Challenge 2: How Do We Detect the Virus?
- I can describe how to detect the coronavirus.
- I can describe the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2.
- I can identity different types of tests used to detect coronavirus and explain how they work.
Activity 1: Where would we expect to find the virus in someone who is infected?
Create & Share/Discuss
- Diagram the life-cycle of SARS-CoV-2.
Write & Share/Discuss
- List the cells in humans that SARS-CoV-2 infects and where in the body those cells are located.
Activity 2: What are the different types of tests that can detect the presence of coronavirus?
Watch & Read
Reflect & Write/Discuss
- What are the differences between molecular, antigen, and antibody (serological) tests?
- According to the article, how accurate are molecular and antigen tests?
- How does “sample pooling” work?
Activity 3: “What is one way to collect a sample to test for SARS-CoV-2?”
- List locations in the body where we might expect to find a lot of the virus.
- Find or diagram a tool that might allow us to obtain a sample from one of the locations you listed.
- Your results
Activity 4: Can we see the virus that causes COVID-19 in our sample?
- Find the size of SARS-CoV-2.
- Check out this interactive website: “How Big? Interactive.”
- Which of these can we easily see with the naked eye?
- Rearrange the list of 10 items in the column from smallest to largest.
- Add SARS-CoV-2 to your sequenced list in the appropriate position.
- Compare your results with classmates.
Activity 5: How do different types of tests identify the virus?
Watch 2 videos
Reflect & Discuss
- What parts of the virus does each test detect?
- How do we measure the presence of the virus? How can we be sure the interpretation of the test is correct?
- What are false negatives and false positives and what are their implications?
Activity 6: What components of the virus could we detect in a sample?
Watch 4 videos
Write & Discuss
- List the major components of SARS-CoV-2 (i.e protein)?
- Do our cells have these components? Which ones?
- What, if any, are the differences between these components in our cells and those in coronavirus?
- What is the difference between RNA in SARS-CoV-2 and RNA in our cells?
- The structure of a RNA molecule and label the components
- How RNA molecules differ from each other (e.g. structure, sequence)
- Your work with classmates.
Activity 7: How could we detect a specific RNA molecule?
- Use online resources to find molecules that would interact with the components of RNA.
- Draw an interaction between these molecules and the components of RNA.
- List the types of interactions and strengths.
Write & Share
- What type of bond is between the nucleotides and RNA?
- What is the relative strength of those bonds?
- What is the strength of the base pair interaction between a single nucleotide and a RNA?
- What is an example of a strong bonding pair?
- How can we create a stronger association with the SARS-CoV-2 RNA?
Design & Share
- Create an oligomer of several nucleotides that base pair to SARS-CoV-2 RNA How do we select which sequence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA to target?
Activity 8: How to detect viral protein in a sample?
Research: Use online resources to find answers.
- Of what are proteins composed?
- Amino acids
- Describe amino acids: structure, charge, hydrophobicity, acidic/basic
- Do the amino acids differ between SARS-CoV-2 and our cells?
- How can you distinguish between SARS-CoV-2 proteins and our proteins?
- How does sequence determine structure?
- How can we detect a protein with a specific 3-D structure?
- How do proteins interact with each other?
- 4˚ structure
- Lock and key, induced fit
- The proteins in our bodies whose job is to bind to specific proteins in other organisms.
Share & Discuss
- Your responses.
Activity 9: How do we obtain RNA or protein from our sample?
- Consult the instruction manual from a Viral RNA purification kit: “QIAamp DSP Viral RNA Mini Kit”.
- Make a diagram that explains the procedure for purifying RNA from our samples
Share & Discuss
- Provide and receive feedback on the models you and your class developed.
- As a class, work together to incorporate ideas into the model that all can agree upon.