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Important Information: Therapy manuals, workbooks, and training materials, available below, are for educational purposes only and do not constitute medical advice. They are provided to health care professionals as a free service. They were developed by faculty at Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, in NIDA-funded behavioral therapies development projects. Provision of these manuals, workbooks, and training materials does not imply endorsement by Yale University, nor does Yale University offer any certification for those who have studied or adopted these treatment approaches. Individuals interested in participating in these programs should do so only in consultation with their health care provider and as a supplement to conventional psychological and medical treatment. These programs are not suitable for individuals with psychotic or dissociative disorders or other serious psychiatric illnesses. The skills training approach used in these programs is not conducive to an in-depth exploration of past and present psychological issues, and so is not a good match for individuals exclusively seeking psychodynamic psychotherapy. Medical advice should never be disregarded or delayed because of something read in a 3-S or HHRP manual, viewed on a 3-S training DVD or on the 3-S website, or learned through participation in the 3-S or HHRP programs. Individuals should always contact their physician or other qualified health care provider with any health-related questions they may have.

Yale University, its governors, officers and employees, shall not be liable for any diagnostic or treatment decision made in reliance on any information provided in 3-S or HHRP manuals, training materials, or on the 3-S website.

the Spiritual Self-Schema (3-S) development program for the treatment of addiction and HIV risk behavior

Avants, SK & Margolin, A (2004). Development of Spiritual Self-Schema Therapy for the treatment of addictive and HIV risk behavior: A convergence of cognitive and Buddhist psychology. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 14(3), 253-289.

Avants, SK, Beitel, M, & Margolin, A (2005). Making the shift from 'addict self' to 'spiritual self'. Results from a Stage 1 study of Spiritual Self Schema (3-S) therapy for the treatment of addiction and HIV risk behavior. Mental Health, Religion, and Culture, 8(3), 167-177.

Margolin, A, Beitel, M, Schuman-Olivier, Z, & Avants, SK (2006). A controlled study of a spiritually-focused intervention for increasing motivation for HIV prevention among drug users. AIDS Education and Prevention, 18(4), 311-322

Beitel, M., Genova, M., Schuman-Olivier, Z., Arnold, A., Avants, S.K., & Margolin, A. (2007). Reflections by inner-city drug users on a Buddhist-based spirituality-focused therapy: A qualitatitive study. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77(1), 1-7.

Margolin, A, Schuman-Olivier, Z., Beitel, M., Arnold, A., Fulwiler, C.E., & Avants, S.K. (2007). A preliminary study of Spiritual Self Schema (3-S+) therapy for reducing impulsivity in HIV-positive drug users. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 63(10), 979-999.

3-S Training

Training: 17 hours of training in the delivery of 3-S therapy for addiction and HIV risk behavior is now available free-of-charge.

Click Here to go to the 3-S therapy Training Page which provides links to on-line training videos.

Note: Before proceeding with the training, you will need the 3-S therapy manuals available here.

Please Note:

A generic version of the Spiritual Self Schema (3-S) development program as presented on this website (i.e., a version that is not specifically related to addiction), is also available in two formats free-of-charge (in English only);

Translations of 3-S Therapies