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Immunology Track

Immunology Track Leadership


  • Professor of Dermatology, Pathology, and Immunobiology; Co-Leader, Genetics, Genomics and Epigenetics, Yale Cancer Center; Interim Director, Yale Center for Immuno-Oncology; Director, Yale SPORE in Skin Cancer

    Marcus Bosenberg M.D., Ph.D., is a physician scientist who directs a leading melanoma research laboratory, is Co-Leader of the Genomics, Genetics and Epigenetics Program of the Yale Cancer Center, Director of the Yale SPORE in Skin Cancer, and is a practicing dermatopathologist at Yale Dermatopathology through Yale Medicine.

    In his research, Dr. Bosenberg studies the genetics and cellular changes that result in melanoma, the leading cause of skin cancer deaths. His laboratory has developed several widely utilized mouse models in order to study how melanoma forms and progresses, to test new melanoma therapies, and how the immune system can be stimulated to fight melanoma. He works to translate basic scientific findings into improvements in melanoma diagnosis and therapy. He has published over 100 peer-reviewed articles, is a member of the Yale Cancer Center Executive Committee, and is a faculty member of the Raymond and Beverly Sackler Institute for Biological, Physical, and Engineering Sciences.

    Dr. Bosenberg mentors undergraduate, graduate, medical, and MD-PhD students in his laboratory, teaches at Yale School of Medicine, and trains resident physicians, fellows, and postdoctoral fellows.

  • Professor Emeritus of Immunobiology; Member of HTI and VBT

    Al Bothwell graduated with an A.B. from Washington University in 1971, got a PhD from Yale in Sidney Altman’s lab in 1975 and then did a postdoc with David Baltimore at MIT where he established the genetic basis of the anti-NP idiotypic antibody response. He has been on the Immunobiology faculty at the Yale Medical School since 1982. He continued studies of B cell antibody diversity and memory and then worked on T cell receptor structure/function and signaling. He also developed the molecular genetics of the Ly6 gene family (aka Sca-1/Ly6A and Ly6C). Increasingly his work has shifted to studies of human immunity with development of humanized mouse models of vascular disease/transplantation, type 1 diabetes and cancer. Studies on gut inflammation in a genetic tumor model and Inflammatory Bowel Disease have lead most recently to contributions concerning wnt signaling to infections and asthma. His studies focus on the remarkable immunoregulatory properties of Wnt signaling that is both canonical and non-canonical and involves direct interaction with platelets.This is a basic mechanism for regulating tissue permeability affecting the mobility of lymphocytes and tumor cells.

  • Assistant Professor

    Grace Chen received her undergraduate training in the College of Chemistry at UC Berkeley. She attended Harvard University for her PhD where she worked in David Liu's laboratory to discover and characterize novel RNA modifications. Her postdoctoral research was at Stanford University in Howard Chang's group, where she investigated circular RNA immunity. Grace Chen joined Yale University as a faculty in the Department of Immunobiology in 2019. Her research focuses on the functions and regulations of circular RNAs and RNA modifications in health and disease.

  • United Technologies Corporation Professor in Cancer Research and Professor of Immunobiology, of Dermatology and of Medicine (Medical Oncology); Co-Leader, Cancer Immunology, Yale Cancer Center

    Lieping Chen studies immune cell communications via cell surface protein-protein interactions. He is also interested in translating laboratory findings to treat human diseases including cancer, autoimmune diseases and infection. 

    In 1992, Dr. Chen showed the first proof-of-concept study that the B7-CD28 family molecules could be the targets for cancer immunotherapy. This study inspires subsequent studies targeting the B7-CD28 family molecules for the treatment of human cancer.

