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About Us

Harvey Kliman, MD, PhD

Director of the Reproductive and Placental Research Unit

Main Staff


Women's Health Research at Yale

Women’s Health Research at Yale funds promising new approaches to understanding sex and gender differences. They bring together Yale faculty from different fields to answer real-world health questions and train the next generation of researchers and clinicians committed to advancing women’s health. They share their findings with the public and policymakers, so that everybody can make more informed health decisions. To learn more about Women's Health Research at Yale, their mission, funding opportunities, community partners and affiliates, please visit their website or click their logo.

Lincoln W. Kliman Memorial Fund

The Lincoln W. Kliman Memorial Fund supports research into the causes and potential cures of sarcomas and other cancers.

The Merwin Kliman Memorial Fund

The Merwin Kliman Memorial Fund supports research to prevent stillbirth.

Merwin Kliman, the electrical engineer who created the circuit boards for the Voyager computer system, died on September 15, 2019 in Manhasset, NY. He was 86.

The most notable achievement of Mr. Kliman, a Master of Electrical Engineering, was pioneering the use of computers to design computers of very small size. The ability to create computers with very compressed dimensions attracted the attention of a number of cutting-edge companies, including NASA and JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratories). When Pioneer 11 flew by Jupiter it recorded radiation levels far higher than had been anticipated. This had a direct impact on the Voyager missions because JPL realized that the current Voyager computer design would have been destroyed when it flew by Jupiter. The mission was in jeopardy because JPL needed to significantly increase the shielding around the computer, drastically reducing its size. Kliman proposed a novel solution: put components on both sides of the mother board. “Can that be done?” the engineers at JPL asked. Kliman said, “yes,” and his idea saved the Voyager missions.

Merwin Kliman started working on the computer system for the Voyager project in 1973, culminating in the launch of Voyager 1 on September 5, 1977. His signature is on each of the computer boards in the Voyagers, two computers that will likely outlive our solar system.

Although his work with NASA and JPL ended in 1995, Kliman’s passion for math led him to a second career as a math teacher, first at Nassau Community College and then Hofstra University. While he remained passionate about the planets and outer space for the remainder of his life, his attentions were redirected to inner space. After being peppered with math problems by his father his whole life, his oldest son Harvey—a physician scientist at the Yale School of Medicine—asked Kliman to solve a math problem for him concerning placental volume: generate an equation to calculate the volume of a placenta from a 2-dimensional ultrasound cross section. This equation forms the basis of the Estimated Placental Volume (EPV) method—which father and son coauthored—to detect very small placentas, the number one cause of stillbirth.

National Institutes of Health

A part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NIH is the largest biomedical research agency in the world. Thanks in large part to NIH-funded medical research, Americans today are living longer and healthier. Life expectancy in the United States has jumped from 47 years in 1900 to 78 years as reported in 2009, and disability in people over age 65 has dropped dramatically in the past 3 decades. In recent years, nationwide rates of new diagnoses and deaths from all cancers combined have fallen significantly.

Collaborators, Students, & Staff

  • Professor

    My lab studies animal evolution, with a particular focus on better understanding our most distant animal relatives and the earliest events in the animal tree of life. Our research includes field work to collect poorly known animals, often by SCUBA diving and sometimes with remotely operated underwater vehicles. Lab bench work includes studies of anatomy and genome function. Much of my work is computational- we develop methods and tools for analyzing evolutionary relationships and using those relationships to provide an integrated perspective on genomic and anatomical evolution. I coauthored the book Practical Computing for Biologists to help more biologists become comfortable with computational methods. In addition to his studies of broad patterns of diversity across distantly related animals, my lab also focuses on siphonophores, a group of about 185 species of open-ocean animals that include the Portuguese Man of War. We address basic questions about their structure, growth, diversity, and evolution. I did my undergraduate studies at Stanford University, my graduate studies were with Günter Wagner at Yale, and postdoc studies with Mark Martindale at the University of Hawaii.

