‘Prime and Spike’ Nasal Vaccine Strategy Helps Combat COVID
The new “prime” and “spike” approach may help prevent breakthrough infections of vaccinated individuals by bolstering immune response within the mucosal lining of the respiratory tract, which are the first cells attacked by COVID-19.Source: YaleNews
Calorie Reduction Lowers Protein Linked to the Aging Process
In a new study, Yale researchers show that moderate calorie restriction in people reduces the production of a protein called SPARC, which then reins in harmful inflammation and improves health in the aged. It could be a target for extending human health span, they report.
Vishwa Deep Dixit, DVM, PhD, Appointed Director of the Yale Center for Research on Aging (Y-Age) and Professor of Pathology at Yale Pathology
Vishwa Deep Dixit, DVM, PhD, the Waldemar Von Zedtwitz Professor of Comparative Medicine and Immunobiology at Yale School of Medicine, will be appointed as Director of the Yale Center for Research on Aging (Y-Age) and Professor of Pathology on January 1, 2022.
Yale Scientists Breach Brain Barriers to Attack Tumors
The brain is a sort of fortress, equipped with barriers designed to keep out dangerous pathogens. But protection comes at a cost: These barriers interfere with the immune system when faced with dire threats such glioblastoma, a deadly brain tumor for which there are few effective treatments.
Vishwa Deep Dixit appointed the Von Zedtwitz Professor of Comparative Medicine
Vishwa Deep Dixit, newly named as the Waldemar Von Zedtwitz Professor of Comparative Medicine, studies the interaction between immune and metabolic systems with the goal of revealing targets that can be harnessed to extend the healthspan — the period of life that is free of disabilities and disease.
Study: Topical antibiotic triggers unexpected antiviral response
A Yale-led research team made a startling discovery while investigating the effect of bacteria on viral infections. When they applied a common topical antibiotic to mice before or shortly after infection with herpes and other viruses, they found that the antibiotic triggered an antiviral resistance in the animals, the researchers said.
A synthetic approach to helping the immune system thwart infections
Yale researchers have developed a set of synthetic molecules that may help boost the strength of a key, virus-fighting protein. The protein, RIG-I, is an important sensor in the immune system of humans and other animals. It recognizes and responds to viral RNA by surrounding it, latching onto it, and launching the immune system into action. The Yale team, led by biologists Anna Pyle and Akiko Iwasaki, has designed molecules that jump-start the process. These synthetic, stem-loop RNA (SLR) molecules can be visualized as short cords with a knot at one end. The configuration enables the SLRs to bind with RIG-I molecules in a way that prompts an aggressive response.
Aging impairs innate immune response to flu
Aging impairs the immune system’s response to the flu virus in multiple ways, weakening resistance in older adults, according to a Yale study. The research reveals why older people are at increased risk of illness and death from flu, the researchers said.
Battling belly fat: Specialized immune cells impair metabolism in aging
In a new study, Yale researchers have described how nervous systems and immune systems talk to each other to control metabolism and inflammation. Their finding furthers scientists’ understanding of why older adults fail to burn stored belly fat, which raises the risk of chronic disease. The study also points to potential therapeutic approaches to target the problem, the researchers said.
Study pinpoints key pathway in inflammation and aging
In patients with colitis, a serious condition affecting the gut, the immune system turns against the body’s own microbes, causing inflammation. To combat this inflammation, scientists have focused in on a chemical signal known as IL-10. While it’s understood that IL-10 plays a critical role in controlling inflammation and preventing colitis, it’s not clear how.
Listening to the body: Study examines the effects of fasting on infections
When people get sick with viral or bacterial infections, they often lose their appetite or avoid certain foods. According to a new Yale study, such sickness-related food preferences may correlate with the type of infection and the type of diet the body requires to fight the infection. The study findings could have implications for how doctors treat patients with acute infections, the researchers said.
The New Science of Disease Recovery
When we get the flu, we feel miserable. We swallow pain relievers, drink lots of tea, slurp down chicken soup. None of these treatments actually eradicates the flu virus itself; our immune system eventually takes care of that. Instead, these remedies make us feel better by alleviating the symptoms: inflammation, dehydration, and congestion. “Most of what makes us sick is actually inflammation—the immune response—not the pathogen itself,” said Ruslan Medzhitov, an immunologist at Yale University.Source: The Atlantic
Research note: The immune system-body weight connection
A new Yale study, led by professor of immunobiology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator Akiko Iwasaki, identified a population of macrophages, a type of white blood cell, that resides within the fat tissue to maintain body weight.
Ruslan Medzhitov leads major research initiative on food allergies
Ruslan M. Medzhitov, the David W. Wallace Professor of Immunobiology at Yale School of Medicine, will lead a major research initiative to advance the basic science underlying food allergies in collaboration with partners at the Broad Institute of MIT, Harvard, and other institutions.
Yale study suggests that immune response to flu causes death in older people, not the virus
A new Yale-led study suggests that death from influenza virus in older people may be primarily caused by a damaging immune response to flu and not by the virus itself. The insight could lead to novel strategies for combating flu in the most vulnerable patients, said the researchers.
Outsmarting Herpes: Researchers Use the Body's Natural Defenses to Stop Outbreaks
Ever since receiving the first of two seed grants from Women’s Health Research at Yale in 2003, Dr. Akiko Iwasaki’s lab has established groundbreaking insights into the transmission, treatment and possible prevention of herpes.
New research helps explain why the ‘cold virus’ prefers cold temperatures
Ellen Foxman, MD, PhD, one of Laboratory Medicine’s physician-scientist trainees working with Dr. Akiko Iwasaki of the Department of Immunobiology, recently discovered that the common cold virus can reproduce more efficiently in the cooler temperature found inside the nose than at core body temperature. This finding may confirm the popular, yet contested, notion that people are more likely to catch a cold in cool-weather conditions. See the full article in Yale News and Dr. Foxman’s interview onSource: YaleNews
The Immune System and its Frontier Defense Against Herpes
"In August, associate research scientist Norifumi Iijima, Ph.D and Yale Professor of Immunobiology Akiko Iwasaki published a study providing evidence that a network of immune cells residing in the mucosa of the mouse vagina is required for full protection from lethal infection."Source: Yale Scientific