    In 1999, Dr. Chen first to discover a molecule he called B7-H1, which is now also known as PD-L1. He subsequently showed that PD-L1 is expressed by tumors and that its activity can cause T cell dysfunction, thus preventing T cells from eliminating cancer cells. Bringing these lines of inquiry full circle, he later showed that blocking theinteraction between PD-1 and PD-L1 by monoclonal antibodies improved the immune system’s ability to eliminate tumors in a 2002 paper. Chen’s work provided an important foundation for the subsequent development of immunotherapies designed to block this activity, and thereby enable more effective immune responses against cancer. Dr. Chen also initiated and help organized the first-in-man clinical trial of anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody for treating human cancer in 2006 and developed PD-L1 staining as a biomarker.  His discoveries directly led to the development of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibody therapy against broad spectrum of human cancers, which has revolutionized cancer treatment.

    Other important breakthroughs made by Dr. Chen's laboratory include the development of an agonist antibody against the 4-1BB co-stimulatory pathway, also known as CD137. Multiple 4-1BB-targeting antibodies have since been developed and are now being evaluated in clinical trials for a variety of cancer types. Dr. Chen’s laboratory also discovered various molecular pathways with T cell costimulatory and coinhibitory functions and/or their applications in human disease treatment. These pathways include B7-H2 (ICOSL), B7-H3, B7-H4, B7-H5/CD28H, PD-1H (VISTA), TNFRSF19, RELT, LIGHT/HVEM, B7-H2/CD28/CTLA-4 (human), SALM5/HVEM, FGL1/LAG-3, Siglec-15 etc. Many of these findings are now being developed clinically for the treatment of human diseases.

  • Associate Professor

    Sidi Chen joined the Yale Faculty in 2015 as an assistant professor in the Department of Genetics and Systems Biology Institute, also as a member of the Yale Cancer Center and the Yale Stem Cell Center. Chen earned a PhD in evolutionary genetics from The University of Chicago with an award-winning dissertation with Dr. Manyuan Long. After graduation he performed postdoctoral studies at MIT under the mentorship of Dr. Phil Sharp, and also the Broad Institute working with Dr. Feng Zhang. His research focuses on providing a global understanding of biological systems. Chen developed and applied genome editing and high-throughput screening technologies, precision CRISPR-based in vivo models of cancer, global mapping of functional drivers of cancer oncogenesis and metastasis. More recently, he developed novel systems that enable rapid identification of novel immunotherapy targets and new modalities of cancer immunotherapy. Dr. Chen received a number of national and international awards including the DoD Era of Hope Scholar Award, NIH Director’s New Innovator Award, Blavatnik Innovator, Damon Runyon Cancer Research Fellow, Dale Frey Award for Breakthrough Scientists, AACR NextGen Award for Transformative Cancer Research, TMKF Innovative/Translation Cancer Research Award, BCA Exceptional Research Grant Award, MRA Young Investigator Award, V Scholar, Bohmfalk Scholar, Ludwig Family Foundation Award, St. Baldrick’s Foundation Award, CRI Clinic & Laboratory Integration Program (CLIP), MIT TechReview Regional 35 Innovators, and Sontag Foundation Distinguished Scientist Award.

  • Associate Professor Adjunct - Dermatology

    To the YSM Community:

    We write today to share the sad news that Oscar Colegio, MD, PhD, former associate professor of dermatology, with a secondary appointment in the Department of Pathology, passed away suddenly on June 15, 2020. He was internationally recognized as an innovative physician-scientist, an empathetic clinician, and a remarkable mentor.

    The obituary below was prepared by his family and Richard Edelson, MD.


    Nancy J. Brown, MD Jean and David W. Wallace Dean of Medicine C.N.H. Long Professor of Internal Medicine

    Richard Edelson, MD Chair, Department of Dermatology Aaron B. and Marguerite Lerner Professor of Dermatology

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    In Memoriam: Oscar Colegio, MD, PhD 1972–2020

    We write today to share the sad news that long-term former Yale School of Medicine (YSM) colleague, Oscar Colegio, MD, PhD, passed away suddenly early in the morning of Monday, June 15, 2020, in his family residence in East Haven, Connecticut, of accidental cause. He was just 47 years old and in the prime of his life.

