Immunotherapy delays type 1 diabetes in people at high risk
A drug that targets the immune system can delay the onset of type 1 diabetes in people at high risk of developing the disease, said a Yale investigator who led the National Institutes of Health-funded Diabetes TrialNet study. The research is the first to show that the progression of type 1 diabetes can be slowed by two or more years with immunotherapy.
Finally, Another Effective Drug for Kids and Teens with Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is on the rise in children and teens, but treatment options for pediatric patients have remained more limited than those available to adults. In its first pediatric trial, a new drug — already used by type 2 diabetic adults — has proven effective for blood sugar control in children and teens with type 2 diabetes.
Insulin Pump Changes Diabetes Treatment
Like many discoveries, the development of the first insulin pump was a combination of ingenuity and teamwork. In 1979, Yale doctors were conducting studies to figure out the best way to deliver insulin to children who suffer from diabetes. They discovered that giving small amounts continuously with larger doses at meals worked better than giving one large dose, because the smaller doses more closely resemble the way the pancreas produces insulin.
Human insulin as safe and effective to treat type 2 diabetes as costlier insulin analogs
Patients with Type 2 diabetes who were treated with the newer generation of insulin analog drugs did not have substantially better outcomes than those treated with less costly human insulin, according to a study by Yale School of Medicine researchers and colleagues at Kaiser Permanente.
High rates of HIV and diabetes raise the risk of TB for South Africans
Since the 1980s, HIV has contributed to an increase in tuberculosis (TB) cases across the globe. Recently, diabetes has been found to be an important risk factor for TB. In a new study, Yale researchers investigated whether having both HIV and diabetes increases the risk of developing TB among individuals living in rural South Africa.
Dr. Gerald Shulman wins American Diabetes Association’s highest honor
Dr. Gerald I. Shulman of the Yale School of Medicine has won the 2018 Banting Medal for Scientific Achievement, the highest honor of the American Diabetes Association (ADA). Shulman will be recognized for this honor and deliver his Banting Medal Lecture, “Mechanisms of Insulin Resistance: Implications for Obesity, Lipodystrophy and Type 2 Diabetes,” at the ADA’s 78th Scientific Sessions in Orlando, Florida, June 22-26.
Brain scans show why some type 1 diabetics miss low blood sugar cues
The brains of people with type 1 diabetes react differently to low blood sugar compared with healthy adults, say Yale researchers. The findings of their new study, published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, shed light on why many type 1 diabetics fail to respond to potentially dangerous drops in their blood sugar levels.
Leptin hormone spurs body’s shift from burning carbs to fat
To keep the human brain supplied with energy when food was scarce, mammals evolved the ability to switch from burning carbohydrates to burning fat in order to preserve skeletal muscle that would otherwise be metabolized and converted to glucose. Scientists have long believed that the transition to fat metabolism was instigated solely by a drop in insulin. But a new study has identified leptin — a hormone made by fat cells — as a key mediator in this fundamental biological process.
Study reveals how a very low calorie diet can reverse type 2 diabetes
In a new study, a Yale-led research team uncovers how a very low calorie diet can rapidly reverse type 2 diabetes in animal models. If confirmed in people, the insight provides potential new drug targets for treating this common chronic disease, said the researchers.
Lower brain glucose levels found in people with obesity, type 2 diabetes
Glucose levels are reduced in the brains of individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes compared to lean individuals, according to a new Yale study. The finding might explain disordered eating behavior — and even a higher risk of Alzheimer’s disease — among obese and diabetic individuals, the researchers said.
Artificial pancreas gets a trial run
Nine-year-old Summer Alba watched in rapt attention as the tour guide at the Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History animatedly outlined the profile of a bird-like dinosaur on a laminated sheet. As the guide described melanin and skin, one wonders whether Summer’s attention returned to the pod attached to her own skin—visible on her upper arm, and perhaps nearly forgotten. She was one of five children (aged nine to 11 years) and one adult participating in a five-day clinical trial for a system to manage type 1 diabetes; the pod is a discreet insulin dispenser.
To improve patient diets, the doctor is in … the kitchen
More and more primary care doctors are using the kitchen as the place to prescribe a powerful medicine: healthy food. With poor diets linked to many deaths from preventable diseases, research has found that changing diet and becoming more active can be more effective than medication in preventing disease.
New biomarkers help predict outcomes in diabetic kidney disease
A common complication of type 2 diabetes occurs when filters within the kidney are damaged, leading to an abnormal buildup of protein in urine and a decline in kidney function. This condition, called diabetic kidney disease, can lead to irreversible kidney failure that is currently difficult to predict. A team of researchers led by professor of medicine Dr. Chirag Parikh in collaboration a group at Icahn School of Health at Mount Sinai has recently made strides that could lead to improved diagnostics and treatment plans for this condition.