccine in September, to be ready for emergency use by early 2021. The vaccine would be sold on a not-for-profit basis.72  

What is a vaccine?

Vaccines are one of the most effective ways to prevent diseases. Vaccines are made out of killed or weakened parts of the virus or bacteria of interest. Once inside the body, the vaccine is able to stimulate the immune system to develop antibodies and thus immunity to the disease, all without the person getting the disease.73

The vaccine currently being developed by Moderna uses genetic information, messenger RNA (mRNA), to deliver the vaccine. mRNA vaccines are an emerging platform and as of now no mRNA vaccine has reached the market. Compared to some forms of traditional vaccines (DNA-based, live/killed attenuated viruses), mRNA vaccines are thought to be safer because they are non-infectious and have no risk of potentially mutating inside the human body. Through chemical modifications mRNA is stabilized and readily enters into cells.  Lastly, mRNA vaccine production is inexpensive, fast, and scalable.74

Why did the CDC recommend an 8-week moratorium on in-person gatherings?

On Monday the US government officially recommended that people should avoid in-person gatherings of 10 or more people.75 This recommendation is supported by evidence from South Korea and China, both of which appear to slowly be returning to life as normal after 8 weeks of anti-coronavirus measures.76 On March 10, China closed the last of its temporary emergency hospitals77 after seeing a dramatic decrease in new cases over the past couple of weeks.78 Likewise, South Korea has experienced a substantial decrease in new cases over the past week.79

Information highlights from CDC website80

  • Symptoms
    • Symptoms may appear 2-14 days after exposure. 
    • Fever
    • Cough
    • Shortness of breath
  • Mounting anecdotal evidence suggests that a loss of smell and taste are significant symptoms associated with COVID-19. 81
  • Testing82
    • As of March 15, all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Guam have successfully verified COVID-19 diagnostic tests in state and local public health laboratories. 
    • Many states have opened “drive-through” coronavirus testing stations with more to come.83
    • The number of tests still lags far behind need. The governors of many states have complained that the federal government’s response in making tests available has been inadequate.84

How is coronavirus spread?85

  • Person-to-person
    • Between people who are in close contact with one another (within about 6 feet).
    • Through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.
      • Respiratory droplets can spread through the air (6 feet) or land on nearby surfaces where they can survive for a period of time (“Our studies indicate that aerosol and fomite transmission of HCoV-19 is plausible, as the virus can remain viable in aerosols for multiple hours and on surfaces up to days.”)86
      • Normal vocalizing – talking or singing – produces droplets that can remain airborne for 8 minutes.87, 88

Guidelines from the CDC to Minimize Chances of Infection89

  • Clean your hands often
    • Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds especially after you have been in a public place, or after blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing.
    • If soap and water are not readily available, use a hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol. Cover all surfaces of your hands and rub them together until they feel dry.
    • Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands.
  • Avoid close contact
    • Avoid close contact with people who are sick
    • Put distance between yourself and other people if COVID-19 is spreading in your community. This is especially important for people who are at higher risk of getting very sick.
  • Take steps to protect others
    • Stay home if you’re sick
      • Stay home if you are sick, except to get medical care. If you think you may have contracted the virus call your doctor first. 
    • Cover coughs and sneezes
      • Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze or use the inside of your elbow.
      • Throw used tissues in the trash.
      • Immediately wash your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds. If soap and water are not readily available, clean your hands with a hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol.
    • Wear a facemask 
      • If you are sick: You should wear a facemask when you are around other people, when you go out in public, and before you enter a healthcare provider’s office. People who are caring for you should wear a facemask if they enter your room. 
      • If you are NOT sick: The CDC recommends that all people who are not sick wear a cloth face covering in public settings where other social distancing measures are difficult to maintain, such as grocery stores and pharmacies. Wearing a cloth face covering in public is especially important in areas with significant community-based transmission. 
    • Clean and disinfect
      • Clean AND disinfect frequently touched surfaces daily. This includes tables, doorknobs, light switches, countertops, handles, desks, phones, keyboards, toilets, faucets, and sinks.
      • If surfaces are dirty, clean them: Use detergent or soap and water prior to disinfection.