    For the past two years, he had served the prestigious Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center as chair of its Department of Dermatology. Over the prior two decades, he flourished at Yale University and the Yale New Haven Hospital, as he progressed from medical and graduate student to clinical and postdoctoral trainee and then to associate professor, directing an internationally recognized innovative investigative program. In all phases of his career, the depth and extent of his personal relationships were transformed by his exceptional empathy, insightful wit, invigorating mentorship, unmitigated authenticity, and magnetic personality. Oscar’s interpersonal relationships, most importantly his love for, and pride in, his young family, provided the firm rocks on which his whole life was grounded.

    There has scarcely been time begin to process the reality of the extreme loss for all of us. Yet, the nearly instantaneous response from far and wide to the sad news attests to the intensity of his personal reach. Literally, within the hour of my succinct initial email notification to the Yale Department of Dermatology, I received a flood of shocked and horrified messages from our sister Dermatology departments, including those at Harvard, Stanford, Northwestern, and Penn. Within a second hour, the worldwide wave of reactions expanded, all from the same simple message spontaneously reverberating throughout the dermatologic academic world, disseminated by the American Dermatologic Association leadership, now suddenly aware that the living legend phase of Oscar Colegio had been unfortunately transformed to an everlasting one. As those closest to him struggle to get our tightly linked arms around his sudden death and harness our collective grief, our full appropriate appreciation for all of the joy and enlightenment with which he embraced those whose lives he so meaningfully touched, as scientific physician, esteemed colleague, and trusted friend, is challenging to reduce to words.

    By midweek, more than 50 of his close friends on four continents Zoom-convened to therapeutically reminisce about their Oscar stories. Ironies quickly surface. The closing of his life coincided with the reopening of the aspects of Yale that were foundational in the blossoming of his career. The limitations imposed on air travel by the COVID-19 crisis, forced his 15-hour weekly automobile roundtrips from his leadership position in Buffalo, at the far western end of New York State, to his retained residence in Connecticut, to visit his wife, Brenda, who was recovering from surgery and his Connecticut-based children. He took great loving pride in his two young sons and raised them, hand-in-hand with his former wife Stephanie Eisenbarth, also a highly successful YSM faculty member, with whom he remained close. The intense current reflection about societal inequities severely impacting underserved and underrepresented populations highlight Oscar’s extraordinary career trajectory, his journey from the single poorest Mexican border town in our entire country to Yale and beyond, providing inspiration to others forced to overcome objective disadvantages to reach career heights.

    Oscar grew up in McAllen, Texas, where his parents still reside, following prior Colegio generations, tracing back to the Texan independence from Mexico. His father, Leonardo, dropped out of high school to work as a migrant worker to help support his family but, following military service earned his high school diploma and then college degree, enabling him to return to McAllen as a high school teacher and guidance counselor. After receiving his own undergraduate degree in pharmacy at the University of Texas (Austin), Oscar matriculated in the MD program of Yale School of Medicine (YSM), subsequently expanding his training to encompass PhD training, graduating in 2004 with AOA honors and both degrees. His YSM class presented a special challenge with respect to placement of graduates, since 17 outstanding classmates, including half of that year’s YMS AOA recipients, sought residency training in the competitive dermatology residencies. While all of those aspirants were ultimately accepted into fine dermatology training programs, there was never any question how much our own Yale program coveted Oscar as a trainee, or that he would elect to join our program. He excelled as an intern in internal medicine and then as resident with us in dermatology at Yale New Haven Hospital, receiving the Hugh Dwyer Award for Clinical Excellence, awarded annually to a single trainee in dermatology, internal medicine, or neurology. On completion of his clinical training he returned to fundamental research as an NIH-funded postdoctoral trainee in the laboratory of National Academy of Sciences Member Ruslan Medzhitov, where he performed trailblazing research in tumor immunobiology. Since we were certain that he was destined to be a field shaper, on the international stage, both as a fundamental and clinical investigator, we were delighted to welcome Oscar to our Dermatology faculty, as an exceptionally promising physician scientist, in 2009. His career trajectory exceeded even those lofty expectations.

