Research Departments & Organizations
Professor Marks develops quantitative, psychophysical models to account for sensory and perceptual responses to environmental stimuli. His current research is directed in particular at elucidating the mechanisms by which perceptual systems combine information from multiple sensory modalities and by which cognitive processes then modify and modulate perceptual information. Of special interest are the mechanisms of multisensory integration and interaction involved in the perception of flavors. The flavors of foods and beverages come partly from molecules that stimulate gustatory (taste) receptors on the tongue, but importantly – often most importantly – from molecules that stimulate olfactory receptors in the nose. Cognitive processes are also important, as flavor perception depends not only on sensory signals, but also, for example, on verbal labels, which modulate expectations, and on processes underlying perceptual decision-making, The perception of flavor is a critical factor controlling the intake of food. And the intake of food, in turn, is critical to the energy balance of the body, a topic central to the current mission of the John B. Pierce Laboratory.
Extensive Research Description
- Mechanisms of Multisensory Flavor Identification
- Interactions of Cognitive and Sensory Processes in Flavor Perception
Identification of gustatory-olfactory flavor mixtures: effects of linguistic labeling.
Brewer JM, Shavit AY, Shepard TG, Veldhuizen MG, Parikh R, Marks LE. Identification of gustatory-olfactory flavor mixtures: effects of linguistic labeling. Chemical Senses 2013, 38:305-13. 2013
Synesthesia, at and near its borders.
Marks LE, Mulvenna CM. Synesthesia, at and near its borders. Frontiers In Psychology 2013, 4:651. 2013
Weak synesthesia in the general population
Marks, L.E. (2013). In J. Simner and E. Hubbard (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Synesthesia. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 761-789. 2013
Response Times to Gustatory-Olfactory Flavor Mixtures: Role of Congruence.
Shepard TG, Veldhuizen MG, Marks LE. Response Times to Gustatory-Olfactory Flavor Mixtures: Role of Congruence. Chemical Senses 2015, 40:565-75. 2015
Contextual effects in judgments of taste intensity: No assimilation, sometimes contrast.
Shepard, T.G, Shavit, A.Y., Veldhuizen, M.G., & Marks, L.E. (2017) Perception, 46, 268-282 2017
Synesthesia: Then and now
Marks, L.E. (2017). Synesthesia: Then and now. In O. Deroy (Ed.), Sensory Blending: On Synaesthesia and Related Phenomena. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 13-44. 2017
Synesthesia: A teeming multiplicity
Marks, L.E. (2014). Synesthesia: A teeming multiplicity. In E. Cardeña, S.J. Lynn, & S.C. Krippner (Eds.), Varieties of Anomalous Experience: Examining the Scientific Evidence, Revised Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, pp. 79-108. 2014
The semantic basis of taste-shape associations
Velasco, C., Woods, A.T., Marks, L.E., Cheok, A.D, & Spence, C. (2016). The semantic basis of taste-shape associations. PeerJ, 4:e1644 (online). 2016
Flavor identification and intensity: Effects of stimulus context
Hallowell, E.S., Parikh, R., Veldhuizen, M.G., & Marks, L.E. (2016). Flavor identification and intensity: Effects of stimulus context. Chemical Senses, 41, 249-259. 2016
Lower pitch is larger, yet falling pitches shrink: Interaction of pitch change and size change in speeded discrimination
Eitan, Z., Schupak, A., Gotler, A., & Marks, L.E. (2014). Lower pitch is larger, yet falling pitches shrink: Interaction of pitch change and size change in speeded discrimination. Experimental Psychology, 61, 273-284 2014