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Discovering the 'Cytokine Language' That Activates Immune Responses

Using a new computational method based on a causal inference framework, CINEMA-OT, the Yale team studied how individual immune cells react to combinations of cytokines, or small proteins released by cells that regulate inflammation. They discovered that certain cytokines have a synergistic effect, inducing unique gene activation programs compared to their individual effects. This cryptography of cytokine signals acts as a language, instructing immune cells.

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