    In 2015, he was honored by the prestigious American Society for Clinical investigation with its Young Physician-Scientist Award and, in 2017, the American Academy of Dermatology matched that national distinction with its own Young Investigator Award. He was a Scholar of the Yale Center for Clinical Investigation, held a career development award from the Dermatology Foundation, was funded through the National Cancer Institute, and was on the board of directors of the International Transplant Skin Cancer Collaborative, for which he served as the director of the Committee for Research. At Yale, he originated and developed, to high national prominence, an innovative clinical program devoted to Cancers of Immunocompromised Patients, including those who have received organ transplants. For all of these accomplishments, he was promoted to associate professor of dermatology, with a secondary appointment in the Department of Pathology.

    His laboratory efforts have centered around elucidation of the role in tumor progression of those key immune cells referred to as “macrophages.” He has identified pathways of tumor formation critical to a variety of experimental tumor types including lung carcinoma, melanoma, colon carcinoma, and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. He also elucidated tumor-promoting pathways directed by infiltrating macrophages in human squamous cell carcinomas from immunosuppressed transplant recipients. He is one of the preeminent leaders in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of life-threatening skin cancers of patients whose immune systems have been broadly suppressed, either naturally or as part of treatment with immunologically mediated disorders, including rejection of transplanted organs. Such patients commonly are afflicted by almost countless numbers of dangerous squamous cell carcinomas, requiring heroic management efforts. He has published his findings in prestigious journals such as Nature and throughout the transplantation literature.

    In 2018, he was recruited to become chair of Dermatology at the Roswell Park Cancer Center in Buffalo, New York, where he was also professor of dermatology at the Medical School of the State University of New York. He had already earned much credit for his accomplishments in that leadership position.

    Oscar had a passion for long distance running and kayaking. He was an avid classical music aficionado, collector of sea glass, and yearned for long walks to the end of the beach originating in East Haven. Yet, despite having such an impressive curriculum vitae, and his innovative brilliance, it is Oscar’s uniquely warm and captivating personality, his poignant wit, distinctive capacity to vividly connect thoughts, and energize and evoke the best in all of the rest of us.

    When his colleagues in Dermatology, be they at Yale or internationally, think of Oscar, they immediately smile and instantaneously recall one memorable quotation or episode. For nearly a decade, he directed the Department of Dermatology’s weekly scientific seminars and introduced the speakers. Those introductions were fabulously insightful, humorous, and memorable in their own rights. In fact, his introductions became so institutionally famous, and so treasured by the speakers themselves, that faculty members would decline the opportunity to speak, unless it was clear that Oscar would be in town to serve as their introducer. Colleagues, students, clinical trainees, and patients simply loved him as a delightful and caring person. As much as anyone, I hold a special place in my own heart for my special buddy, Oscar, with whom I spent much enjoyable personal time, in whose huge accomplishments I took immense and thrilling pride, and yes, from whom I received more than my fair share of unique introductions.

    In contemplating the easiest way to capsulize his essence, I refer back to the final sentence in one of the key letters of recommendation procured during his last promotion process at Yale. That colleague wrote: “Few people on the world stage are so impressively unforgettably impactful that all one needs to state in order to identify them is their first name. Elvis, Pele, Madonna, Beyoncé, Mickey, and Willie are prime examples. And so it is for Oscar.”

    As we Yale Dermatology faculty members struggle to productively harness the special place in our hearts for him, we have come up with what we believe could be the unique way to indelibly honor this unique man’s unique legacy. We plan to institute our own most significant annual award, “The Yale Dermatology Oscar.”

