Journal: The Journal of Arthroplasty
Who: Stephen M. Gillinov, AB; Patrick J. Burroughs, MD; Harold G. Moore, BS; Lee E. Rubin, MD; David B. Frumberg, MD; Jonathan N. Grauer, MD
Overview: Patients with classic hemophilia can develop joint hemarthroses, degenerative changes, and eventually require total hip arthroplasty (THA). Little data exist concerning THA outcomes in this population, and evidence-based guidelines specifically addressing venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in this population are lacking.
A retrospective study was conducted using the 2010-2020 PearlDiver MHip database. Patients undergoing primary THA were identified, and those with classic hemophilia were matched 1:10 with non-hemophilia patients based on age, gender, and Elixhauser Comorbidity Index. Ninety-day serious adverse events, minor adverse events, and any adverse events were compared with multivariate analysis. Reoperation at 5 years was assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis.
Five hundred eighteen classic hemophilia THA patients were matched 1:10 with 5,193 non-hemophilia patients. On multivariate analysis, those with classic hemophilia had greater odds of aggregated any adverse events (odds ratio [OR] 1.76), serious adverse events (OR 2.30), and minor adverse events (OR 1.52) (P < .001 for each). Patients with classic hemophilia had greater odds of bleeding issues (transfusion, OR 1.98; hematoma, OR 4.23; P < .001 for both), VTE (deep vein thrombosis, OR 2.67; pulmonary embolism, OR 4.01; P < .001 for both), and acute kidney injury (OR 1.63; P = .03). Five-year implant survival was lower in hemophilia patients (91.9%) relative to matched controls (95.3%; P = .009).
Hemophilia patients undergoing THA had elevated risks of both 90-day bleeding complications (transfusion and hematoma) and VTE (deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) relative to matched controls. These findings emphasize the need to balance factor replacement and VTE prophylaxis. Although the 5-year implant survival was lower in hemophilia patients, this represented a difference of 3.4% at 5 years, suggesting that THA remains effective in this cohort.