Nathan Grubaugh, PhD

Assistant Professor

Research Departments & Organizations

School of Public Health: Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases | YSPH Global Health Concentration

Yale Institute for Global Health

Research Interests

Aedes; Arthropod Vectors; Chikungunya virus; Culex; Dengue Virus; Directed Molecular Evolution; Disease Outbreaks; Epidemiology; Genetics, Microbial; Molecular Sequence Data; RNA Viruses; West Nile virus

Research Summary

Mosquito-borne viruses, such as Zika, West Nile, and chikungunya, continue to emerge into new areas, and sometimes, they surprise us by causing large outbreaks and severe disease. We use genomics to investigate how they spread (genomic epidemiology), cause disease (functional evolution), and adapt to new environments (experimental evolution). Together, these studies can help us better understand and respond to outbreaks. Learn more about our research at grubaughlab.com

Selected Publications

  • Tracking virus outbreaks in the twenty-first century.

    Grubaugh ND, Ladner JT, Lemey P, Pybus OG, Rambaut A, Holmes EC, Andersen KG. Tracking virus outbreaks in the twenty-first century. Nature Microbiology 2019, 4:10-19. 2019

  • Genomic Insights into Zika Virus Emergence and Spread.

    Grubaugh ND, Faria NR, Andersen KG, Pybus OG. Genomic Insights into Zika Virus Emergence and Spread. Cell 2018, 172:1160-1162. 2018

  • Inferring the risk factors behind the geographical spread and transmission of Zika in the Americas.

    Gardner LM, Bóta A, Gangavarapu K, Kraemer MUG, Grubaugh ND. Inferring the risk factors behind the geographical spread and transmission of Zika in the Americas. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 2018, 12:e0006194. 2018

  • Common PIEZO1 Allele in African Populations Causes RBC Dehydration and Attenuates Plasmodium Infection.

    Ma S, Cahalan S, LaMonte G, Grubaugh ND, Zeng W, Murthy SE, Paytas E, Gamini R, Lukacs V, Whitwam T, Loud M, Lohia R, Berry L, Khan SM, Janse CJ, Bandell M, Schmedt C, Wengelnik K, Su AI, Honore E, Winzeler EA, Andersen KG, Patapoutian A. Common PIEZO1 Allele in African Populations Causes RBC Dehydration and Attenuates Plasmodium Infection. Cell 2018, 173:443-455.e12. 2018

  • Genomic epidemiology reveals multiple introductions of Zika virus into the United States.

    Grubaugh ND, Ladner JT, Kraemer MUG, Dudas G, Tan AL, Gangavarapu K, Wiley MR, White S, Thézé J, Magnani DM, Prieto K, Reyes D, Bingham AM, Paul LM, Robles-Sikisaka R, Oliveira G, Pronty D, Barcellona CM, Metsky HC, Baniecki ML, Barnes KG, Chak B, Freije CA, Gladden-Young A, Gnirke A, Luo C, MacInnis B, Matranga CB, Park DJ, Qu J, Schaffner SF, Tomkins-Tinch C, West KL, Winnicki SM, Wohl S, Yozwiak NL, Quick J, Fauver JR, Khan K, Brent SE, Reiner RC, Lichtenberger PN, Ricciardi MJ, Bailey VK, Watkins DI, Cone MR, Kopp EW, Hogan KN, Cannons AC, Jean R, Monaghan AJ, Garry RF, Loman NJ, Faria NR, Porcelli MC, Vasquez C, Nagle ER, Cummings DAT, Stanek D, Rambaut A, Sanchez-Lockhart M, Sabeti PC, Gillis LD, Michael SF, Bedford T, Pybus OG, Isern S, Palacios G, Andersen KG. Genomic epidemiology reveals multiple introductions of Zika virus into the United States. Nature 2017, 546:401-405. 2017

  • Establishment and cryptic transmission of Zika virus in Brazil and the Americas.

