Postdoctoral Fellows

Current Postdoctoral Fellows

David Chartash, PhD

NLM Postdoctoral Trainee: 7/1/18-

Research Supervisor: Cynthia Brandt, MD, MPH (Yale Center for Medical Informatics)

Research: David Chartash is working to understand the adage in medicine that,

The history is the foundation of diagnosis, management and rapport with the patient, and that diagnosis is based on, first, a focused and meticulous history, followed by a focused and confirmatory physical examination and ending with a parsimonious ancillary investigation. — Crombie, D. L. "General Practice Today and Tomorrow. X. Diagnostic Methods." The Practitioner 191 (1963): 539-545.

His research aims to model information within the medical record and clinical encounter through the use of cognitive science, computational linguistic and complex systems science approaches. Currently this involves the modeling of language using both conventional linguistic and distributional semantic technologies; the analysis of clinical reasoning as it is encoded in physician writing in the pediatric rheumatology context; and the examination of the grammaticalization of fever of unknown illness from 1200 to present.

Jacob McPadden, MD

NLM Postdoctoral Trainee: 8/1/18-

Research Supervisor: Wade Schulz, MD

Research: Jacob McPadden is using deep learning models to predict diagnosis and prognosis of nectrotizing enterocolitis for clinical decision support. In addition, he is involved in projects predictive outcome models for cardiothoracic surgery using data mined from the EMR and clinical devices, and predictive models for pharmicogenomics testing and intervention.

Nima Nouri, PhD

NLM Postdoctoral Trainee: 10/1/18-

Research Supervisor: Steven Kleinstein, PhD (Associate Professor of Pathology)

Research: Nima Nouri carries out research related to the development of computational methods for the analysis of large-scale B cell immunoglobulin repertoire sequencing data. He is helping to build out automated analytical pipelines, develop novel algorithms and models, and create novel platforms to analyze large scale data sets, including those from next-generation sequencing platforms. These methods have been integrated and currently made available to the wider scientific community through the Immcantation tool suite ( Nima uses his applied mathematics and statistical skills to reduce complex biological systems to their basic principles leading to proper biological interpretation.

Previous Postdoctoral Fellows

Zawach, PhD (8/6/17 - 5/31/19)

Research: Kelson Zawach is using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to study the relationship between the structure of neurological connections and attention deficit disorder (ADD). fMRI provides a window into the activity of the brain on a region-specific level by measuring blood flow in each region. These measurements effectively provide a time series of brain activity snapshots. The goal then is to use information about how activity of different regions changes in relation to each other to infer their connectivity and then to use this structure to understand the mechanisms underlying ADD.

Monique Surles-Zeigler, PhD (6/27/16 - 6/3/19)

Research: Monique Surles-Zeigler is developing techniques to mine the literature for neuronal protein markers and gene expression data; she is integrating this data into the SenseLab databases ( and building a web application that enables exploration of this data and data from other neuroinformatics databases in anatomically based interactive diagrams. She is currently earning a Master’s degree in Computational Biology and Bioinformatics.

Kelsey Corcoran, OD (7/1/17 - 10/31/18)


Emily Powers, MD (7/1/16 - 6/30/18)

Research : Emily powers is conducting a systematic review of hard-stop alerts to evaluate their use-cases, efficacy, and unintended consequences as represented in the literature. She is also working on developing a dashboard on practice habits for pediatric fellows to include metrics such as procedure counts, mock RVUs, most commonly seen diagnoses, and benchmark these things again local and national standards.

Daniel Spakowicz, PhD (6/1/15 - 3/31/18)

Research: Daniel Spakowicz is studying the dynamics of the relationship between humans and their microbiome, particularly during the onset of disease states. In diabetes, the microbiome has been demonstrated to be different between diabetic and healthy individuals; however, to date, no study has documented the transition between the diabetic disease and non-disease state. Longitudinal data are critical to the goal of establishing causal relationships and furthering the understanding of the role of the microbiome in diabetes pathophysiology. Dr. Spakowicz is participating in a project to follow pre-diabetic individuals over time while collecting massive quantities of data about host and microbial states. Samples are being collected from the same individuals over the course of at least three years, with denser sampling during periods of illness or stress. Dr. Spakowicz is developing novel methods to analyze the microbiomes of human fecal and nasal samples and their relationship to host blood glucose levels and other ‘omic data.

Kyle McGregor, PhD (2/1/16 - 9/15/17)

Research: Kyle McGregor studied ethical issues related to data science, specifically looking at the development and use of tools informed by clinical data to aid in enhanced identification and diagnosis of diseases impacting vulnerable populations. Work in this area requires careful consideration of risks and benefits to patient populations, development of new methods and procedures to protect patient level data, as well as direct involvement of community members most likely to be impacted by this work. Dr. McGregor worked with a widely interdisciplinary audience to develop an ethically guided framework to working with big data, vulnerable populations, and community partners. He presented his research at the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine where he gave a platform presentation, National Translational Science meeting, and the Association of Maternal Child health Bureau programs annual meeting. Kyle worked on an ethically guided framework for analyzing social media data from adolescence with current gang involvement or suspected future gang involvement.

