Dyslexia; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Neurobiology; Neurology; Pediatrics; Reading
Developmental dyslexia is characterized by an unexpected difficulty in reading in children and adults who otherwise possess the intelligence and motivation considered necessary for accurate and fluent reading. Recent advances in imaging technology provide the potential for elucidating a biological signature for reading and reading disability.
Bennett A. Shaywitz, M.D. is a leader in applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to understand the neurobiology of reading and dyslexia in children and adults. These studies identify a neural signature for dyslexia, making a previously hidden disability visible, and for the first time demonstrate the brain basis for the accommodation of extra time needed by dyslexic readers on high-stakes standardized tests. Shaywitz is currently using fMRI to investigate attentional mechanisms in dyslexia.
Our research group uses functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the brain organization for reading including:
- Identification and localization of specific systems;
- Differences in good and poor readers;
- Computational role of each system;
- Plasticity, i.e., response to intervention;
- Types of reading disability.
Specialized Terms: Neurobiology of Reading & Dyslexia; Attentional Mechanisms in reading
Extensive Research Description
Studies in progress:
- Development of automatic reading systems
- Attentional mechanisms in reading and reading disability
- Neural systems for math and math disability in children
- Influence of specific reading interventions on specific neural systems
- Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in reading disability
- Connecticut Longitudinal Study at adulthood
- Genetic studies of reading disability
- Neural systems in the development of adolescent literacy.
Paying attention to reading: the neurobiology of reading and dyslexia.
Paying attention to reading: the neurobiology of reading and dyslexia. Shaywitz SE, Shaywitz BA. Dev Psychopathol. 2008 Fall;20(4):1329-49.
The education of dyslexic children from childhood to young adulthood.
The education of dyslexic children from childhood to young adulthood. Shaywitz SE, Morris R, Shaywitz BA. Annu Rev Psychol. 2008;59:451-75.
Longitudinal models of developmental dynamics between reading and cognition from childhood to adolescence.
Longitudinal models of developmental dynamics between reading and cognition from childhood to adolescence. Ferrer E, McArdle JJ, Shaywitz BA, Holahan JM, Marchione K, Shaywitz SE. Dev Psychol. 2007 Nov;43(6):1460-73.
A case of less than meets the eye.
A case of less than meets the eye. Shaywitz BA, Ferrer E, Shaywitz SE. Ann Neurol. 2007 Aug;62(2):109-11.
Full List of PubMed Publications
- Shaywitz S, Shaywitz B, Wietecha L, Wigal S, McBurnett K, Williams D, Kronenberger WG, Hooper SR: Effect of Atomoxetine Treatment on Reading and Phonological Skills in Children with Dyslexia or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Comorbid Dyslexia in a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2017 Feb; 2016 Jul 13. PMID: 27410907
- Romberg F, Shaywitz BA, Shaywitz SE: How Should Medical Schools Respond to Students with Dyslexia? AMA J Ethics. 2016 Oct 1; 2016 Oct 1. PMID: 27780021
- Ferrer E, Shaywitz BA, Holahan JM, Marchione KE, Michaels R, Shaywitz SE: Achievement Gap in Reading Is Present as Early as First Grade and Persists through Adolescence. J Pediatr. 2015 Nov; 2015 Aug 29. PMID: 26323201
- Shaywitz BA, Williams DW, Fox BK, Wietecha LA: Reading outcomes of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and dyslexia following atomoxetine treatment. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2014 Oct; 2014 Oct 9. PMID: 25299355
- Finn ES, Shen X, Holahan JM, Scheinost D, Lacadie C, Papademetris X, Shaywitz SE, Shaywitz BA, Constable RT: Disruption of functional networks in dyslexia: a whole-brain, data-driven analysis of connectivity. Biol Psychiatry. 2014 Sep 1; 2013 Oct 11. PMID: 24124929
- Shaywitz SE, Shaywitz BA: Paying attention to reading: the neurobiology of reading and dyslexia. Dev Psychopathol. 2008 Fall. PMID: 18838044
- Shaywitz SE, Morris R, Shaywitz BA: The education of dyslexic children from childhood to young adulthood. Annu Rev Psychol. 2008. PMID: 18154503
- Shaywitz SE, Gruen JR, Shaywitz BA: Management of dyslexia, its rationale, and underlying neurobiology. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2007 Jun. PMID: 17543912
- Shaywitz BA, Skudlarski P, Holahan JM, Marchione KE, Constable RT, Fulbright RK, Zelterman D, Lacadie C, Shaywitz SE: Age-related changes in reading systems of dyslexic children. Ann Neurol. 2007 Apr. PMID: 17444510
- Shaywitz BA, Lyon GR, Shaywitz SE: The role of functional magnetic resonance imaging in understanding reading and dyslexia. Dev Neuropsychol. 2006. PMID: 16925477
- Meng H, Smith SD, Hager K, Held M, Liu J, Olson RK, Pennington BF, DeFries JC, Gelernter J, O'Reilly-Pol T, Somlo S, Skudlarski P, Shaywitz SE, Shaywitz BA, Marchione K, Wang Y, Paramasivam M, LoTurco JJ, Page GP, Gruen JR: DCDC2 is associated with reading disability and modulates neuronal development in the brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Nov 22; 2005 Nov 8. PMID: 16278297
- Shaywitz SE, Shaywitz BA: Dyslexia (specific reading disability). Biol Psychiatry. 2005 Jun 1. PMID: 15950002
- Shafritz KM, Marchione KE, Gore JC, Shaywitz SE, Shaywitz BA: The effects of methylphenidate on neural systems of attention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2004 Nov. PMID: 15514398
- Shaywitz BA, Shaywitz SE, Blachman BA, Pugh KR, Fulbright RK, Skudlarski P, Mencl WE, Constable RT, Holahan JM, Marchione KE, Fletcher JM, Lyon GR, Gore JC: Development of left occipitotemporal systems for skilled reading in children after a phonologically- based intervention. Biol Psychiatry. 2004 May 1. PMID: 15110736
- Shaywitz SE, Naftolin F, Zelterman D, Marchione KE, Holahan JM, Palter SF, Shaywitz BA: Better oral reading and short-term memory in midlife, postmenopausal women taking estrogen. Menopause. 2003 Sep-Oct. PMID: 14501603
- Shaywitz SE, Shaywitz BA, Fulbright RK, Skudlarski P, Mencl WE, Constable RT, Pugh KR, Holahan JM, Marchione KE, Fletcher JM, Lyon GR, Gore JC: Neural systems for compensation and persistence: young adult outcome of childhood reading disability. Biol Psychiatry. 2003 Jul 1. PMID: 12842305
- Shaywitz SE, Shaywitz BA: The science of reading and dyslexia. J AAPOS. 2003 Jun. PMID: 12825054
- Shaywitz SE, Shaywitz BA: Dyslexia (specific reading disability). Pediatr Rev. 2003 May. PMID: 12728187
- Shaywitz BA, Shaywitz SE, Pugh KR, Mencl WE, Fulbright RK, Skudlarski P, Constable RT, Marchione KE, Fletcher JM, Lyon GR, Gore JC: Disruption of posterior brain systems for reading in children with developmental dyslexia. Biol Psychiatry. 2002 Jul 15. PMID: 12114001
- Shaywitz SE, Shaywitz BA: Science informing policy: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's contribution to reading. Pediatrics. 2002 Mar. PMID: 11875152
- Shaywitz BA, Fletcher JM, Shaywitz SE: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2001 May. PMID: 11282038