  • Associate Professor Term

    Dr. Flannery received her undergraduate degree in Chemistry from Wellesley College in 1995 before obtaining her M.D. degree from Trinity College, Dublin in Ireland in 2001. She completed internship in medicine and surgery at St. James’s Hospital in Dublin Ireland, and then Internal Medicine residency in the Women’s Health Track at Jacobi Hospital, Albert Einstein College of Medicine in the Bronx, NY. She was selected to be Chief Resident in Internal Medicine in 2005-2006. She then went on to the Yale University School of Medicine for her fellowship in Endocrinology & Metabolism. After becoming board certified in Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, she pursued a research fellowship at Yale, and worked in the laboratory of Dr. Gerald Shulman and Dr. Kitt Petersen on the pathophysiology of Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus. Then she focused her research on the effect of diabetes on endometrial pathology, with the mentorship of Dr. Hugh Taylor. She was awarded an NIH mentored career award then NIH R01 funding. She is an Associate Professor with dual appointments in the Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences (Reproductive Endocrinology) as well as Internal Medicine (Endocrinology). Her research involves studies on the link between obesity and endometrial pathology, including endometrial cancer and infertility. She sees patients with diabetes and endocrine disorders, with a specialty interest in diabetes prevention, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, and transgender hormone therapy.

  • Associate Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences; Director, Across the Lifespan Mastercourse, YSM

    Dr Galerneau was born and raised in Canada where she completed her medical education including a residency in Obstetrics and Gynecology and fellowship in Maternal-Fetal Medicine. After practicing perinatalogy for 12 years at University of British Columbia in Canada, she joined the MFM team at Yale University.

    Her scholarly interests include: undergraduate medical education in the field of reproduction, graduate education in maternal-fetal-medicine, particularly Ob&Gyn ultrasound, obstetrical and pelvic ultrasound, prenatal diagnosis, fetal assessment and maternal complications of pregnancy.

    Dr. Galerneau is very active in medical education and has experience facilitating faculty development sessions on teaching clinical reasoning. Until 2016, she directed the Reproductive Medicine Module for second-year medical students, which had the development of clinical reasoning skills as one of the major learning goals. Dr. Galerneau is also the co-director of the Across the Lifespan Master Course in the new medical school curriculum. She has published and presented internationally with Dr. Janet Hafler on clinical reasoning.

  • Senior Research Scientist in Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences; Director, Gyn/Endocrine Laboratory

    Dr. Seth Guller, trained as a biochemist, joined the Yale Fertility Center as Director of the Reproductive Endocrinology Laboratory in 2007. The function of this clinical laboratory is to provide rapid hormone analysis for patients as well as test results for research studies. Dr. Guller strives to implement new tests for the recently acquired Roche Cobas e411 analyzer to improve the quality of patient care. He has also directed a research laboratory for the last 21 years. Dr. Guller has published more than 75 peer-reviewed papers.

  • Waldemar Von Zedtwitz Professor of Immunobiology and Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology and Professor of Epidemiology (Microbial Diseases); Professor of Molecular Cellular and Developmental Biology; Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute

    Akiko Iwasaki received her Ph.D. from the University of Toronto (Canada) in 1998, and her postdoctoral training from the National Institutes of Health (USA) (1998-2000). She joined Yale University (USA) as a faculty in 2000, and currently is an Investigator of the HHMI and Waldemar Von Zedtwitz Professor of Department of Immunobiology, and of Department of Molecular Cellular and Developmental Biology. Akiko Iwasaki’s research focuses on the mechanisms of immune defense against viruses at the mucosal surfaces. Her laboratory is interested in how innate recognition of viral infections lead to the generation of adaptive immunity, and how adaptive immunity mediates protection against subsequent viral challenge.

  • Norma Weinberg Spungen and Joan Lebson Bildner Professor in Women's Health Research and Professor of Psychiatry and of Psychology; Director, Women's Health Research at Yale

    Carolyn M. Mazure is the Norma Weinberg Spungen and Joan Lebson Bildner Professor in Women’s Health, and Professor of Psychiatry and Psychology at Yale.  

    After three years at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and fellowship training at Yale, Dr. Mazure was invited to join the Yale faculty — becoming an active clinician, a researcher funded by the NIH, and Director of Psychiatry’s Adult Inpatient Program at Yale New Haven Hospital.  

    Her contributions in women’s health began with her internationally recognized research in depression. She was the first to demonstrate how stress is a more potent pathway to depression in women than men and use these findings to inform treatment interventions.  

    Understanding the value of uncovering sex and gender differences in the field of depression and recognizing that such data are sorely lacking in other fields, Dr. Mazure designed and directs Women’s Health Research at Yale, the university’s interdisciplinary research center on the interplay of sex, gender, and health.  