Current Position: Dual appointments as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Department of Population Health, Division of Medical Ethics at the New York University School of Medicine and Director of Pediatric Mental Health Ethics for all of NYU Langone Health.

Rajdeep Brar, MD (07/29/15 - 07/28/17)

Research: Rajdeep Brar is developing a multi-axial, category based knowledge management system for decision support alerts. The initial phase involves developing an ontology for the categories that are believed to be most useful for managing alerts. The ontology will declare formal definitions for inclusion into each proposed category. The hypothesis is that analyzing performance statistics of the alerts (e.g. firing rate, acceptance rate, override rate) aggregated by category will help target areas for improvement. For example, if our patient safety related alerts are performing poorly, we can investigate for underlying reasons such as poor design. The categories can also help maintain the content of the knowledge base underlying the alerts. Dr. Brar has submitted abstracts of the described work to NLM and AMIA. He is also working on developing a tool for visualizing pediatric readmissions using best practices in visual analytics.

Robert McDougal, PhD (6/1/2013 - 5/31/2016)

Research: Robert McDougal is developing techniques for studying the interaction of intracellular biochemical processes with electrophysiology in biophysically detailed numerical simulations of neurons and networks of neurons. There are three primary aspects of this research: developing techniques for presenting and analyzing these complicated models, developing a high-level language for specifying such models, and developing an extension to the NEURON simulator to efficiently integrate the corresponding equations. He is also earning a Masters degree in Computational Biology and Bioinformatics. In 2014-15, Dr. McDougal presented posters at the Society for Neuroscience (SfN) meeting in Washington DC, at the Multiscale Modeling meeting of the Interagency Modeling and Analysis Group (IMAG) in Bethesda, and at the Organization for Computational Neurosciences (CNS) meeting in Quebec. He gave tutorials featuring his NEURON extensions at both the CNS and SfN meetings. He gave a podium presentation at the NLM Informatics Training Meeting in Pittsburgh and a talk at the Open Source Brain conference in Alghero.

Liyang Diao, PhD (10/1/14 - 7/15/16)

Research: Liyang Diao is researching community state types in the vaginal microbiome, how they are related to diseases such as bacterial vaginosis, and whether or not shifts in the microbiome can be predicted. While some microbiomes are very diverse between individuals, the vaginal microbiome appears to consist of five well-defined clusters, coined community state types (CSTs). However, the definition of these state types is not entirely clear, and different clustering methods and measures of sample dissimilarity produce varying results, particularly with RNA sequencing data. Liyang recently attended a workshop at the Statistical and Applied Mathematical Sciences Institute (SAMSI), where she is working with a group to predict CST shifts. Other interests of the SAMSI microbiome groups include normalization of microbiome RNA sequencing data and groundtruthing experiments. Liyang is also working on a method to analyze the differential expression of genes in time series data collected on various human and non- human brain regions.

Yauheni Solad, MD (7/1/13 - 10/4/15)

Position after Fellowship: Medical Information Officer, Greenwich Hospital

Research: Dr. Solad developed tools for building research disease registries. Using pancreatic cystic neoplasms as a clinical domain, he analyzed practice guidelines for implementability and extracted concepts to build an ontology and concepts map. The concepts map was used as a blueprint for registry development with the EPIC EMR system.

Taisha Roman, MD (7/1/13 - 5/8/15)

Position after Fellowship: Project leader, Information Systems, New York Presbyterian Hospital

Research: Dr. Roman developed and implemented a custom specimen tracking system and evaluated its effects on patient safety and quality. She also evaluated a secure mobile application as a viable alternative to current methods of clinician communication.

Saira Kazmi, PhD (9/1/12 - 8/31/14)

Position after Fellowship: Senior Big Data Engineer, Thomson Reuters

Research: Dr. Kazmi’s research focused on machine learning algorithms for document clustering of biomedical literature on a large scale. She was also involved in a meta analysis project combining results from RNASeq and WGS experiments to find aberrations caused by melanoma in skin cancer patients.

Jeremy Michel, MD (7/1/11 - 6/30/13)

Position after Fellowship: Clinical Informaticist, Center for Biomedical Informatics, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia

Research: Dr. Michel researched methods for translating guideline recommendations into clinical quality measures.

Perry Evans, PhD (8/26/10 - 7/31/13)

Position after Fellowship: Bioinformatics Scientist, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia

Research: Dr Evans’ work focused on detecting cancer driver genes using melanoma whole exome sequences. He also explored the utility of social media, like Twitter and Wikipedia, for predicting journal article impact.

