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Transgenic Techniques

The efforts of Kroll and Amaya have brought transgenics to Xenopus.

The shorter generation time of X. tropicalis allows for production of transgenic lines, as well as the study of cis-acting regulatory elements possibly affecting gene expression.

The transgenic technique offers another alternative to microinjection for the mis-expression of particular mRNAs. The technique can be particularly powerful for manipulating later stage embryos. Additionally, inducible promoters and the Gal4-UAS system have been shown to work in Xenopus.

For a transgenic protocol tailored to X. tropicalis, we recommend the following sources:

Amaya site - also contains a gallery of transgenic embryos
Grainger site - or directly to their protocol

Also see the following references:
Hirsch et al. 2002
Offield et. al 2000

The inducible promoter and Gal4-UAS system are described in:

Chae et al. 2002
Hartley et al 2002