    Since its inception in 1998, the center has become a national model for launching research on the influence of sex and gender on human health, translating findings into practice, sharing health information with the public and policymakers, and providing mentored training in interdisciplinary team science.  

    She has been an invited speaker at diverse venues, such as NASA and the Smithsonian Institution, and has been a featured expert on ABC’s “Prime Time Live” and in the BBC documentary “The Science of Stress.” Her books include “Does Stress Cause Psychiatric Illness?” and “Understanding Depression in Women: Applying Empirical Research to Practice and Policy.”  

    Dr. Mazure has served as a member of the Advisory Committee for the NIH Office for Research on Women’s Health. She has provided testimony to the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives on the importance of women’s health research. She also has served on the planning committee for the First White House Conference on Mental Health and as a fellow for the U.S. Congress’ Committee on Oversight and Government Reform.  

    Her many honors include the Marion Spencer Fay Award from the Institute for Women’s Health, the American Psychological Association Distinguished Leadership Award from the Committee on Women in Psychology, the Elizabeth Blackwell Award from the National Organization for Women, and a U.S. Public Health Fellowship.

  • Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences; Vice Chair for Education, Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences; Director, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Program; Director, Menopause Program

    Dr. Lubna Pal is a Professor of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Fellowship Director for the Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility fellowship program and Vice Chair for Education for the department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences at Yale School of Medicine.   Dr. Pal received her medical degree (MBBS) from Dow Medical College in Karachi, Pakistan, and postgraduate training in the United Kingdom (FRCOG)  becoming pursuing subspecialty training in the United States. She received dual fellowship training in Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, holds a Master's degree in Clinical Research from the Yeshiva University, New York. She is a Fellow of the Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists (United Kingdom) and of the American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists.  

    Dr. Pal is a recipient of multiple awards for clinical excellence, teaching and for clinical research, has published in numerous scientific journals, is on the editorial board of reputable peer review journals in the field of Menopause, has edited multiple books in the field of Reproductive Endocrinology and is recognized nationally and internationally for her commitment to reproductive wellness and patient wellbeing and for her work in the field of reproductive aging and health.  Dr. Pal is board certified in Ob/Gyn and Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility. She is a member of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, the Endocrine Society and the North American Menopause Society.

    Dr. Pal's clinical and research interests include female infertility, reproductive aging and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Her research has focused on improving our understanding of underpinnings to and consequences of diminished ovarian reserve in reproductive age women, and of relevance of vitamin D for reproductive physiology. She is the director of two clinical programs at Yale Reproductive Endocrinology: Program for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and the Menopause Program.

  • Professor of Pharmacology

    Professor Rudnick is a graduate of Antioch College, where he received a B.S. in Chemistry in 1968. He performed graduate studies in the enzymology of amino acid racemases in the laboratory of Robert H. Abeles in the Graduate Department of Biochemistry at Brandeis University, receiving a Ph.D. in Biochemistry in 1974. His graduate studies led to an understanding of the structure and mechanism of proline racemase that was confirmed by the crystal structure of a homologous protein in 2006. From 1973-1975, Professor Rudnick performed postdoctoral research on lactose permease with H. Ronald Kaback at the Roche Institute of Molecular Biology. This work provided a greater understanding of binding and transport reactions using photoaffinity reagents and substrate analogs. In 1975, he left Roche to become an Assistant Professor in the Department of Pharmacology at Yale, and was promoted to Associate Professor in 1980 and Professor in 1991.

    Professor Rudnick’s research at Yale has focused on the mechanism and structure of mammalian serotonin transporter (SERT). He developed a system of platelet plasma membrane vesicles with which to study the bioenergetics and mechanism of transport. These studies provided an understanding of the coupling of ion gradients to serotonin accumulation and also identified SERT as the molecular target for the antidepressant imipramine and the psychostimulant MDMA (ecstasy).

    Beginning in the 1990s, Professor Rudnick’s laboratory has been studying the molecular characteristics of SERT and other neurotransmitter transporters expressed in cultured cells. These studies led to the identification of the serotonin binding site in SERT and of regions in the protein undergoing conformational changes during transport. The availability of a crystal structure for a homologous bacterial transporter in 2005 allowed Professor Rudnick and his colleagues to use the conformational changes to propose a conformational mechanism of transport that is gaining wide acceptance. Because SERT is structurally related to many other transporters, the proposed mechanism is likely to apply to transporters functioning in many diverse biological systems.