    He is survived by his beloved wife of one year Brenda Banuelos, his two adored sons, Austin and Otto, in whom he took enormous pride, as well as his loyal companion dog, Cooper, his devoted parents, Rosalina and Leonardo Colegio, and his siblings Anna and Leonardo. Funeral services will take place in McAllen, Texas

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    Oscar R. Colegio, MD, PhD, was an Associate Professor of Dermatology, Pathology and Surgery at Yale School of Medicine where his clinical practice and research was focused on immunodeficiency-associated skin cancers and skin disorders associated with solid organ transplantation. His research had centered on defining the role of immune cells called macrophages in tumor progression. The focus of these studies had been to identify pathways of tumorigenesis critical to a variety of murine tumor types including lung carcinoma, melanoma, colon carcinoma and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Parallel studies in identifying tumor-promoting pathways induced by infiltrating macrophages in human squamous cell carcinomas from immunosuppressed vs non-immunosuppressed patients was the current focus of the lab.

    Dr. Colegio was a Scholar of the Yale Center for Clinical Investigation and was supported by the Yale SPORE in Skin Cancer and the Dermatology Foundation. He was funded through the National Cancer Institute. Dr. Colegio was a member of several professional organizations related to his clinical and research interests. He was on the board of directors of the International Transplant Skin Cancer Collaborative, where he served as the Director of the Committee for Research.

    Dr. Colegio was a graduate of The University of Texas, where he earned a BS in Pharmacy in 1995, and of Yale University where he earned a PhD in Cell Biology in 2003 and an MD, with election to Alpha Omega Alpha, in 2004. He completed an Internship in Internal Medicine and a Residency in Dermatology at Yale New Haven Hospital during which time he was awarded the Hugh L. Dwyer Award for clinical excellence.

  • Paul B. Beeson Professor of Medicine (Rheumatology) and Professor of Immunobiology; Paul B. Beeson Professor of Medicine; Program Director, Investigative Medicine

    Dr. Joseph Craft is Paul B. Beeson Professor of Medicine and Professor of Immunobiology at the Yale School of Medicine, and past chief of the Section of Rheumatology at Yale. He received his degrees in chemistry as a Phi Beta Kappa graduate of University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and in medicine as an Alpha Omega Alpha graduate of the University of North Carolina School of Medicine. Dr. Craft did postgraduate training in internal medicine and in rheumatology and immunology at Yale, and has been on the faculty at that institution since 1985. At Yale, he teaches undergraduate, graduate, and medical students. He directs a research laboratory devoted to understanding the immune response to pathogens and vaccines, and dissecting and treating autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, with a primary focus upon the differentiation, metabolism, and function and regulation of T cells that promote B cell maturation in secondary lymphoid organs. His research has been continually supported by the National Institutes of Health since 1985, and he is a two-time R37 (MERIT) Awardee. He has been a primary mentor for over 20 postdoctoral fellows and for 21 PhD and MD/PhD graduate students, including 7 graduate students currently in his lab. Dr. Craft is Director of the Investigative Medicine Program at Yale, a unique program designed to provide Ph.D. training for physicians, and in his capacity as Director of the program and its Director of Graduate Studies, has supervised training of over 50 Investigative Medicine PhD students. Dr. Craft is recipient of the Bohmfalk Teaching Prize at Yale School of Medicine for outstanding teaching in the basic sciences. He is an elected Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and an elected member of the American Society for Clinical Investigation and the Kunkel Society. Dr. Craft also is a member of the Board of Lupus Therapeutics of the Lupus Research Alliance, devoted to initiating novel therapeutic trials in lupus, and past Chair of the Board of Scientific Counselors at the National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal, and Skin Diseases (NIAMS). He is former chair of the Immunological Sciences (now HAI) and current member of the Arthritis, Connective Tissue and Skin Diseases (ACTS) standing study sections at NIH, past chair of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Alliance for Lupus Research, and a former Pew Scholar in the Biomedical Sciences and Kirkland Scholar. He is co-founder of L2Diagnostics, a company in New Haven, CT, formed in partnership with Yale University and devoted to discovery of new diagnostics and therapeutic targets for immunological and infectious diseases, and is currently a member of its Board of Directors.

  • Eugene Higgins Professor of Immunobiology and Professor of Cell Biology

    Dr. Cresswell is the Eugene Higgins Professor of Immunobiology and Professor of Cell Biology and Dermatology at Yale University School of Medicine.