Jose Gomez-Villalobos, MD (7/1/10 - 6/30/12)

Position after Fellowship: Instructor, Yale School of Medicine

Research: Dr. Gomez-Villalobos worked on translational projects involving asthma. One study which used expression microarray data from induced sputum samples revealed the presence of groups of genes involved in apoptosis, leukotriene pathways and cytokine signaling pathways not previously identified in severe asthma. Dr. Gomez-Villalobos received an MS in Computational Biology and Bioinformatics during his fellowship.

Nitu Kashyap, MD (10/1/09 - 1/31/11)

Position after Fellowship: Medical Director for EPIC Ambulatory Project,Yale-New Haven Hospital; Attending Physician, YNHH Primary Care Center

Research: Dr. Kashyap developed a personal health record portal to be used as tool to decrease readmission rates for complicated patients discharged from the hospital. She worked on the GuideLine Implementability Appraisal (GLIA) tool and developed a web version of the same (eGLIA).

Sergiy Konovalov, MD (7/7/08 - 7/6/10)

Position after Fellowship: In transition

Research: Dr. Konovalov worked on a project involving Natural Language Processing and computerized extraction techniques on free text contained in web logs. He also built a Web/database application to facilitate the analysis of GWAS datasets.

Negin Hajizadeh, MD (7/1/09 - 6/30/10)

Position after Fellowship: Instructor, NYU School of Medicine (K-12 Award) (also appointments at Yale School of Medicine)

Research: Dr. Hajizadeh developed a decision tree of advance directives for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), into a Markov analytic model. This model incorporates patient preferences such as utilities of discharge location after hospitalization, and hospital specific outcomes such as complication rates, to better guide the advance directive discussion at the point of care (between clinician and patient).

Edwin Lomotan, MD (7/1/08 - 4/30/10)

Position after Fellowship: Health Scientist Administrator, AHRQ, Rockville, MD

Research: Dr. Lomotan’s research focused on transformation of clinical guidelines into computerized decision support. In the GuideLines Into Decision Support (GLIDES) project, he worked on translating guidelines for pediatric asthma and obesity in to locally implemented decision support tools. He also was involved with the Effective Representation of Guidelines with Ontologies (ERGO) project and focused on the development of quality measures using the Quality data set from the National Quality Forum.

George Gorgon, MD (9/1/07 - 8/31/09)

Position after Fellowship: Post-Doctoral Fellow, Molecular Genetic Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham

Research: Dr.Gorgon worked on several projects: 1. Identifying gene expression patterns in Triple Negative Malignant Breast Carcinoma (identified as HER-2, Estrogen and Progesterone receptors negative malignant ductal and lobular carcinoma of the breast). 2. Identifying and explaining micro RNA molecules role in malignant transformation in common gynecologic malignancies such as breast and ovary. 3. Identifying genes responsible for malignant transformation with relation to Polycomb proteins in common gynecologic malignancies.

Mona Duggal, MD (7/1/06 - 6/30/09)

Position after Fellowship: Associate Research Scientist, Yale School of Medicine

Research: Dr.Duggal worked on a project on the acceptability of computer based self-administered questionnaire for collection of socially sensitive data in veteran populations. The study aimed to improve long term data quality and collection in the multi center Veteran Aging Cohort Study.

Tamseela Hussain, MD (3/1/07 - 2/28/09)

Position after Fellowship: Medical Informatics Consultant, Dallas, TX

Research: Dr. Hussain helped develop the Yale Guideline Corpus (YGRC), which was used to better understand how current recommendations are written and to test the adequacy of guideline models. She also worked on developing methods for quality and performance measurement using the VA’s electronic medical record system.

Matthew Scotch, PhD, MPH (7/1/06 - 6/30/08)

Position after Fellowship: Associate Research Scientist, Yale School of Medicine (K Award)

Research: Dr. Scotch’s research focused on combining health data on animals and humans to enhance zoonotic disease surveillance capabilities at local and state health department levels. He also earned an MPH from the Yale School of Public Health.

Sheryl LaCoursiere, PhD (7/1/06 - 6/30/08)

Position after Fellowship: Lecturer, Yale Center for Medical Informatics

Research: Dr. LaCoursiere worked on several Veterans Administration projects relating to the use of clinical guidelines and patient outcomes. She also worked with the Yale School of Nursing to curate and analyze data from the Breast Cancer Internet Information and Support (BCIIS) Study.

Eleanne Solorzano Dowd, PhD (10/15/05 - 8/31/07)

Position after Fellowship: Associate Professor, University of New Hampshire

Research: Dr. Solorzano Dowd explored different statistical approaches to identifying genomic regions that are particularly subject to natural selection, using population genotype data. She studied signals of natural selection in lactase across different populations, and used various selection methods such as the extended homozygosity test and a new window method.

