Types of Articles Published

YJBM publishes the following types of articles:


Original Research
Case Reports
Reviews
Perspectives
Analyses
Symposia Pieces
Book Reviews
Profiles
Interviews
Other Submissions
Focus Topic Articles
Educational Scholarship Articles

The following contains detailed descriptions as to what should be included in each particular type of article. Please note that all word counts indicated for each type of article include the abstract and do not include the references or figure legends.

Original Research Articles

Original research articles present a medical or scientific advance. These manuscripts should present well-rounded studies reporting innovative advances that further knowledge about a topic of importance to the fields of biology or medicine. The conclusions of the Original Research Article should clearly be supported by the results. These can be submitted as either a full-length article (no more than 6,000 words) or a brief communication (no more than 2,500 words). Original Research Articles contain five sections:

(i) Abstract

(ii) Introduction

(iii) Materials and Methods

(iv) Results

(v) Discussion

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Case Reports

Case reports describe an unusual disease presentation, a new treatment, an unexpected drug interaction, a new diagnostic method, or a difficult diagnosis. Case reports should include relevant positive and negative findings from history, examination, and investigation and can include clinical photographs. Additionally, the author must make it clear what the case adds to the field of medicine and include an up-to-date review of all previous cases in the field. These articles should be no more than 5,000 words with no more than 6 figures and 3 tables. Case Reports contain five sections:

(i) Abstract

(ii) Introduction

(iii) Case Presentation (clinical presentation, observations, test results, and accompanying figures)

(iv) Discussion

(v) Conclusions

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Reviews

Reviews provide a reasoned survey and examination of a particular subject of research in biology or medicine. These can be submitted as a mini-review (less than 2,500 words, 3 figures, and 1 table) or a long review (no more than 6,000 words, 6 figures, and 3 tables). They should include critical assessment of the works cited, explanations of conflicts in the literature, and analysis of the field. The conclusion must discuss in detail the limitations of current knowledge, future directions to be pursued in research, and the overall importance of the topic in medicine or biology. Reviews contain four sections:

(i) Abstract

(ii) Introduction

(iii) Topics (with headings and subheadings)

(iv) Conclusions and Outlook


Authors wishing to submit an unsolicited review should submit a 100-word proposal to yjbm@yale.edu, summarizing the scope, importance, and relevance of the proposed review.

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Perspectives

Perspectives provide a personal view on medical or biomedical topics in a clear narrative voice. Articles can relate personal experiences, historical perspective, or scientist profile on people or topics important to medicine and biology. These articles should be no more than 6,000 words. Perspectives contain four sections:

(i) Abstract

(ii) Introduction

(iii) Topics (with headings and subheadings)

(iv) Conclusions and Outlook

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Analyses

Analyses provide an in-depth prospective and informed analysis of a policy, major advance, or historical description of a topic related to biology or medicine. These articles should be no more than 6,000 words with no more than 3 figures and 1 table. Analyses contain four sections:

(i) Abstract

(ii) Introduction

(iii) Topics (with headings and subheadings)

(iv) Conclusions and Outlook

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Symposium Pieces

Symposium pieces describe a research symposium or seminar and present the topic covered in the form of a news brief, opinion piece, or mini-review. A news brief summarizes a few talks on the same general topic or issues at a given symposium. This can include a summary of the discussion that followed the symposium or the significance of the talks at a large symposium to a particular field. It is important to indicate the main point of the symposium.

An opinion piece discusses the personal perspectives after a given symposium, including an analysis of the symposium and how this affected the author.

A mini-review can be based on a theme from a given symposium. This may require the author(s) to review articles written by a speaker at that symposium.

These articles should be no more than 3,000 words. All symposium pieces should include the following:

(i) Abstract

(ii) Introduction

(iii) Topics (with headings and subheadings) [specifically required for a mini-review]

(iv) Conclusions and Outlook.

