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The syndemics of addiction, HIV and TB are concentrated in criminal justice settings (CJS). HIV and TB contribute most to mortality among the ~50-60 million people who transition through prisons annually. Malaysia has the highest HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in Asia where criminalization of drugs is harsh, resulting in the highest HIV prevalence among prisoners and the second highest incarceration rate in Asia. While mortality decreased 39% in Asia, it has increased in Malaysia where treatment of HIV and TB are inadequately treated among PWIDs, especially in prisoners.

Over the past 10 years, researchers at Yale University and the University of Malaya have continuously collaborated on research involving key populations, including PWIDs, prisoners, MSM and both female and transgender sex workers. Our research has multidisciplinary at the interface of addiction and infectious diseases like HIV, TB, HCV and sexually transmitted infections. Our research has been supported through funding for a number of pre- and post-doctoral students and junior faculty members through our Fogarty-sponsored Global Health Equity Scholars program, Doris Duke Charitable Global Health Training, Fulbright scholarships and through NIDA-sponsored research grants. Project Harapan II builds upon past studies and these collaborations.

The specific aims of this study are:

1) To conduct empiric studies of TB, including:

a) TB diagnostics (symptoms, CXR, TST, AFB smear, Gene Xpert, and sputum culture) to optimize TB screening

b) a RCT of TB prevention strategies among HIV+ and HIV- prisoners comparing a 12-week short-course of once-weekly isoniazid/rifapentine vs a standard 40-week course of daily isoniazid in a population with high HCV prevalence and potential for hepatotoxicity

c) a RCT of HIV= and HIV- prisoners with TB who have insufficient time to complete treatment within prison and comparing treatment completion rates for those who refuse OAT with those who accept it, but who are randomized to methadone or buprenorphine therapy to facilitate continuity of care post-release

2) To use data from aim 1 combined with publicly available TB data to conduct agent-based modeling for comparative and cost- effectiveness analyses of TB screening, prevention and treatment strategies among prisoners with and without HIV, incorporating the contribution of latent TB infection and prevalent TB disease on community transmission post-release.

Funding Provided by:
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)

Project Period:
2016 - 2021


  • Professor of Medicine (Infectious Diseases) and of Epidemiology (Microbial Diseases); Affiliated Faculty, Yale Institute for Global Health; Director, Yale Center for Clinical and Community Research, Department of Medicine; Director, HIV in Prisons Program, Infectious Diseases; Director, Community Health Care Van, Intersection of Infectious Diseases and Substance Use Disorders/Addiction Medicine; Academic Icon Professor of Medicine, University of Malaya-Centre of Excellence for Research in AIDS (CERiA), Faculty of Medicine