Can Bruce, PhD (7/1/05 - 6/30/07)

Position after Fellowship: Assistant Director, Bioinformatics Resource, Keck Biotech Resource Lab, Yale University

Research: Dr. Bruce conducted research in two areas of bioinformatics. The first project analyzed mass spectrometry data of phosphopeptides. The second project involved chromatin immunoprecipitation on chip data to study dynamic regulation of transcription in yeast.

Prem Thomas, MD (7/1/04 - 6/30/07)

Position after Fellowship: Medical Informatics Consultant; Attending Physician, Hospital of Saint Raphael, New Haven, CT

Research: In his main project, Dr. Thomas developed measures of quality of care for glycemic management of inpatients and created a web service freely available to inpatient institutions for online submission of glucose data with subsequent calculation of quality metrics. The web service is available at

Hyung Min Paek, MD (1/26/04 - 1/25/07)

Position after Fellowship: Research Scientist, Clinical Medical Informatics, West Haven VA, CT

Research: In one research project, Dr. Paek used data mining techniques, including shallow semantic parsing, to increase the accuracy of searching free text in a large medical database. He also worked on implementing ophthalmology guidelines on primary open angle glaucoma in an EMR in a private practice setting.

Yacov Kogan, MD (8/1/04 - 7/31/06)

Position after Fellowship: Physician Consultant, NextGen, Horsham

Research: Dr. Kogan worked on a natural language processing project which applied the concept of semantic role labeling in the medical domain. He was also involved in a project which incorporated practice guidelines in an ophthalmology electronic medical record.

Seymour Codish, MD (7/1/04 - 6/30/06)

Position after Fellowship: Clinical Decision Support Coordinator, Soroka University, Beer-Sheva, Israel

Research: Dr. Codish worked on several clinical informatics projects, including 1) a model of ambiguity and vagueness in clinical practice guidelines; 2) development of the electronic GuideLine Implementability Appraisal (eGLIA) instrument; and 3) audit and feedback with clinical decision support to improve care of children with asthma.

Andrea Benin, MD (7/1/03 – 6/30/04, 7/1/05 - 11/18/05)

Position after Fellowship: System Director for Clinical Quality, Yale-New Haven Health System

Research: Dr. Benin worked on measuring quality and safety of clinical care for outpatients using the electronic medical record. She developed tools for extracting and analyzing data from the electronic medical record and for text processing. She worked on methodologies to ensure that measures of quality and safety are properly validated. In addition, Dr. Benin worked on several qualitative studies regarding attitudes to vaccination.

Abdel Essaihi, MD (10/14/02 – 10/13/05)

Position after Fellowship: Informatics consulting

Research: Dr. Essaihi worked on clinical informatics projects involving medical knowledge representation, decision support systems design requirements, and clinical practice guideline development and implementation. His most recent project involved mapping decision variables (clinical concepts upon which guideline-warranted actions are conditionally based) to the UMLS, and representing guideline recommendations as Petri nets to streamline workflow integration.

Qin Zhang, PhD (8/16/02 - 8/15/05)

Position after Fellowship: Client Tech Specialist, Research Computing, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY

Research: In several neuroinformatics projects, Dr. Zhang worked extensively to develop the Entity-Attribute-Value with Classes and Relationships (EAV/CR) architecture to support a wide range of funtionalities and interoperation. For the SenseLab Project, he designed and developed the BrainPharm database of agents and drugs that act on receptors and signal transduction pathways.

Allen Hsiao, MD (7/1/04 - 6/30/05)

Position after Fellowship: Clinical Instructor, Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Yale School of Medicine; Physician Liaison, ITS, Yale-New Haven Hospital

Research: Dr. Hsiao worked on a project to appraise the implementability of clinical guidelines and participated in a study of the efficacy of point-of-care testing in the pediatric emergency department. He also assisted with implementation of the Logician EMR system in the PED.

Nian Liu, PhD (7/1/02 - 6/30/05)

Position after Fellowship: Associate Research Scientist, Yale Center for Medical Informatics

Research: Dr. Liu was involved with several projects. 1) For the SenseLab Project, he developed OdorMapBuilder and collaborated with experimentalists in the Yale MRI Research Center in applying this software program to generate odor maps from 3-dimensional fMRI data. 2) For the GeneCube Project, he wrote tools to use knowledge in the Gene Ontology (GO) database to analyze microarray data and displayed the analytic results in a dynamic GO term tree. 3) He also built a Web-based database system supporting gene microarray studies on olfactory receptors.

Michael Osier, PhD (10/1/02 - 7/31/04)

Position after Fellowship: Assistant Professor, Bioinformatics, Department of Biological Sciences, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester

Research: Dr. Osier's main project was developing a tool to provide post-analysis interpretation of microarray data in the contect of curated knowledgebases such as the Gene Ontology Database. He also worked on the development of the Yale Microarray Database.