1 https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html

2 https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/17/world/asia/china-wuhan-coronavirus-death-toll.html 

3 https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/geographical-distribution-2019-ncov-cases

4 https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html

5 https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMc2009316?query=featured_coronavirus

6 https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html

7 https://covidtracking.com/data

8https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2020/03/27/821958435/why-death-rates-from-coronavirus-can-be-deceiving

9https://nymag.com/intelligencer/2020/03/coronavirus-and-its-high-mortality-rate-among-older-patients.html

10 https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6912e2.htm?s_cid=mm6912e2_w 

11 https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/vsrr/covid19/index.htm

12 https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6913e2.htm

13 https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/vsrr/covid_weekly/index.htm 

14 https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/covid-data/covidview/index.html

15 https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/14/health/coronavirus-elderly-protection.html 

16https://www.businessinsider.com/coronavirus-death-rate-by-age-countries-2020-3#still-older-patients-in-south-korea-also-had-a-much-higher-death-rate-than-younger-ones-patients-older-than-80-had-a-72-death-rate-as-of-wednesday-6 

17 https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6914e4.htm?s_cid=mm6914e4_w

18 https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/03/15/business/economy/coronavirus-worker-risk.html 

19 https://www.bls.gov/news.release/flex2.t01.htm 

20https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/18/us/coronavirus-updates.html?action=click&module=Spotlight&pgtype=Homepage#link-471da7cb

21https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/01/us/coronavirus-states-reopen-tension.html

22 https://www.wsj.com/articles/coronavirus-latest-news-05-15-2020-11589536941 

23 https://www.wsj.com/livecoverage/coronavirus-2020-05-14/card/Uu7n5RXcfFdkWnyUPoDg

24 https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/12/us/politics/coronavirus-dr-fauci-robert-redfield.html 

25 https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/28/business/economy/coronavirus-trump-meat-food-supply.html 

26https://www.wsj.com/articles/coronavirus-to-slow-u-s-meat-production-for-months-ceo-says-11589540400 

27 https://www.wsj.com/articles/questions-about-accuracy-of-coronavirus-tests-sow-worry-11585836001 

28https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-05-13/abbott-fast-test-missed-many-covid-cases-unreviewed-study-says?sref=jFvCme3g

29https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/14/business/economy/coronavirus-unemployment-claims.html

30 https://www.nytimes.com/article/kawasaki-disease-coronavirus-children.html

31 https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/28/us/coronavirus-death-toll-total.html 

32 https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/01/health/coronavirus-remdesivir.html

33 https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/01/health/coronavirus-covid-toe.html?referringSource=articleShare

34 https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/04/us/coronavirus-updates.html#link-49bfc647

35https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/more-2-200-coronavirus-deaths-nursing-homes-federal-government-isn-n1181026

36 https://portal.ct.gov/coronavirus

37https://ctmirror.org/2020/04/30/nursing-home-deaths-account-for-more-than-half-of-all-covid-19-fatalities-in-connecticut/

38 https://portal.ct.gov/-/media/Coronavirus/CTDPHCOVID19summary5102020.pdf?la=en

39https://www.nhregister.com/news/coronavirus/article/Coronavirus-in-Connecticut-Live-updates-hour-by-15132401.php 

40https://dailyvoice.com/connecticut/litchfield/news/covid-19-detailed-rules-now-released-for-ct-businesses-due-to-reopen-may-20/787774/

41https://www.courant.com/coronavirus/hc-news-coronavirus-daily-updates-05-11-20200511-hyx74do7zjdijcd5cswkdjqubm-story.html

42https://www.jax.org/news-and-insights/2020/march/jax-providing-coronavirus-testing-for-connecticut-residents

43https://portal.ct.gov/Office-of-the-Governor/News/Press-Releases/2020/05-2020/Governor-Lamont-Announces-Multi-State-Agreement-to-Develop-Regional-Supply-Chain-for-PPE

44https://portal.ct.gov/-/media/Office-of-the-Governor/Executive-Orders/Lamont-Executive-Orders/Executive-Order-No-7BB.pdf

45https://www.courant.com/coronavirus/hc-news-coronavirus-school-closure-20200505-apmehl65hfbbve43e6qtiouzq4-story.html 