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Book Reviews

Book reviews cover relevant books important to clinicians and researchers. These articles provide a description of the book being reviewed, the strengths and weaknesses of the book, and the intended audience. The reviews should be 300 to 500 words. All members of the Yale community are eligible to write reviews. Please contact the Editors at yjbm@yale.edu if you are interested in writing book reviews.

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Profiles

Profiles describe a notable person in the fields of science or medicine. These articles should contextualize the individual’s contributions to the field at large as well as provide some personal and historical background on the person being described. More specifically, this should be done by describing what was known at the time of the individual’s discovery/contribution and how that finding contributes to the field as it stands today. These pieces should be no more than 6,000 words, with up to 6 figures and 3 tables. The articles should include the following:

(i) Abstract

(ii) Introduction

(iii) Topics (with headings and subheadings)

(iv) Conclusions

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Interviews

Interviews may be presented as either a transcript of an interview given with questions and answers presented or as a personal reflection after a given interview. If the latter is submitted, the author must indicate to the readers that the article is based on an interview. These pieces should be no more than 5,000 words. The articles should include:

(i) Abstract

(ii) Introduction

(iii) Questions and answers clearly indicated by subheadings or topics (headings and subheadings)

(iv) Conclusions

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Other Submissions

Other submissions include articles that do not fall into the above categories, such as Arts & Humanities, but that the authors feel would be of particular interest to the readers of YJBM. Please feel free to contact the Editors at yjbm@yale.edu with any inquiries about suitability for the Journal and guidance for article format.

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Focus Topic Articles

YJBM regularly publishes sections featuring articles that are of exceptional significance to the fields of biology and medicine. Articles are solicited by the Editors to fulfill the topic chosen for each issue in all the article forms the Journal accepts. To be informed of the Focus Topics, please contact the Editors at yjbm@yale.edu.

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Educational Scholarship Articles

Articles submitted to the Educational Scholarship section of YJBM should address theoretical or practical aspects of education and training challenges in medicine and/or science. Papers will represent the continuum of education from undergraduate education to medical and graduate student education to post-graduate education of residents and fellows in medicine as well as post-doctoral fellows in the sciences.


YJBM will publish case reports, reviews, and perspectives in the Educational Scholarship section.


Educational Case Reports

These case reports are modeled after the traditional clinical case report and should describe a unique training or teaching method. The case report should describe the challenge this new method is trying to address, fully describe the teaching method, provide potential analysis of this method to determine whether it met stated goals, and an up-to-date review of other methods of course design that have been used to address this problem in teaching. These articles should be no more than 5,000 words and include no more than 6 figures and 3 tables. Educational Case Reports contain five sections:

(i) Abstract

(ii) Introduction (educational challenge briefly introduced)

(iii) Teaching method presentation (describe new teaching method, how it addresses the challenge outlined in the introduction, and any metrics used to evaluate this new method)

(iv) Discussion (in-depth literature review)

(v) Conclusion (suggestions for future follow-up or potential improvements)


Educational Scholarship Reviews

Reviews provide a reasoned survey and examination of a particular subject in educational scholarship. These can be submitted as a mini-review (less than 2,500 words, 3 figures, and 1 table) or a long review (no more than 6,000 words, 6 figures, and 3 tables). They should include critical assessment of the works cited, explanations of conflicts in the literature, and analysis of the field. The conclusion must discuss in detail the limitations of current knowledge, future directions to be pursued in research and teaching, and the overall importance of the topic in medical and science education. Reviews contain four sections:

(i) Abstract

(ii) Introduction

(iii) Topics (with headings and subheadings)

(iv) Conclusions and Outlook


Educational Scholarship Perspectives

Perspectives provide a personal view on a topic in educational scholarship in the sciences or medicine in a clear narrative voice. These topics can include policy, teaching methods, or personal experiences as it relates to Educational Scholarship. These articles should be no more than 6,000 words. Perspectives contain four sections:

(i) Abstract

(ii) Introduction

(iii) Topics (with headings and subheadings)

(iv) Conclusions and Outlook

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