Lyudmila Druskin, MD (7/1/02 - 6/30/04)

Position after Fellowship: Medical Informatics Specialist, Apelon, Ridgefield, CT

Research: Dr. Druskin participated in a project to create web-based services for analysis of microarray data. She also developed a Java and XML-based tool for integration of heterogeneous genetic databases.

Deyun Pan, PhD (7/1/02 - 6/30/04)

Position after Fellowship: Research Scientist, Bioinformatics, American Type Culture Collection (ATCC), Manassas, VA

Research: Dr. Pan worked on developing databases and statistical tools for analyzing microarray data, including web tools for displaying gene expression data.

Cesar Rodriguez, MD (7/16/01 - 7/15/03)

Position after Fellowship: Graduate Student, Biomedical Informatics, Stanford University

Research: Dr. Rodriguez's main project was developing a flexible application to automate the management of metadata captured in Trial/DB, YCMI's clinical study data management system. He also participated in the development of data analysis software used by two microarray data management applications, Gene Cube and Cruella.

Ryan O'Connell, MD (7/16/01 - 7/15/03)

Position after Fellowship: Attending Physician, West Haven VA Hospital Emergency Department; Physician-Liaison, Information Technology, Bridgeport Hospital, Bridgeport, CT

Research: Dr. O'Connell worked on a project to map object-oriented software systems to relational databases in bioscience domains. He also participated in a study of differences in EHR satisfaction between Internal Medicine and Pediatrics clinics.

Peter Gershkovich, MD (11/1/00 - 10/31/02)

Position after Fellowship: Senior Database/Application Developer, Department of Pediatrics/IT Department, UMASS Medical School, Worcester, MA

Research: Dr. Gershkovich participated in the development of a Web-based application for processing microarray data with particular interests in issues of uploading large volumes of local experimental data and data extracted from public Web-based databases. He worked with Prof. Richard Shiffman on conversion of clinical guidelines into GEM (Guideline Element Module) and studied implementation methods for GEM-encoded clinical guidelines. He also worked on the implementation of asthma guidelines in the Logician system at Yale New Haven Hospital.

David Tuck, MD (9/1/00 - 8/31/02)

Position after Fellowship: Assistant Professor, Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine

Research: Dr. Tuck worked on developing tools for data management and analysis for bioinformatics projects involving DNA microarray and Tissue microarray research.

Aniruddha Deshpande, MD (7/13/00 - 6/30/02)

Position after Fellowship: Associate Research Scientist, Yale Center for Medical Informatics

Research: Dr. Deshpande's main project involved developing a Web-based interface to allow ad-hoc query of Entity-Attribute-Value (EAV) structured data stored in Yale's Trial/DB clinical research database. The EAV approach allows great flexibility to capture new types of data without the need to reprogram the database, but poses a set of interesting challenges for implementing efficient ad-hoc query of the data.

Nicholas Tosches, MD, MS (9/1/99 - 8/31/01)

Position after Fellowship: Associate Research Scientist, Yale Center for Medical Informatics

Research: Dr. Tosches worked with Prof. Perry Miller and members of the Department of Anesthesiology to expand ClinQuest, an application which provides topic-mediated linking between an electronic medical record (EMR) and Web-based information resources. He assisted in the development of a pre-anesthesia module for the Hospital's CCSS system (the EMR) and the integration of ClinQuest into CCSS. Dr. Tosches also worked with Prof. Kei Cheung on the yeast genome project on issues of database interoperability and the development of Web-accessible databases.

Abha Agrawal, MD (8/1/99 - 7/31/01)

Position after Fellowship: Director, Medical Informatics, Lown Cardiovascular Center and Research Foundation, Brookline, MA

Research: Dr. Agrawal worked with Prof. Richard Shiffman and others on the development of GEM (Guideline Element Module), an XML format for modeling clinical practice guidelines. She created a guideline quality assessment tool (GEM-Q) that can be used by guideline developers and implementers to evaluate fulfillment of predefined quality criteria. Dr. Agrawal was also involved in a project to develop a set of data elements and terms to be used for describing microarray experiments.

Bryant Karras, MD (8/1/98 - 8/31/00)

Position after Fellowship: Assistant Professor, Biomedical and Health Informatics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA

Research: Dr. Karras participated in a number of projects. As a member of the ambulatory care information system team, he had a active role in implementing Medicalogic’s Logician electronic medical record in outpatient clinics of Yale-New Haven Hospital. He worked on the YCMI Guideline Elements Model (GEM), an XML based approach to organizing and storing information contained in clinical practice guidelines. He worked with Prof. Richard Shiffman on the design and implementation of PalmAsthma, a handheld computing application which supports the chronic care of asthmatic children. Dr. Karras also helped the YCMI Trial/DB team with the refinement of this protocol authoring tool.