    Faria NR, Quick J, Claro IM, Thézé J, de Jesus JG, Giovanetti M, Kraemer MUG, Hill SC, Black A, da Costa AC, Franco LC, Silva SP, Wu CH, Raghwani J, Cauchemez S, du Plessis L, Verotti MP, de Oliveira WK, Carmo EH, Coelho GE, Santelli ACFS, Vinhal LC, Henriques CM, Simpson JT, Loose M, Andersen KG, Grubaugh ND, Somasekar S, Chiu CY, Muñoz-Medina JE, Gonzalez-Bonilla CR, Arias CF, Lewis-Ximenez LL, Baylis SA, Chieppe AO, Aguiar SF, Fernandes CA, Lemos PS, Nascimento BLS, Monteiro HAO, Siqueira IC, de Queiroz MG, de Souza TR, Bezerra JF, Lemos MR, Pereira GF, Loudal D, Moura LC, Dhalia R, França RF, Magalhães T, Marques ET, Jaenisch T, Wallau GL, de Lima MC, Nascimento V, de Cerqueira EM, de Lima MM, Mascarenhas DL, Neto JPM, Levin AS, Tozetto-Mendoza TR, Fonseca SN, Mendes-Correa MC, Milagres FP, Segurado A, Holmes EC, Rambaut A, Bedford T, Nunes MRT, Sabino EC, Alcantara LCJ, Loman NJ, Pybus OG. Establishment and cryptic transmission of Zika virus in Brazil and the Americas. Nature 2017, 546:406-410. 2017

  • Zika virus evolution and spread in the Americas.

    Metsky HC, Matranga CB, Wohl S, Schaffner SF, Freije CA, Winnicki SM, West K, Qu J, Baniecki ML, Gladden-Young A, Lin AE, Tomkins-Tinch CH, Ye SH, Park DJ, Luo CY, Barnes KG, Shah RR, Chak B, Barbosa-Lima G, Delatorre E, Vieira YR, Paul LM, Tan AL, Barcellona CM, Porcelli MC, Vasquez C, Cannons AC, Cone MR, Hogan KN, Kopp EW, Anzinger JJ, Garcia KF, Parham LA, Ramírez RMG, Montoya MCM, Rojas DP, Brown CM, Hennigan S, Sabina B, Scotland S, Gangavarapu K, Grubaugh ND, Oliveira G, Robles-Sikisaka R, Rambaut A, Gehrke L, Smole S, Halloran ME, Villar L, Mattar S, Lorenzana I, Cerbino-Neto J, Valim C, Degrave W, Bozza PT, Gnirke A, Andersen KG, Isern S, Michael SF, Bozza FA, Souza TML, Bosch I, Yozwiak NL, MacInnis BL, Sabeti PC. Zika virus evolution and spread in the Americas. Nature 2017, 546:411-415. 2017

  • Multiplex PCR method for MinION and Illumina sequencing of Zika and other virus genomes directly from clinical samples.

    Quick J, Grubaugh ND, Pullan ST, Claro IM, Smith AD, Gangavarapu K, Oliveira G, Robles-Sikisaka R, Rogers TF, Beutler NA, Burton DR, Lewis-Ximenez LL, de Jesus JG, Giovanetti M, Hill SC, Black A, Bedford T, Carroll MW, Nunes M, Alcantara LC, Sabino EC, Baylis SA, Faria NR, Loose M, Simpson JT, Pybus OG, Andersen KG, Loman NJ. Multiplex PCR method for MinION and Illumina sequencing of Zika and other virus genomes directly from clinical samples. Nature Protocols 2017, 12:1261-1276. 2017

  • Experimental Evolution to Study Virus Emergence.

    Grubaugh ND, Andersen KG. Experimental Evolution to Study Virus Emergence. Cell 2017, 169:1-3. 2017

  • Mosquitoes Transmit Unique West Nile Virus Populations during Each Feeding Episode.

    Grubaugh ND, Fauver JR, Rückert C, Weger-Lucarelli J, Garcia-Luna S, Murrieta RA, Gendernalik A, Smith DR, Brackney DE, Ebel GD. Mosquitoes Transmit Unique West Nile Virus Populations during Each Feeding Episode. Cell Reports 2017, 19:709-718. 2017

  • Ebola Virus Glycoprotein with Increased Infectivity Dominated the 2013-2016 Epidemic.