    In addition to these mechanistic studies, Professor Rudnick’s laboratory has been investigating a spontaneously occurring SERT mutant associated with several psychiatric disorders. The mutation apparently inhibits removal of a phosphate group added to SERT by cGMP-dependent protein kinase. The mechanism by which this phosphate increases SERT activity is an active area of investigation.

  • Assistant Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences

    Dr. Reshef Tal is Assistant Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences at the Yale School of Medicine and a Women’s Reproductive Health Research (WRHR) Scholar. He obtained his M.D. and Ph.D. in Molecular Biology at Sackler School of Medicine in Tel-Aviv University, Israel. Following a postdoctoral research fellowship at the Lunenfeld Research Institute at the University of Toronto, he completed his residency in Obstetrics and Gynecology at Maimonides Medical Center, NY, followed by a fellowship in Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility at Yale University School of Medicine.

    During his fellowship, Dr. Tal was accepted into the Women’s Reproductive Health Research (WRHR) scholar program, a National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded physician-scientist career development program aimed at fostering the growth of young obstetrician-gynecologists into established, independent investigators in the field. His laboratory is focused on investigating the role of bone marrow-derived stem cells and immune cells in embryo implantation, pregnancy maintenance and uterine remodeling with the ultimate goal of developing new therapies for patients with infertility. His clinical interests include infertility, IVF, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) and endometrial pathologies including Asherman’s syndrome, thin endometrium and implantation failure.

    Dr. Tal is the recipient of many research awards including the New England Fertility Society/Ferring Fellow Research Award, the Society of Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility (SREI)/American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) Fellow Research Award, Patterson Trust Fellow Award, Society for Reproductive Investigation (SRI) President's Plenary Award and the Albert S. McKern Award. Dr. Tal has published over 70 peer-reviewed scientific articles, authored 8 book chapters and also edited a book (Antimullerian Hormone: Biology, Role in Ovarian Function and Clinical Significance). In addition, he serves as an Associate Editor for the journal Reproductive Biology & Endocrinology (RB&E).

  • Anita O'Keeffe Young Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences and Professor of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology; Chair of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale School of Medicine; Chief of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale-New Haven Hospital

    Dr. Taylor is the Anita O'Keeffe Young Professor and Chair, Department of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences at Yale School of Medicine and Chief of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Yale-New Haven Hospital. He is also Professor of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental biology at Yale University. His clinical interests include IVF, infertility, endometriosis, implantation, menopause, uterine anomalies and Asherman's syndrome.

    Dr. Hugh Taylor received his undergraduate training at Yale University and received his medical degree from the University of Connecticut School of Medicine. He completed his residency in Obstetrics and Gynecology at Yale. His postdoctoral training included a fellowship in Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility as well as a fellowship in Molecular Biology, both at Yale.

    Dr. Taylor is a board certified specialist in Obstetrics and Gynecology and in Reproductive Endocrinology. His clinical research centers on endometriosis and fibroids. His basic science research focuses on uterine development, endometriosis, endocrine disruption, and on stem cells. He is a recipient of ten National Institutes of Health research grants and directs The Yale Center for Reproductive Biology. Dr. Taylor has published more than 400 articles and in leading medical journals.  He has served as President of the Society for Reproductive Investigation and will be president of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine in 2021.  He is a member of the National Academy of Medicine.  

  • Research Professor and Alison Richard Professor Emeritus of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

    Günter P. Wagner is an evolutionary geneticist with training in biochemcial engineering, zoology and mathematics from the University of Vienna, Austria. He spent six postdoctoral years at the Max Planck Institutes for Biophysical Chemistry (Goettingen, Germany) and for Developmental Biology (Tübingen, Germany). His academic career started at the University of Vienna and in 1991 he received a call to assume a full professorship at the Biology Department at Yale. From 1996 to 2001 he was Chair of the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at Yale, and in 2010 his lab moved to the Systems Biology Institute at Yale's West Campus.

    Dr. Wagner's research interest is the evolution of gene regulation as it pertains to the origin of evolutionary novelties. In particular the lab is focusing on the evolution of the endometrial stromal cells in the context of the evolutionary origin of pregnancy. Another focus of my lab is the developmental basis of character identity, as for instance in the case of digit identity of birds.

    In 1992 Dr. Wagner received the MacArthur Fellowship for my research on the developmental basis of homology and in 1997 he was elected both to become corresponding member of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, and Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. In 2010 Dr, Wagner was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.