Sujai (Ron) Nath, MD (8/10/98 - 8/9/00)

Position after Fellowship: Product Manager, Apelon, Inc., Ridgefield, CT

Research: Dr. Nath worked on two projects involving XML applications. The first involved using XML and XQL tools to integrate web-accessible yeast genomic databases. As a member of the Guideline Elements Model (GEM) project, he assisted in the development of an XML format for modeling clinical practice guidelines. Dr Nath also worked on the PalmAsthma patient management application and participated on the medical center’s ambulatory care information system implementation team.

Luis Marenco, MD (7/1/99 - 6/30/00)

Position after Fellowship: Associate Research Scientist, Yale Center for Medical Informatics

Research: Dr. Marenco's primary project involved developing a flexible approach (Entity-Attribute-Value with Classes and Relationships - EAV/CR) to storing heterogeneous bioscience data, and to port four our of Human Brain Project neuroscience databases into that format.

David Stein, MD (1/12/98 - 1/11/00)

Position after Fellowship: Chief Medical Officer, Neuvis, Inc., Shelton , CT

Research: Dr. Stein worked on one project in the context of the VA clinical data repository exploring the relative contribution of coded and textual data in answering clinical queries. He also worked on a collaborative project involving the Department of Anesthesiology and the Yale Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, to explore how data from several institutional databases might be merged to answer specific clinical queries.

Roland Chen, MD, MS (12/1/97 - 10/31/99)

Position after Fellowship: Associate Research Scientist, Yale Center for Medical Informatics

Research: Dr. Chen worked on several projects. One involved exploring the use and design of an experimental clinical data repository containing data from the VA patient record, and using that data to develop strategies for testing the performance of the EAV/CR database approach. Another project involved developing a computer-based guideline for depression, working closely with Prof. Bruce Baker of Psychiatry, and using the program to assess compliance with the guideline in practice.

Emmanouil Skoufos, PhD (7/1/97 - 10/31/99)

Position after Fellowship: Senior Bioinformatics Consultant, 3rd Millennium, Inc., Cambridge

Research: Dr. Skoufos worked on three main projects. He helped develop and administer a set of databases centering around the olfactory system as part of our Human Brain Project work. He worked with Prof. Kidd on a genetics project which involves analyzing the sequences upstream from genes in a large sequence of DNA involving the homeobox region, looking for features such as regulatory motifs, with the additional goal of building computer-based tools to assist in that process. He also worked with Prof. Synder to analyze data relating to the yeast genome and test the hypotheses derived from these analyses experimentally in the laboratory.

Mark Mattie, MD, PhD (7/1/97 - 6/30/99)

Position after Fellowship: Associate Research Scientist, Yale Department of Pathology and Center for Medical Informatics

Research: Dr. Mattie's main activity involved developing PathMaster, a pathology cell-image database system. The database contains images obtained by digitally imaging cells, each indexed by computationally-derived descriptors. When a pathologist is confronted with a slide containing a cell whose diagnosis is uncertain, PathMaster can automatically compute descriptors for the unknown cell and retrieve images of "similar" cells from its database, as a "visual differential diagnosis" to help the user classify the unknown cell.

James Liu, MD (7/15/96 - 7/14/98)

Position after Fellowship: Health Teaching Fellow, Yale-China Association & Human Medical University (one year)

Research: Dr. Liu was involved in several projects. One project explored the use of fuzzy logic in representing clinical guideline knowledge. A second project involved developing enhancements and extensions to a pediatric health maintenance database and exploring data cleaning issues that occur in childhood immunization histories. In addition, Dr. Liu played a very active role in medical center wide clinical computing activities, including helping plan for the deployment of an ambulatory care information system within Yale New Haven Medical Center.

Yischon Liaw, MD (9/1/96 - 8/31/98)

Position after Fellowship: In transition

Research: Dr. Liaw worked on the AMOS Project (Asthma Management in the Outpatient Setting). He helped to complete the software for AsthMonitor, a hand-held, Newton-based system designed to facilitate guideline implementation, and participated in the clinical trial that assessed its effectiveness. As an active participant in the YCMI Guidelines Review Group, he was also involved in modeling generic processes in guideline implementation. Additionally, he prototyped the use of a pen-based system for data entry into SEURAT, a pediatric health maintenance database.

Cynthia Brandt, MD, MPH (10/23/95 - 8/31/97)

Position after Fellowship: Associate Research Scientist, Yale Center for Medical Informatics

Research: Dr. Brandt was involved in a number of projects. One project involved developing a model for visualizing the detailed logic contained in the CDC's guidelines for childhood immunization. A second project involved helping build SEURAT, which gathers clinical information in the YNHH Pediatric Primary Care Center using scannable forms. A third project involved helping in the design and implementation of ACT/DB, our clinical trials database.

