Manuscript Submission Guidelines

The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine is an international peer-reviewed, open-access journal. It publishes original contributions, science and medicine reviews, articles on medical history, personal perspectives on medicine, policy analyses, case reports, book reviews, and pieces covering biomedical-related symposia. Contributions are welcome from all qualified sources.

All manuscripts must be sent through Scholastica, uploaded as a Microsoft Word document. All images must be submitted individually as high-resolution TIFF or JPEG files.

Please submit your cover letter as an individual document. The cover letter should state if there are any conflicts of interest and whether the manuscript has been submitted elsewhere for publication. Please also state if there is anyone in particular whom you wish to review (or not to review) the manuscript.

Please note that we will not reject any manuscript if it is incorrectly formatted. However, submitting the manuscript in the correct format will expedite the review process.

Please note that these are limits for each type of article and we will accept articles below the word and figure limit listed if the article meets YJBM publication standards.

Word, Figure, Table, and Reference Limits

Below is a table indicating the word and figure limits for each type of article that YJBM publishes. If you are unsure what the word, figure, or table limit is for the article you are writing, please do not hesitate to contact us at

Article Type
Word Limit
Figure Limit
Table Limit
Reference Limit

Original Research

Brief Communication

Case Reports






Symposium Pieces

Book Reviews



A cover letter should accompany the manuscript and include the following:

  • A 100-word summary of the significance of the findings and how these findings relate to YJBM’s mission and scope
  • Certify that the work submitted has not been published elsewhere in any form and is not being submitted simultaneously to another journal
  • Declare any conflicts of interest
Each page, starting with the title page, should include a page number in the top right-hand corner. Format the manuscript in Times New Roman font, 12-point, and aligned to the left, i.e., not justified. Headings and sub-headings should be in bold and aligned to the left-hand side of the document. The document should be named as follows: date of submission_lastname; for example: 06142011_Samji.doc. Please note that YJBM publishes in American English.

This is the first page of the Microsoft Word document and should list the following:

  • The title of the manuscript
  • A running title (60 characters maximum, no abbreviations)
  • The date of submission
  • The authors’ full names with middle initials
  • The affiliation and current address of each author, not personal contact information
  • The name, mailing address, phone number, fax number and e-mail address of the corresponding author, not personal contact information
  • Keywords (these are words that readers can use to search for your article on PubMed)
  • A list of Abbreviations used
  • A total word count (including all sub-headings but excluding abstract, figure/table legends and references)
  • The number of tables, figures, and references (see limit per article type)
  • Acknowledgments (if necessary)
  • Author contributions: a brief summary of individual contributions and the funding source of each co-author

This should be the second page of the document. It should be clearly labelled as the Abstract. It should be no longer than 250 words summarizing the content of the manuscript. If applicable, it should contain the findings of the original research or case report submitted.

The manuscript should begin on the third page of the document. The manuscript should not include the figures. Tables should be included at the end of the document, after the references and figure legends. Each figure and table should be referred to within the body of the manuscript and numbered consecutively as it appears within the text.

The manuscript should contain references at the end of the main body of the text. Please start the references on a new page and clearly label this section as “References” in bold and aligned to the left-hand side of the page. The figure legends and tables should follow the references on separate pages.

Any footnotes included in the manuscript should be separate from the references. They should be included under a separate title (Footnotes) after the main text of the manuscript but before the references. Do not put footnotes in the footer of the document.

All relevant data sets, sequences, and images should be deposited in public databases; provide accession numbers for new data deposited. Provide full genotypes in the standard format for your organism; provide accession numbers where appropriate; state the origin of all strains and plasmids.

If human or animal subjects were used, either a) state that your institutional review board/ethics committee has approved the experiment and provide reference numbers as appropriate; b) state that IRB approval was not required and explain why; or c) if your institution does not have an IRB, state that the Declaration of Helsinki was followed. If informed consent was required, describe how it was obtained in the Methods section and include a copy of the informed consent form used.

We ask authors to use our copyright form with the understanding that digital copies may be freely reproduced for non-commercial purposes.

These should be on a separate page after the main body of the manuscript but before the References. Please do not put footnotes in the footer of the document. All footnotes in the main body of the text should be indicated by a superscript Arabic numeral in the order they appear in the text. The section should be clearly labelled “Footnotes” in bold and aligned to the left hand side of the document.

References must appear after the main body of the manuscript after any footnotes that are included. References must be started on a new page and clearly marked as “References.” This title must be in bold and left justified. References must be double-spaced. If using citation software (i.e. EndNote), do not delete the field codes before sending the manuscript.

Our journal uses the format of the National Libraries of Medicine . Please cite references by sequential numbers as they appear in the text, using Arabic numbers in square brackets (e.g., [x]) on the line. References first cited in a table or figure legend should be numbered so they are in sequence with citations where the table or figure is first mentioned. Journal names should be abbreviated i.e. ‘Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics’ should be abbreviated as ‘J Pharmacol Exp Ther.’

Please note that programs such as Endnote are currently using round brackets (e.g., (x)) and not square brackets (e.g., [x]) for references in the main body of the text. Please ensure that this is corrected before submitting the manuscript.

