Basic Science Research

Laura Niklason

Dr. Niklason is a Professor at Yale University in Biomedical Engineering and Anesthesia, where she has been on faculty since 2006. Dr. Niklason’s research focuses primarily on regenerative strategies for cardiovascular and lung tissues, and the impact of biomechanical and biochemical signals of tissue differentiation and development. For her work in creating engineered arteries, Niklason was named one of only 19 “Innovators for the Next Century” by US News and World Report in 2001. Niklason’s lab was also one of the first to describe the engineering of whole lung tissue that could exchange gas in vivo, and this work was cited in 2010 as one of the top 50 most important inventions of the year by Time Magazine. She was inducted into the National Academy of Inventors in 2014.

Niklason received her PhD in Biophysics from the University of Chicago, and her MD from the University of Michigan. She completed her residency training in anesthesia and intensive care unit medicine at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, and completed post-doctoral scientific training at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. From there she went onto a faculty position at Duke University, where she remained from 1998-2005, before moving to Yale.

Time Magazine 50 Best Inventions of 2010 for Engineered Lung, 2010.

Cardiovascular regenerative medicine has taken many avenues over the past three decades. One approach currently in clinical trials does not require any cells from the patient, and is an engineered tissue that is available "off-the-shelf". Our approach to vascular engineering involves seeding allogeneic vascular cells onto a degradable substrate to culture vascular tissues in a biomimetic bioreactor. After a period of 8-10 weeks, engineered tissues are then decellularized to produce an engineered extracellular matrix-based graft. The advantage of using allogeneic cells for graft production is that no biopsy need be harvested from the patient, and no patient-specific culture time is required. The acellular grafts can be stored for 6 months and are available at time of patient need. These grafts are being tested in 3, Phase I clinical trials in Europe and in the US. These tissue engineered vascular grafts have been tested most extensively as hemodialysis access in patients who are not candidates for autogenous arteriovenous fistula creation, with the first patient being implanted in December 2012 in Poland. Since that time, a total of 60 patients have been implanted with engineered, acellular grafts for dialysis access, 40 patients in Europe and 20 in the US. Patients utilize the grafts for dialysis access as soon as 4-8 weeks after graft implantation. This early experience supports the potential utility of this novel tissue engineered vascular graft to provide vascular access for hemodialysis.

The decellularization approach has also allowed us to generate scaffolds to support whole lung regeneration. Using rat, porcine and human sources of organs, lungs have been subjected to a range of decellularization procedures, with the goal of removing a maximal amount of cellular material while retaining matrix constituents. Next-generation proteomics approaches have shown that gentle decellularization protocols result in near-native retention of key matrix molecules involved in cell adhesion, including proteoglycans and glycoproteins. Repopulation of the acellular lung matrix with mixed populations of neonatal lung epithelial cells results in regio-specific epithelial seeding in correct anatomic locations. Survival and differentiation of lung epithelium is enhanced by culture in a biomimetic bioreactor that is designed to mimic some aspects of the fetal lung environment, including vascular perfusion and liquid ventilation. Current challenges involve the production of a uniformly recellularized scaffold within the vasculature, in order to shield blood elements from the collagenous matrix which can stimulate clot formation. In addition, we have developed methods to quantify barrier function of acellular and repopulated matrix, in order to predict functional gas exchange in vivo.

Helene Benveniste

Helene Benveniste

Dr. Benveniste is Professor of Anesthesia at Yale and joined the faculty in 2016. Dr. Benveniste’s laboratory is a translational research program and focused on applying preclinical neuroimaging technology including magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography to define biomarkers relevant to neurodegeneration including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and stroke. Most recently, the focus has been on understanding and visualizing the ‘glymphatic pathway’ which is a newly discovered CSF transport system in the central nervous system involved in brain waste drainage.  The glymphatic pathway is dependent on the brain’s state of arousal and different anesthetics produces varying effects on the system’s ability to transport CSF and clear metabolic waste products.

Other research foci in Dr. Benveniste’s laboratory are on: 1) bioenergetics of the developing brain and implications for anesthesia related neurotoxicity and 2) mechanisms of addiction to substances of abuse.