Lori Fernandes, MD (10/26/95 - 8/31/97)

Position after Fellowship: Assistant Director, Yale Clinical Trials Office

Research: Dr. Fernandes worked on several projects. One project involved building a simulation model of the process of carrying out a clinical trial. A second project explored how semantic relations between clinical terms could help facilitate Web-based retrieval of information relevant to a particular patient's care.

Thomas J. Handler, MD (8/1/94 - 6/30/97)

Position after Fellowship: Senior Research Analyst, Gartner Group, Stamford, CT

Research: Dr. Handler worked on a number of projects. Several projects were with Dr. Carl Jaffe developing Computer-Aided Instruction modules designed for radiology residents and medical students. These included building a multimedia application involving images from nuclear medicine, his clinical specialty. He also worked extensively with the Department of Diagnostic Radiology helping plan for the implementation of a PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) at YNHMC.

Donald Miller, MD (8/22/94 - 8/12/96)

Position after Fellowship: Physician Executive, Cerner, Inc., Dallas, TX

Research: Dr. Donald Miller worked with Dr. Shiffman to implement a guideline for treatment of asthma on a hand held computing device (an Apple Newton). He also worked with Dr. Perry Miller to build a computer-based tool which uses semantic constraints to help verify the completeness of an expert system dealing with childhood immunization.

Alex Poljak, MD (7/1/94 - 6/30/96)

Position after Fellowship: Director of Medical Informatics Research and Development, MedLink, Inc., New York, NY

Research: Dr. Poljak was particularly interested in the use of hand-held computing in outpatient and emergency settings. He focused on two issues: 1) how best to display clinical data for different types of clinical problems, and 2) how to structure the relationship between clinical terms in a fashion that could help drive the organized gathering of data describing a patient's history and physical examination.

Joseph Kannry, MD (6/30/93 - 6/29/95)

Position after Fellowship: Assistant Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY

Research: Dr. Kannry worked on several projects. One project examined issues involved in mapping an existing structured controlled vocabulary, the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED) developed at Columbia University, to the laboratory and pharmacy vocabularies of Yale New Haven Hospital. This project also identified certain desirable features of a structured controlled vocabulary that could facilitate such a mapping process. A second project examined the feasibility of using a neural network to assist in bibliographic retrieval.

Jeremy Yim, MD (7/1/93 - 6/30/95)

Position after Fellowship: Fellow, Department of Neurology, Yale School of Medicine

Research: Dr. Yim's interests centered on the development of multi-media, computer-aided instructional programs in neurology. He developed programs dealing with movement disorders, stroke, and interventional neuroradiology. He was also involved in the development of a neurology outpatient database. Dr. Yim plans to continue his research in CAI and Internet-based, multimedia learning projects in neurology.

Scot Silverstein, MD (6/1/92 - 6/30/94)

Position after Fellowship: Associate Research Scientist, Center for Medical Informatics, Yale School of Medicine

Research: Dr. Silverstein worked on two main projects. One project involved exploring how the information sources map of the Unified Medical Language System project might be tailored to the domain of occupational and environmental medicine (OEM). His approach involved including domain-specific knowledge to allow a user to be directed to online information sources that might be relevant to an OEM topic of interest. The second project involved developing databases for gene mapping research, focusing in particular on how a graphical user interface outlining the database schema could help a computer-naive biologist formulate queries in a flexible, user-friendly fashion.

Mark G. Schippits, MD (7/1/92 - 6/30/94)

Position after Fellowship: Medical Informatics R&D Staff, Clinical Information Systems, Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Groton, CT

Research: Dr. Schippits worked on several projects. One project involved developing a set of clinical alerts and reminders for hematology for future incorporation into our patient care system. A second project involved helping in the development of a geriatrics information system at the Adler Geriatrics Center at Yale. An additional project involved developing MUPIT, a "multi-purpose image tool" which explored the types of capability useful for multimedia presentation of different types of clinical material, and also explored how such presentations might be composed easily by clinicians with little technical computer experience.

John Reinitz, PhD (2/1/91 - 3/30/93)

Position after Fellowship: Assistant Professor, Molecular Biology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine

Research: Dr. Reinitz worked closely with Prof. Eric Mjolsness (Computer Science), Prof. Leo Buss. (Biology and Geology and Geophysics), and Dr. David Sharp (Los Alamos National Laboratory) to develop a connectionist model of gene regulation, using gene expression data obtained from the laboratory to understand the regulatory relationships among genes during the blastoderm stage of development in Drosophila. Because these regulatory relationships are complex, a computer model is required to understand the large number of simultaneous regulatory interactions which take place.

