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A, TARPs consist of four isoforms (stargazin, g -3, g -4, and g -8), which show distinct expression patterns in the brain . B, TARPs (green) colocalize with the glutamatergic markers AMPA receptors (red)(left panel), but not with the GABAergic marker GAD65 (red)(right panel). C, TARPs both modulate trafficking of AMPA receptors to the synapses and control the gating and pharmacology of the channel. Oocytes injected with GluR1 alone are more sensitive to glutamate (Glu) than to kainate (KA). D, AMPA receptor subunits GluR1, GluR2 and GluR4 co-immunoprecipitate with stargazin (STG) in brain extracts from +/stg mice (+/-), but not in extracts from stg/stg mice (-/-). E, TARPs stabilize AMPA receptors at synapses through its C-terminal PDZ domain binding motif.