Members of the Sections of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgery conduct active research programs in both basic and clinical domains. The research activities cover a broad array of cardiac and thoracic physiology and pathology. Well-equipped laboratories are available. These activities provide opportunities for animal operations and work in biochemistry and mechanical engineering. The laboratories are staffed by several full-time basic scientists, surgical research fellows, and technical staff. Although finding the time to conduct independent research during our residency training programs can be challenging, research fellowships are available and the development of an academic career in cardiothoracic surgery is supported and encouraged.