    He received his B.S. degree in chemistry, his M.S. degree in microbiology from the University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, U.K., and his Ph.D. degree in biochemistry and immunology from London University. His postdoctoral training was completed at Harvard University with Jack Strominger.

    Before assuming his position at Yale, Dr. Cresswell was Chief of the Division of Immunology at Duke University Medical Center. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society, U.K., and a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the Institute of Medicine.

  • Associate Professor of Medicine (Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine) and of Microbial Pathogenesis; Director, Center for Pulmonary Infection Research and Treatment (CPIRT)

    Dr. Dela Cruz completed his research training through an MD/PhD program in the area of immunology and virology from University of Toronto and Yale. Clinically, he is trained in internal medicine, and specializes in pulmonary and critical care medicine and is currently an Associate Professor at Yale University in the same department. He is also the founding director for the Center for Pulmonary Infection Research and Treatment (CPIRT). His laboratory is interested in studying the role of respiratory infection in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic lung diseases. Specifically, his work focuses on how lung infection contribute to inflammation, injury and tissue repair in the lung. This has allowed the lab to carefully study the molecular and cellular responses of several novel mediators in the lung.

    His laboratory focuses on two main research programs. (1) Studying novel immune regulators in the lung during respiratory infections. (2) Studying the effects of cigarette smoke (CS) exposure in the pathogenesis of airway and lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using preclinical genetic mouse models and human biosamples. The goal of the lab is also to be able to confirm and translate the findings using biospecimens from the established and establishing cohort of human patients with various lung diseases.

    COPD is a composite entity that includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema, is a leading cause of death in the world, and is a disease that is in need of new treatments. One of the goal of our laboratory is to investigate the interaction between CS and respiratory virus infection in the pathogenesis of COPD and identify novel therapeutic targets for this respiratory disease. It has been long thought that the frequent respiratory infections in COPD patients are due to their depressed immune function. Our studies have revealed that CS-exposed hosts have an over-exaggerated immune reaction to viral infections. Frequent acute COPD exacerbations correlate with increased rate of disease progression and more loss of lung function in COPD especially if it is due to viral infections. Our studies have shown that CS exposure has an impressive ability to regulate the innate immunity in the lung after influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. CS enhances the inflammation, alveolar destruction and airway fibrosis caused by influenza virus and RSV. These effects are mediated by type I interferon and RIG-like helicase antiviral innate immune pathway. CS exposure also results in the induction of interleukin-15 in the setting of these respiratory infections. We hypothesize that these novel mechanistic pathways may explain the heightened inflammatory response and worsening lung functions in COPD patients with multiple virally-induced exacerbations, and the chronic lung inflammation seen in stable COPD patients. We have also translated our findings by studying these immune mediators in patients infected with various respiratory viruses and have thus far collected >300 human biosamples.
    YCCI Scholar 2011

  • Waldemar Von Zedtwitz Professor of Comparative Medicine and of Immunobiology

    Vishwa Deep Dixit completed Bachelor and Master of Veterinary Sciences in HAU, Hisar India. He received German Academic Exchange Service fellowship to conduct PhD research in Germany. He completed PhD coursework in HAU and Research Work in University of Hannover in Year 2000. He conducted postdoctoral research training in NIH. He joined Pennington Biomedical Research Center as an Assistant Professor in 2006 and moved to Yale as Professor of Comparative Medicine and Immunobiology in 2013. Dixit’s research is focused on understanding the interactions between metabolic and immune systems with the goal to reveal molecular targets that can be harnessed to control inflammation and immune dysfunction as means to enhance the healthspan. The research in Dixit Laboratory is funded by the National Institutes of Health, Glenn Foundation for Aging Research and Cure for Alzheimer Foundation.

