Dr. Stachenfeld's Lab

Research Interests

The regulation of body fluid and sodium content involves the integration of several physiological systems. One important system controls water and sodium output and/or reabsorption by the kidneys. A number of investigations have found that hormones involved primarily in reproductive function, specifically estrogen and progesterone, have important effects on the systems that regulate body fluid balance.

Estrogen, for example, can alter the "set point" around which the thirst mechanism and kidney water reabsorptive functions regulate body fluid content. Progesterone appears to affect body fluid content through its impact on the hormones that regulate body sodium content. The study of these hormones is challenging in young women because estrogen and progesterone fluctuate during the menstrual cycle. 

Consequently, we have examined these systems in older post-menopausal, women before and during treatment with estrogen. We have also used the birth control pill to control the levels of estrogen and progesterone in young women. Most recently we have used medications to temporarily suppress the menstrual cycle in young women while adding back estrogen and/or progesterone to study the effects of these hormones on body fluid regulation under more controlled conditions. Our most recent studies have examined estrogen, progesterone and testosterone effects on endothelial function by using the skin as a model for the cardiovascular system. Our studies include young healthy controls and women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

Lab Members

Bio Profile

Nina Stachenfeld, PhD

Principal Investigator

Senior Research Scientist in Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences

Research Interests

Blood Pressure; Environment and Public Health; Gynecology; Orthostatic Intolerance; Physiology; Polycystic Ovary Syndrome; Reproductive Medicine

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Stachenfeld NS: Independent Effect of High Aerobic Capacity To Protect Against Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance in Male Rats. Endocrinology. 2019 Jun 1. PMID: 31046086

Usselman CW, Yarovinsky TO, Steele FE, Leone CA, Taylor HS, Bender JR, Stachenfeld NS: Androgens drive microvascular endothelial dysfunction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: role of the endothelin B receptor. J Physiol. 2019 Jun; 2019 Mar 27. PMID: 30847930

Flores VA, Leone C, Taylor HS, Stachenfeld NS: Effects of bazedoxifene/conjugated estrogens on reproductive endocrinology and reproductive tract ultrasonographic appearance in premenopausal women: a preliminary study. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2019 May; 2019 Jan 22. PMID: 30668182

Stanhewicz AE, Wenner MM, Stachenfeld NS: Sex differences in endothelial function important to vascular health and overall cardiovascular disease risk across the lifespan. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2018 Dec 1; 2018 Sep 14. PMID: 30216121

Adler TE, Usselman CW, Takamata A, Stachenfeld NS: Blood pressure predicts endothelial function and the effects of ethinyl estradiol exposure in young women. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2018 Oct 1; 2018 Jun 15. PMID: 29906227

Stachenfeld NS: Including women in research. It's necessary, and really not so hard to do. Exp Physiol. 2018 Oct; 2018 Sep 9. PMID: 30079983

Flores VA, Stachenfeld NS, Taylor HS: Bazedoxifene-Conjugated Estrogens for Treating Endometriosis. Obstet Gynecol. 2018 Aug. PMID: 29995747

Wenner MM, Hinds KA, Howard JT, Nawn CD, Stachenfeld NS, Convertino VA: Measurement of compensatory reserve predicts racial differences in tolerance to simulated hemorrhage in women. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2018 Jul. PMID: 29443858

Stachenfeld NS, Leone CA, Mitchell ES, Freese E, Harkness L: Water intake reverses dehydration associated impaired executive function in healthy young women. Physiol Behav. 2018 Mar 1; 2017 Dec 23. PMID: 29277553

Turner JM, Marsteller DA, Luxkaranayagam AT, Fletcher JM, Stachenfeld NS: Mild exercise in female subjects impairs complex learning independent of hydration status and emotion. Physiol Behav. 2017 Oct 15; 2017 Aug 23. PMID: 28842190

Usselman CW, Stachenfeld NS: Contribution of Increased Angiotensin II Sensitivity to Microvascular Dysfunction in Women With a History of Preeclampsia. Hypertension. 2017 Aug; 2017 Jun 26. PMID: 28652470

Gunduz-Bruce H, Kenney J, Changlani S, Peixoto A, Gueorguieva R, Leone C, Stachenfeld N: A translational approach for NMDA receptor profiling as a vulnerability biomarker for depression and schizophrenia. Exp Physiol. 2017 May 1; 2017 Apr 12. PMID: 28294453