46https://www.wtnh.com/news/health/coronavirus/governor-lamont-announces-relief-for-those-struggling-to-pay-rent-during-pandemic/

47https://www.nhregister.com/news/coronavirus/article/Yale-launches-multimillion-dollar-fund-to-aid-New-15162549.php 

48 https://medicine.yale.edu/profile/marie_landry/ 

49 https://health.ri.gov/data/covid-19/

50 https://ri-department-of-health-covid-19-data-rihealth.hub.arcgis.com/ 

51 https://www.wpri.com/coronavirus/

52 https://www.wcvb.com/article/rhode-island-becomes-first-new-england-state-to-reopen-amid-covid-19-coronavirus-pandemic/32424223#

53 https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/28/us/coronavirus-rhode-island.html

54 https://www.providencejournal.com/news/20200423/ri-schools-to-remain-closed-for-remainder-of-academic-year-8-new-coronavirus-deaths-reported-in-state-hospitalizations-still-flat

55 https://patch.com/rhode-island/cranston/ri-coronavirus-walk-testing-site-open

56 https://www.wpri.com/health/coronavirus/compliance-terrific-for-ri-face-coverings-order/

57 https://www.wpri.com/health/coronavirus/new-guidelines-released-to-limit-crowds-at-ri-stores/

58https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/18/world/coronavirus-news.html?module=STYLN_live_tabs&variant=1_menu®ion=header&context=menu&state=default&pgtype=Article#link-4e365a28

59 https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/14/world/asia/coronavirus-testing-china-wuhan.html

60https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/11/world/coronavirus-news.html?module=STYLN_live_tabs&variant=1_menu®ion=header&context=menu&state=default&pgtype=Article#link-69c1af20

61https://thehill.com/homenews/sunday-talk-shows/495865-oxford-professor-possible-coronavirus-vaccine-could-show-efficacy

62https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/04/world/coronavirus-news.html?action=click&module=RelatedLinks&pgtype=Article

63https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/22/world/africa/coronavirus-hunger-crisis.html?action=click&module=RelatedLinks&pgtype=Article

64https://www.wsj.com/articles/germany-to-begin-gradually-reopening-its-economy-next-week-11586989014

65 https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/15/business/amazon-france-covid.html 

66 https://www.economist.com/the-americas/2020/04/11/jair-bolsonaro-isolates-himself-in-the-wrong-way 

67https://www.wsj.com/articles/coronavirus-is-advancing-on-poor-nations-and-the-prognosis-is-troubling-11585149183

68 https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/mar/18/russian-media-spreading-covid-19-disinformation 

69https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/18/us/coronavirus-updates.html?action=click&module=Spotlight&pgtype=Homepage#link-471da7cb

70 https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/basics/test-approve.html

71 https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/16/health/coronavirus-vaccine.html 

72https://www.wsj.com/articles/johnson-johnson-to-begin-human-trials-on-covid-19-vaccine-by-september-11585569380

73 https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd/vpd-vac-basics.html 

74 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5906799/ 

75https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/03.16.20_coronavirus-guidance_8.5x11_315PM.pdf

76 https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/17/opinion/coronavirus-social-distancing-effect.html

77 http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2020-03/10/c_138863160.htm

78 https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/country/china/ 

79 https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/country/south-korea/

80 https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/symptoms-testing/index.html 

81https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/22/health/coronavirus-symptoms-smell-taste.html?smtyp=cur&smid=tw-nytimes 

82https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/cases-updates/testing-in-us.html?CDC_AA_refVal=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Fcoronavirus%2F2019-ncov%2Ftesting-in-us.html 

83 https://www.businessinsider.com/drive-through-coronavirus-tests-states-2020-3 

84 https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/06/health/coronavirus-testing-us.html?action=click&module=Spotlight&pgtype=Homepage

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/05/us/coronavirus-aid-governors-pearl-harbor.html?action=click&module=Well&pgtype=Homepage§ion=US%20News

85 https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prepare/transmission.html 

86 https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.09.20033217v1.full.pdf 

87 https://www.the-scientist.com/news-opinion/droplets-from-speech-can-float-in-air-for-eight-minutes-study-67538

88 https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6919e6.htm

89 https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prepare/prevention.html


Submitted by Denise Meyer on May 20, 2020