  • Associate Professor of Laboratory Medicine, Immunobiology, Immunology; Associate Chair of Research, Laboratory Medicine; Assistant Director of Clinical Pathology Residency Program

    Dr. Eisenbarth’s laboratory focuses on how dendritic cells, B cells and T cells interact to induce tailored adaptive immune responses. The work spans how this triad is operational in the spleen to transfused red blood cells (RBCs), in the lung to aeroallergens, and in the gut to food allergens, utilizing both mouse models and human samples.

  • Waldemar Von Zedtwitz Professor of Medicine (Infectious Diseases) and Professor of Epidemiology (Microbial Diseases) and of Microbial Pathogenesis; Section Chief, Infectious Diseases

    My laboratory investigates vector-borne diseases. Studies are directed toward understanding Lyme disease, Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, and West Nile virus. Efforts on Lyme disease include exploring immunity to Borrelia burgdorferi, selective B. burgdorferi gene expression in vivo, and the immunobiology of Lyme arthritis. Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis is caused by a newly described pathogen, transmitted by Ixodes scapularis ticks, that persists within neutrophils. We are investigating the molecular strategies that this pathogen uses to survive in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. West Nile virus can cause fatal encephalitis, and we seek to understand the pathogenesis of this emerging disease. Finally, we are also developing molecular approaches to prevent ticks from feeding on a mammalian host, thereby interfering with pathogen transmission.

  • Sterling Professor of Immunobiology; Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute

    Dr. Flavell is Sterling Professor of Immunobiology at Yale University School of Medicine, and an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. He received his B.Sc. (Honors) in 1967 and Ph.D. in 1970 in biochemistry from the University of Hull, England, and performed postdoctoral work in Amsterdam (1970-72) with Piet Borst and in Zurich (1972-73) with Charles Weissmann. Before accepting his current position in 1988, Dr. Flavell was first Assistant Professor (equivalent) at the University of Amsterdam (1974-79); then Head of the Laboratory of Gene Structure and Expression at the National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London (1979-82); and subsequently President and Chief Scientific Officer of Biogen Research Corporation, Cambridge, Massachusetts (1982-88). Dr. Flavell is a fellow of the Royal Society, a member of the National Academy of Sciences as well as the National Academy of Medicine. Richard Flavell uses transgenic and gene-targeted mice to study Innate and Adaptive immunity, T cell tolerance and activation in immunity and autoimmunity,apoptosis, and regulation of T cell differentiation.

  • Assistant Professor of Laboratory Medicine and Immunobiology

    Dr. Ellen Foxman, M.D., PhD. is an Assistant Professor of Laboratory Medicine and Immunobiology at the Yale School of Medicine. Her laboratory studies the fundamental biology of the airway epithelial development and innate immune signaling, and implications for the diagnosis and prevention of viral respiratory illness. 

    Background. Dr. Foxman is an immunologist and clinical pathologist. She trained in medicine and immunology at Stanford University.  In Dr. Eugene Butcher’s group, she investigated leukocyte homing and the role of short term memory of prior chemotactic signals in allowing neutrophils to reach their target sites within tissues.   She became interested in respiratory viruses during her residency training in clinical pathology at Harvard's Brigham and Women's Hospital, due to the advances in testing that were beginning to reveal a previously unappreciated very high prevalence of these viruses.  She later joined Dr. Akiko Iwasaki’s group at Yale as a post-doctoral associate, where she studied antiviral innate immunity, demonstrating suppression of innate immune responses in the airway epithelium by cool ambient temperature.  In 2016, she established her independent research group studying host-virus interactions in the respiratory tract.

  • William S. and Lois Stiles Edgerly Professor of Neurology and Professor of Immunobiology; Chair, Department of Neurology; Neurologist-in-Chief, Yale New Haven Hospital

    Dr. Hafler is the William S. and Lois Stiles Edgerly Professor and Chairman Department of Neurology, Yale School of Medicine and is the Neurologist-in-Chief of the Yale-New Haven Hospital. He graduated magna cum laude in 1974 from Emory University with combined B.S. and M.Sc. degrees in biochemistry, and the University of Miami School of Medicine in 1978. He then completed his internship in internal medicine at Johns Hopkins followed by a neurology residency at Cornell Medical Center-New York Hospital in New York.