    Diehl WE, Lin AE, Grubaugh ND, Carvalho LM, Kim K, Kyawe PP, McCauley SM, Donnard E, Kucukural A, McDonel P, Schaffner SF, Garber M, Rambaut A, Andersen KG, Sabeti PC, Luban J. Ebola Virus Glycoprotein with Increased Infectivity Dominated the 2013-2016 Epidemic. Cell 2016, 167:1088-1098.e6. 2016

  • Transmission bottlenecks and RNAi collectively influence tick-borne flavivirus evolution.

    Grubaugh ND, Rückert C, Armstrong PM, Bransfield A, Anderson JF, Ebel GD, Brackney DE. Transmission bottlenecks and RNAi collectively influence tick-borne flavivirus evolution. Virus Evolution 2016, 2:vew033. 2016

  • Navigating the Zika panic.

    Grubaugh ND, Andersen KG. Navigating the Zika panic. F1000Research 2016, 5:1914. 2016

  • Dynamics of West Nile virus evolution in mosquito vectors.

    Grubaugh ND, Ebel GD. Dynamics of West Nile virus evolution in mosquito vectors. Current Opinion In Virology 2016, 21:132-138. 2016

  • Genetic Drift during Systemic Arbovirus Infection of Mosquito Vectors Leads to Decreased Relative Fitness during Host Switching.

    Grubaugh ND, Weger-Lucarelli J, Murrieta RA, Fauver JR, Garcia-Luna SM, Prasad AN, Black WC, Ebel GD. Genetic Drift during Systemic Arbovirus Infection of Mosquito Vectors Leads to Decreased Relative Fitness during Host Switching. Cell Host & Microbe 2016, 19:481-92. 2016

  • Experimental evolution of an RNA virus in wild birds: evidence for host-dependent impacts on population structure and competitive fitness.

    Grubaugh ND, Smith DR, Brackney DE, Bosco-Lauth AM, Fauver JR, Campbell CL, Felix TA, Romo H, Duggal NK, Dietrich EA, Eike T, Beane JE, Bowen RA, Black WC, Brault AC, Ebel GD. Experimental evolution of an RNA virus in wild birds: evidence for host-dependent impacts on population structure and competitive fitness. PLoS Pathogens 2015, 11:e1004874. 2015

  • Xenosurveillance: a novel mosquito-based approach for examining the human-pathogen landscape.

    Grubaugh ND, Sharma S, Krajacich BJ, Fakoli LS, Bolay FK, Diclaro JW, Johnson WE, Ebel GD, Foy BD, Brackney DE. Xenosurveillance: a novel mosquito-based approach for examining the human-pathogen landscape. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 2015, 9:e0003628. 2015

  • Multi-gene detection and identification of mosquito-borne RNA viruses using an oligonucleotide microarray.

    Grubaugh ND, McMenamy SS, Turell MJ, Lee JS. Multi-gene detection and identification of mosquito-borne RNA viruses using an oligonucleotide microarray. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 2013, 7:e2349. 2013

  • Evaluation of a field-portable DNA microarray platform and nucleic acid amplification strategies for the detection of arboviruses, arthropods, and bloodmeals.

    Grubaugh ND, Petz LN, Melanson VR, McMenamy SS, Turell MJ, Long LS, Pisarcik SE, Kengluecha A, Jaichapor B, O'Guinn ML, Lee JS. Evaluation of a field-portable DNA microarray platform and nucleic acid amplification strategies for the detection of arboviruses, arthropods, and bloodmeals. The American Journal Of Tropical Medicine And Hygiene 2013, 88:245-53. 2013

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Contact Info

Nathan Grubaugh, PhD
Lab Location
LEPH 60760 College Street
New Haven, CT 06510
Office Location
LEPH 20960 College Street
New Haven, CT 06510
Mailing Address
60 College St
LEPH 209

New Haven, CT 06510

Grubuagh Lab

Research Image 1

The Grubaugh Lab uses genomics to investigate how mosquito-borne viruses, like Zika, dengue, and chikungunya, spread (genomic epidemiology), cause disease (functional evolution), and adapt to new environments (experimental evolution).