Dr. Benveniste received her MD and PhD in neurobiology from the University Of Copenhagen, Denmark. She completed a post-doctoral fellowship in high field magnetic resonance imaging at the Center for In Vivo Microscopy at Duke University Medical Center in Durham, NC from 1989-1991 after which she completed residency training in anesthesia at the Duke University Medical Center. From there she went onto a faculty position at Duke University from 1996-2001. In 2001 Dr. Benveniste joined the department of Anesthesiology at Stony Book Medical Center as faculty and later as Vice Chair for Research. During this time she set up a preclinical MRI facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory and PET technology was integrated into her work to measure the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of psychoactive compounds and anesthetic drugs. She move to Yale in 2016 to expanding her research program in understanding how the glymphatic system and cerebrospinal fluid transport is affected in neurodegenerative disease states and aging. 


Visualization of Cerebrospinal fluid transport via the glymphatic system in the live rat brain for functional waste clearance. The system facilitates continuous cerebrospinal fluid and interstitial fluid exchange and plays a key role in removing waste products from the rodent brain. Dysfunction of the system may be involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease. Figure: Cover, NeuroImage, 2017.

Paul M. Heerdt 1

Paul M. Heerdt

Over the past 25+ years, the vast majority of my research has been within 3 broad categories: a) cardiopulmonary adaptation to the stresses of anesthesia and surgery; b) evaluation of hemodynamic monitoring devices; and c) development of novel neuromuscular blocking drugs. Studies involving cardiopulmonary physiology have been conducted in both the laboratory and clinic, with an emphasis upon a systems biology approach that incorporates functional and molecular aspects of adaptation. Most recently, my laboratory has been incorporating aging and working with analytic approaches for quantifying the efficiency of mechanical coupling between the heart and circulation during acute and chronic pulmonary hypertension. Device evaluations have been largely focused upon methods for monitoring blood flow and tissue perfusion; recent studies have involved experimental models of shock. Our drug development program also involves both laboratory and clinical work, with investigation focused on a novel class of drugs that undergo “molecular inactivation” by the amino acid cysteine. This research has resulted in the design and synthesis of a series of molecules, one of which was recently evaluated for safety and efficacy in a clinical trial.

robert lamotte

Robert LaMotte

Dr. LaMotte's laboratory investigates the neural mechanisms of pain and itch.

 We use psychophysical methods in humans to measure the pruritic and nociceptive sensations and altered sensory states produced by the application of pruritic and nociceptive stimuli to the skin. As part of a collaborative effort with another laboratory, our psychophysical findings are compared with electrophysiologically recorded responses of peripheral nerve fibers in primate to the same pruritic and nociceptive stimuli. A major goal is to identify peripheral neural coding mechanisms that could be selectively targeted by novel analgesic or anti-pruritic therapies.

Shaun Gruenbaum

Shaun Gruenbaum

Dr. Gruenbaum is an Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology at Yale University and the Assistant Director of the Yale Neuroanesthesia Research Program. His research interests are in elucidating the underlying mechanisms of secondary brain injury that occurs after an acute neurological insult, with the ultimate goal of developing novel neuroprotective therapeutic strategies. Using a variety of state-of-the-art in vivo and ex vivo techniques in humans and animal models, Dr. Gruenbaum’s current work explores how perturbations in the transport and metabolism of amino acids (e.g., glutamate, glutamine and the branched-chain amino acids) modulates neuron loss and seizures in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, the most common intractable focal seizure disorder. His clinical research interests are in the perioperative management of patients undergoing brain tumor and epilepsy surgery. Dr. Gruenbaum has received several research awards including a Mentored Research Training Award from the Foundation for Anesthesia Education and Research (FAER) in 2016 and the Paul E. Strandjord Young Investigator Award from the Academy of Clinical Laboratory Physicians and Scientists (ACLPS) in 2017 

Philip Effraim

Dr Effraim is an Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology at Yale University. His research interests are focused on investigating mechanisms of pain and finding novel ways to treat pain. Current studies are focused on the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7, which is a threshold channel preferentially expressed in peripheral sensory neurons and is known to play an important role in human pain signaling. Several proteins that interact with Nav1.7 have been identified, and some which are able to modulate the electrophysiological behavior of Nav1.7. Dr Effraim is using biochemical, biophysical and gene-therapy methods, both in vitro and in animal models, to manipulate those accessory proteins to differentially modulate the behavior of Nav1.7, with the ultimate goal of ameliorating the response to painful stimuli.