    Dr. Hafler received training in immunology at the Rockefeller University then at Harvard where he joined the faculty in 1984. He was one of the Executive Directors of the Program in Immunology at Harvard Medical School and was on the faculty of the Harvard-MIT Health Science and Technology program where he was actively involved in the training of graduate students and post-doctoral fellows.

    Hafler, in many respects, is credited with identifying the central mechanisms underlying the likely cause of MS. His early seminal work demonstrated that the disease began in the blood, not the brain, which eventually led to the development of Tysabri to treat the disease by blocking the movement of immune cells from the blood to the brain. He was the first to identify myelin-reactive T cells in the disease, published in Nature, showing that indeed, MS was an autoimmune disorder. He then went on to show why autoreactive T cells were dysregulated by the first identification of regulatory T cells in humans followed by demonstration of their dysfunctional state in MS. As a founding, Broad Institute associate member, Hafler identified the genes that cause MS, published in the New England Journal of Medicine and Nature. More recently, he identified the key transcription factors and signaling pathways associated with MS genes as potential treatment targets. Finally, he recently discovered that salt drives induction of these pathogenic myelin reactive T cells, both works published in Nature. Hafler was the Breakstone Professor of Neuroscience at Harvard, and became Chairman of Neurology at Yale in 2009, where he has built an outstanding clinical and research program that strongly integrates medical sciences. Hafler is among the most highly cited living neurologists and has received numerous honors including the Dystel Prize from the AAN for his MS research, the Raymond Adams Award from the ANA, and was the recipient of the NIH Javits Investigator Award, and The Dale McFarlin Prize by the International Society of Neuroimmunology. He is a member of AOA, the American Society of Clinical Investigation, and was elected into the National Academy of Medicine.

  • C.N.H. Long Professor of Immunobiology and of Medicine (Endocrinology)

    My background and research are in translational immunology. I am interested in understanding the basis for autoimmune diseases and developing new therapies based on our understanding of disease mechanisms. My focus has largely been in the field of autoimmune Type 1 diabetes. The work encompasses basic laboratory work as well as clinical studies to understanding the regulation of autoreactive T cells to clinical trials that involve novel therapeutics. As part of these studies I have also been very interested in analysis of beta cell function in Type 1 diabetes. As part of this interest, we have been studying the development of autoimmune diabetes in patients with cancers who are treated with checkpoint inhibitors. Our clinical and basic studies are focused on understanding how beta cells are destroyed and react to inflammation. Finally, with the COVID-19 pandemic, we have been studying the immunologic basis for responses in children and adults who are hospitalized with COVID-19 to understand the mechanisms that can lead to disease protection. 

  • Assistant Professor of Microbial Pathogenesis and Medicine (Infectious Diseases); Investigator, HIV Reservoirs and Viral Eradication Transformative Science Group (Cure TSG); Investigator, BEAT-HIV Martin Delaney Collaboratory

    Dr. Ho takes a molecular virology, single-cell and genomics approaches to examine HIV persistence and develop HIV cure strategies. Using clinical samples from HIV-infected individuals, the Ho lab investigates host-HIV interactions with particular interests in HIV-1-host RNA landscape (using single-cell RNAseq), CD4 T cell expansion dynamics, HIV-host genome interactions, and HIV-1-specific silencing, and immune escape mechanisms. Dr. Ho was a board-certified infectious disease attending physician in Taiwan. She received her PhD (2013) and postdoctoral training at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Dr. Robert F. Siliciano's lab. She was a tenure track instructor (2016) and then an assistant professor (2017) at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine before she joined Yale School of Medicine in September 2017. As a investigator of the AIDS Clinical Trial Group (ACTG) and the BEAT HIV Martin Delaney Collaboratory, she actively collaborate with geneticists, bioinformaticians, immunologists and physicians to study HIV-1 persistence. She is currently funded by an NIH R01 grant and an NIH R61/R33 grant as the Principal Investigator.