Jay Lichter, PhD (7/1/91 - 3/31/92)

Position after Fellowship: Research Staff, DuPont

Research: Dr. Lichter worked on several projects involving database support for biological gene mapping activities. He also collaborated with YCMI staff to develop software tools to assist in interpreting experimental results in areas of restriction digest mapping and cosmid contig assembly.

John Jachna, MD (7/1/90 - 6/30/92)

Position after Fellowship: Assistant Professor, Psychiatry, University of Arizona School of Medicine

Research: Dr. Jachna's major interest centered on computer-based teaching in psychiatry. One project involved developing the MIST (Medical Information Sources Tutor) system, a prototype program which explores how to help a student learn to use online information resources in the context of reviewing an online psychiatric consultation case summary. A second project involved developing a set of computer-based simulations of cases encountered in the psychiatric emergency room. Dr. Jachna also participated in various activities involving the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) project, helping test and evaluate UMLS tools developed at Yale.

Lewis Berman, MD (9/1/90 - 6/30/92)

Position after Fellowship: Fellow, Pulmonary Medicine, Yale School of Medicine

Research: Dr. Berman worked on two projects. In one project, he collaborated with the Section of Occupational Medicine to create an expert system in the domain of occupational asthma, exploring how external databases could be integrated with an expert system to augment its ability to provide clinical assistance. In the second project, he collaborated with the Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine to help design and build an advanced ventilatory monitoring system. He plans to continue this work as the basis for designing more intelligent critical care monitoring and alarm systems.

Jeffrey Clyman, MD (9/1/88 - 6/30/91)

Position after Fellowship: Assistant Professor, Center for Medical Informatics, Yale School of Medicine

Research: Dr. Clyman worked on several projects. He supervised the clinical evaluation of the HT-Advisor program which critiques a physician's management of essential hypertension. He has also developed an advisor program in the field of hyperlipidemia management. This program was built using tools (which Dr. Clyman developed) which facilitate the construction of such systems.

Mark Shifman, MD, PhD (7/1/90 - 6/30/91)

Position after Fellowship: Assistant Professor, Center for Medical Informatics, Yale School of Medicine

Research: Dr. Shifman was involved in several projects. He developed a clinical consultation system which gives advice concerning hepatitis testing. A second project used the machine-independent parallel programming language, Linda, to parallelize molecular dynamics computations. He also helped lead a project to build databases and analytic tools for gene mapping data produced by several biological laboratories at Yale.

Sheldon Ball, MD, PhD (7/1/88 - 6/30/90)

Position after Fellowship: Assistant Professor of Pathology, University of Mississippi School of Medicine

Research: Dr. Ball used object-oriented programming techniques to make bioscience knowledge interactive. Concentrating on the domain of neurodegenerative disease, Dr. Ball implemented a prototype system that contains knowledge derived from the literature, and is able to answer questions flexibly about that knowledge. Knowledge is proliferating in bioscience but currently sits passively in articles, widely distributed, unrelated, and very difficult to access. Dr. Ball explored how this situation might be changed to make the knowledge much more accessible.

Aaron Cohn, MD (7/1/88 - 1/31/90)

Position after Fellowship: Resident, Yale Department of Anesthesiology; Assistant Professor, Anesthesiology, University of Texas at Galveston

Research: Dr. Cohn worked primarily on two projects. One is the IMAGE/ICON project, an expert system designed for use by radiologists. Dr. Cohn implemented AXON, a prototype system for the intelligent retrieval of images through use of "axes" of clinical relevance. Dr. Cohn also worked on the Intelligent Cardiovascular Monitor (ICM) project. A prototype of the ICM runs on a parallel computer. Dr. Cohn made a major contribution to the project by helping define clinical patterns (e.g., hypovolemia) as a set of temporally related states, each state reflecting different severities of the pattern.

Nolan Core, MD (7/1/87 - 6/30/89)

Position after Fellowship: Assistant Professor of Clinical Pathology, SUNY, Stonybrook, NY

Research: Dr. Core explored aspects of parallelizing biological sequence comparison algorithms. One project involved looking at a standard algorithm which uses dynamic programming techniques to match DNA sequences. Working with Dr. Joel Saltz (Computer Science), Dr. Core explored runtime optimization problems of adapting the parallelized algorithm to a particular problem size so as to optimize performance on a particular machine. A second project involved working with Dr. David Foulser (Computer Science) to use the position tree sequence comparison algorithm to match automatically areas of similarity among multiple sequences.

Paul Fisher, MD (7/1/86 - 6/30/88)

Position after Fellowship: Assistant Professor, Diagnostic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine

Research: Dr. Fisher's primary research project involved exploring how the Scripts formalism, developed by Prof. Roger Schank, could be used to model knowledge about lung tumors seen as solitary pulmonary nodules on chest x-rays. Separate scripts modeled the disease process from different perspectives, including the perspective of the disease itself, and the perspective of the workup process.