To change the NLM template so it includes the square brackets rather than the round brackets, make sure that Endnote is set to the NLM style of bibliography. Go to Edit > Output Styles > Edit “NLM.” A new window called NLM.ens will pop up. Click on the arrow by Citations so it faces downward; a small menu will appear underneath. In this menu, select Templates and to the right you will see a box called In-Text Citation Template. Currently this will display:

(Bibliography Number)

Change the round brackets () to square brackets [], such that you now see:

[Bibliography Number]

Close the window. Endnote will ask you if you wish to save the changes you made in the document NLM.ens. Select Save. A new window will pop up called Save As. We suggest that you save the style name as YJBM.

Below are two examples of how to reference an article from a scientific journal:

  1.  Lee SH, Jung JY, Kim JC. Comparative Ocular Microbial Communities in Humans with and without Blepharitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53(9):5585–5593.
  2.  Peppercorn MA, Goldman P. The role of intestinal bacteria in the metabolism of salicylazosulfapyridine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1972;181(3):555–562.

Please note if there are more than six authors for a particular reference please list the first six authors followed by et al.

Below is an example of how to reference a book:

  1. Darnton R. Mesmerism and the end of the Enlightenment in France. Cambridge: Harvard University Press; 1968. p. 117.

Below is an example of how to reference a website or a report found online:

  1. The Breast Cancer Research Foundation: Providing Critical Funding for Innovative Clinical and Genetic Research [Internet]. cited 2011 Jan 13. Available from: .


Each figure must be submitted as an individual file, in either high resolution TIFF or JPEG format. Images in other file formats or embedded in documents such as Word or PowerPoint cannot be accepted. A resolution of at least 300 dpi will help ensure clear reproduction.

The name of the file should be named as such before being uploaded to Scholastica: the date submitted_last name of the first authors_Figure_x.TIFF/JPEG. For example: 06142011_Samji_Figure_1.JPEG.

The authors must obtain the copyright privileges to publish each figure they submit. The authors must show proof that they have these privileges. This is the responsibility of the author(s) and not YJBM.

The figures must be numbered consecutively as they appear in the text. To make figures as clear and accessible as possible, please adhere to the following guidelines:

  •  Figures should be on a white background. Lines should be at least 0.5 points wide.
  •  If in greyscale, levels of grey should differ by at least 20 percent to maintain contrast. If in color, we ask that you avoid green and red to assist our color blind readers. Avoid light colors such as yellow, as they are difficult to view.
  •  For multiple data sets, choose symbols that are easily distinguishable from one another, such as filled circles and open circles. Do not include a boxed legend as part of the figure; symbols must be described in the figure legend.
  • For micrographs or other photographs, include a scale bar in SI units. In the Methods section, briefly describe the objective, camera, and illumination used.
  • If figures contain multiple panels, there should be a clear logical connection between all parts of the figure. Minimize the number of panels.
  • Figures divided into panels or parts should label each part with ab, etc. in lower-case bold type.
  • To indicate levels of significance, use asterisks above each bar or portion of the figure. Define the level of significance in a footnote to the table (e.g., *p < 0.05). All p-values should be expressed as less or greater than one of the following levels: 0.25, 0.1, 0.05, 0.01, 0.001 (i.e., p > 0.1 or p < 0.05).
  •  Lettering should be in Arial typeface in a readable size; 12-point fonts are preferred. If possible, the same typeface and size should be used for all figures. Do not use reversed type (white type on black background).
  • For figures labeled below the horizontal axis, slant labels at 45º, reading from bottom to top.
  • For graphs, label each axis clearly and include units.

Figure Legends

All figure legends should be at the end of your document after the references. Figures must be interpretable from their legends without reference to the text. Do not include any details of methods in figure legends.

Begin legends with figure number, then title, both in bold. If several panels are present in the figure, label them as a, b, c, etc.

Provide a short description of each panel sequentially (a.b., etc.) and describe what symbols represent. When possible, include symbols in the legend (e.g., [≤] rather than “less than or equal to”). If error bars are included, specify what error they represent (standard deviation, SEM, etc.). If statistical significance is represented, define all asterisked symbols at the end of the figure legend.


Each table should appear on a separate page at the end of your manuscript, after the references and figure legends. Each table should be one Word document page long. Include the title and table number above each table in bold. Each row and column requires a heading or title, with content (including units of measure) clearly indicated. Tables do not include legends; describe tables in the text as briefly as possible.

Number tables consecutively as they appear in the text, with Arabic numerals. Cite each table at the most appropriate point in the text. Definitions of all abbreviations used in the table should be placed in a footnote, indicated by lowercase superscript letters: a, b, c, etc. Use footnotes to provide additional detail if necessary. Footnotes for tables should be found directly under the table and not in the Footer of the document.

A personal communication must be substantiated by a letter from the source, indicating that the communication is correct, original, and recent, and that the source is willing to be cited.

Send a scanned copy of the letter in PDF format to Scholastica or forward the relevant message(s) to Personal communications are cited in parentheses in the text and are not included in the references. Example: The protein is present at low abundance during embryogenesis (J. S. Smith, personal communication, 3.4.06).

Please direct all inquiries on manuscript submission to yjbm@