DiPietro L, Stachenfeld NS, Feingold KR, Anawalt B, Boyce A, Chrousos G, Dungan K, Grossman A, Hershman JM, Kaltsas G, Koch C, Kopp P, Korbonits M, McLachlan R, Morley JE, New M, Perreault L, Purnell J, Rebar R, Singer F, Trence DL, Vinik A, Wilson DP: Exercise Treatment of Obesity 2000. PMID: 25905196

Charkoudian N, Stachenfeld N: Sex hormone effects on autonomic mechanisms of thermoregulation in humans. Auton Neurosci. 2016 Apr; 2015 Nov 30. PMID: 26674572

Stachenfeld NS: Sex hormone effects on autonomic and endothelial function. Exp Physiol. 2016 Mar. PMID: 27511123

Usselman CW, Stachenfeld NS, Bender JR: The molecular actions of oestrogen in the regulation of vascular health. Exp Physiol. 2016 Mar. PMID: 26778523

Sladek CD, Michelini LC, Stachenfeld NS, Stern JE, Urban JH: Endocrine-Autonomic Linkages. Compr Physiol. 2015 Jul 1. PMID: 26140719

Wenner MM, Taylor HS, Stachenfeld NS: Peripheral Microvascular Vasodilatory Response to Estradiol and Genistein in Women with Insulin Resistance. Microcirculation. 2015 Jul. PMID: 25996650

Platts SH, Bairey Merz CN, Barr Y, Fu Q, Gulati M, Hughson R, Levine BD, Mehran R, Stachenfeld N, Wenger NK: Effects of sex and gender on adaptation to space: cardiovascular alterations. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2014 Nov. PMID: 25401939

Alian AA, Galante NJ, Stachenfeld NS, Silverman DG, Shelley KH: Impact of lower body negative pressure induced hypovolemia on peripheral venous pressure waveform parameters in healthy volunteers. Physiol Meas. 2014 Jul; 2014 Jun 5. PMID: 24901895

Horvath TL, Stachenfeld NS, Diano S: A temperature hypothesis of hypothalamus-driven obesity. Yale J Biol Med. 2014 Jun; 2014 Jun 6. PMID: 24910560

Stachenfeld NS: Hormonal changes during menopause and the impact on fluid regulation. Reprod Sci. 2014 May; 2014 Feb 3. PMID: 24492487

Stachenfeld NS: The interrelationship of research in the laboratory and the field to assess hydration status and determine mechanisms involved in water regulation during physical activity. Sports Med. 2014 May. PMID: 24791921

Stachenfeld NS, Taylor HS: Challenges and methodology for testing young healthy women in physiological studies. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Apr 15; 2014 Feb 25. PMID: 24569589

Charkoudian N, Stachenfeld NS: Reproductive hormone influences on thermoregulation in women. Compr Physiol. 2014 Apr. PMID: 24715568

Wenner MM, Taylor HS, Stachenfeld NS: Androgens influence microvascular dilation in PCOS through ET-A and ET-B receptors. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Oct 1; 2013 Aug 6. PMID: 23921139

Wenner MM, Haddadin AS, Taylor HS, Stachenfeld NS: Mechanisms contributing to low orthostatic tolerance in women: the influence of oestradiol. J Physiol. 2013 May 1; 2013 Feb 11. PMID: 23401618

Wenner MM, Stachenfeld NS: Blood pressure and water regulation: understanding sex hormone effects within and between men and women. J Physiol. 2012 Dec 1; 2012 Oct 1. PMID: 23027816

Noonan B, Stachenfeld N: The effects of undergarment composition worn beneath hockey protective equipment on high-intensity intermittent exercise. J Strength Cond Res. 2012 Sep. PMID: 22706578

Selvaraj N, Shelley KH, Silverman DG, Stachenfeld N, Chon KH: Autonomic control mechanism of maximal lower body negative pressure application. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012. PMID: 23366586

Wenner MM, Wilson TE, Davis SL, Stachenfeld NS: Pharmacological curve fitting to analyze cutaneous adrenergic responses. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2011 Dec; 2011 Aug 25. PMID: 21868682

Alian AA, Galante NJ, Stachenfeld NS, Silverman DG, Shelley KH: Impact of central hypovolemia on photoplethysmographic waveform parameters in healthy volunteers part 2: frequency domain analysis. J Clin Monit Comput. 2011 Dec; 2011 Nov 6. PMID: 22057245

Alian AA, Galante NJ, Stachenfeld NS, Silverman DG, Shelley KH: Impact of central hypovolemia on photoplethysmographic waveform parameters in healthy volunteers. Part 1: time domain analysis. J Clin Monit Comput. 2011 Dec; 2011 Nov 4. PMID: 22051898

Wenner MM, Taylor HS, Stachenfeld NS: Endothelin B receptor contribution to peripheral microvascular function in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Physiol. 2011 Oct 1; 2011 Aug 8. PMID: 21825025

Selvaraj N, Shelley KH, Silverman DG, Stachenfeld N, Galante N, Florian JP, Mendelson Y, Chon K: A novel approach using time-frequency analysis of pulse-oximeter data to detect progressive hypovolemia in spontaneously breathing healthy subjects. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2011 Aug; 2011 Apr 21. PMID: 21518656

Wenner MM, Taylor HS, Stachenfeld NS: Progesterone enhances adrenergic control of skin blood flow in women with high but not low orthostatic tolerance. J Physiol. 2011 Feb 15; 2010 Dec 20. PMID: 21173076

Moore CL, Tham ET, Samuels KJ, McNamara RL, Galante NJ, Stachenfeld N, Shelley K, Dziura J, Silverman DG: Tissue Doppler of early mitral filling correlates with simulated volume loss in healthy subjects. Acad Emerg Med. 2010 Nov. PMID: 21175513

Stachenfeld NS, Yeckel CW, Taylor HS: Greater exercise sweating in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome compared with obese controls. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010 Sep. PMID: 20195177

Hinds K, Stachenfeld NS: Greater orthostatic tolerance in young black compared with white women. Hypertension. 2010 Jul; 2010 May 10. PMID: 20458005

Stachenfeld NS, Taylor HS: Sex hormone effects on body fluid and sodium regulation in women with and without exercise-associated hyponatremia. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009 Sep; 2009 Jun 25. PMID: 19556454

Stachenfeld NS, Taylor H: Role of polycystic ovary syndrome in menstrual dysfunction in female athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009 Jun. PMID: 19461543

Stachenfeld NS: Acute effects of sodium ingestion on thirst and cardiovascular function. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2008 Jul-Aug. PMID: 18843231

Stachenfeld NS: Sex hormone effects on body fluid regulation. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2008 Jul. PMID: 18580296

Van Gelder CM, Pranger LA, Wiesmann WP, Stachenfeld N, Bogucki S: An experimental model of heat storage in working firefighters. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2008 Apr-Jun. PMID: 18379922

Noonan B, Mack G, Stachenfeld N: The effects of hockey protective equipment on high-intensity intermittent exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007 Aug. PMID: 17762366

Stachenfeld NS, Taylor HS: Exogenous oestradiol and progesterone administration does not cause oedema in healthy young women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2007 Mar. PMID: 17302877

American College of Sports Medicine., Sawka MN, Burke LM, Eichner ER, Maughan RJ, Montain SJ, Stachenfeld NS: American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and fluid replacement. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007 Feb. PMID: 17277604

Loucks AB, Stachenfeld NS, DiPietro L: The female athlete triad: do female athletes need to take special care to avoid low energy availability? Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006 Oct. PMID: 17019289

DiPietro L, Stachenfeld NS: The female athlete triad myth. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006 Apr. PMID: 16679999

D'Ambrosio C, Stachenfeld NS, Pisani M, Mohsenin V: Sleep, breathing, and menopause: the effect of fluctuating estrogen and progesterone on sleep and breathing in women. Gend Med. 2005 Dec. PMID: 16464735

Di Pietro L, Stachenfeld N, Pierce JB: The female athlete triad revisited. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005 Sep. PMID: 16177622

Stachenfeld NS, Taylor HS: Progesterone increases plasma volume independent of estradiol. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2005 Jun; 2005 Feb 17. PMID: 15718411

Stachenfeld NS, Keefe DL, Taylor HS: Responses to a saline load in gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist-pretreated premenopausal women receiving progesterone or estradiol-progesterone therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Jan; 2004 Oct 14. PMID: 15486051

Stachenfeld NS, Taylor HS: Effects of estrogen and progesterone administration on extracellular fluid. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2004 Mar; 2003 Dec 5. PMID: 14660504

Stachenfeld NS, Taylor HS, Leone CA, Keefe DL: Oestrogen effects on urine concentrating response in young women. J Physiol. 2003 Nov 1; 2003 Aug 15. PMID: 12923212

Stachenfeld NS, Keefe DL: Estrogen effects on osmotic regulation of AVP and fluid balance. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Oct. PMID: 12217888

Stachenfeld NS, Gleim GW, Nicholas JA: Endurance Training. Phys Sportsmed. 1992 Aug. PMID: 29272683