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  • Groman S, Massi B, Mathias S, Curry D, Lee D, and Taylor JR (2019) Neurochemical and behavioral dissections of decision-making in a rodent multi-stage task. Journal of Neuroscience 39:295-306. [pdf file] [web]
  • Groman SM, Massi B, Mathias SR, Lee D, Taylor JR (2019) Model-free and model-based influences in addiction-related behaviors. Biological Psychiatry. In press. [pdf file] [web]
  • Groman SM, Keistler C, Keip AJ, Hammarlund E, DiLeone RJ, Pittenger C, Lee D, and Taylor JR (2019) Orbitofrontal circuits control multiple reinforcement-learning processes. Neuron. In press.

Frequently Asked Questions

2018 (3)

  • Massi B, Donahue CH, Lee D (2018) Volatility facilitates value updating in the prefrontal cortex. Neuron 99: 598-608 [pdf file] [web]
  • Constantinidis C, Funahashi S, Lee D, Murray J, Qi X-L, Wang M, Arnsten A (2018) Persistent spiking activity underlies working memory. Journal of Neuroscience 38(32): 7020-7028 [pdf file] [web]
  • Groman SM, Rich KA, Smith NJ, Lee D, Taylor JR (2018) Chronic exposure to methamphetamine disrupts reinforcement-based decision-making in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology 43: 770–780 [pdf file] [web]

2017 (7)

  • Arnsten AFT, Lee D, and Pittenger C (2017) Risky business: the circuits that impact stress-induced decision-making. Cell 171: 992-993. [pdf file] [web]
  • Zhang Z, Fanning J, Ehrlich DB, Chen W, Lee D, and Levy I (2017) Distributed neural representation of saliency-controlled value and category during anticipation of rewards and punishments. Nature Communications 8: 1907. [pdf file] [web]
  • Farahashi S, Rowe K, Aslami Z, Lee D, and Solatni A (2017) Feature-based learning improves adaptability without compromising precision. Nature Communications 8: 1768. [pdf file] [web][EurekAlert!
  • Park H, Lee D, and Chey J (2017) Stress enhances model-free reinforcement learning only after negative outcome. PLoS ONE 12(7): e0180588 [pdf file] [web]
  • Farashahi S, Donahue CH, Khorsand P, Seo H, Lee D, and Soltani A. (2017) Metaplasticity as a neural substrate for adaptive learning and choice under uncertainty. Neuron 94: 401-414.e6 [pdf file] [web
  • Seo H and Lee D (2017) Reinforcement learning and strategic reasoning during social decision making. In: Dreher J-C and Tremblay L (eds) Decision Neuroscience: an integrative perspective. 1st. edition, p 225-231 [web]
  • Seo H, Kim S, Cai X, Donahue CH, and Lee D (2017) Neural correlates of strategic decision making in the primate prefrontal cortex. In: Watanabe M (ed) Prefrontal cortex as an executive, emotional and social brain. Springer, pp 3-15 [web]

2016 (5)

  • Lee D and Seo H (2016) Neural basis of strategic decision making. Trends in Neuroscience 39: 40-48 [web]
  • Gruner P, Anticevic A, Lee D, and Pittenger C (2016) Arbitration between action strategies in obsessive-compulsive disoder. The Neuroscientist 22: 188-198 [web]
  • Arnsten AFT, Murray JD, Seo H, and Lee D (2016) Ketamine's antidepressant actions: potential mechanisms in the primate medial prefrontal circuits that represent aversive experience. Biological Psychiatry 79: 713-715 [web
  • Groman SM, Smith NJ, Petrulli JR, Massi B, Chen L, Ropchan J, Huang Y, Lee D, Morris ED, and Taylor JR (2016) Dopamine D3 receptor availability is associated with inflexible decision making. Journal of Neuroscience 36: 6732-6741 [web]
  • Kleinman MR, Sohn H, and Lee D (2016) A two-stage model of concurrent interval timing in monkeys. Journal of Neurophysiology 116: 1068-1081 [web]

2015 (4)

  • Donahue CH, Lee D (2015) Dynamic routing of task-relevant signals for decision making in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Nature Neuroscience 18: 295-301 [web] [Yale Daily
  • Kim K, Huh N, Jang Y, Lee D, Jung MW (2015) Effect of fictive reward on rat's choice behavior. Scientific Reports 5:8040 [web
  • Vickery TJ, Kleinman MR, Chun MM, and Lee D (2015) Opponent identity influences value learning in simple games. Journal of Neuroscience 35: 11133-11143 [web]
  • Gamo NJ, Lur G, Higley MJ, Wang M, Paspalas CD, Vijayraghavan S, Yang Y, Ramos BP, Peng K, Kata A, Boven L, Lin F, Roman L, Lee D, and Arnsten AFT (2015) Stress impairs prefrontal cortical function through D1 dopamine receptor interactions with HCN channels. Biological Psychiatry 78: 860-870 [web]

2014 (3)

  • Murray JD, Bernacchia A, Freedman DJ, Romo R, Wallis JD, Cai X, Padoa-Schioppa C, Pasternak T, Seo H, Lee D, Wang XJ (2014) A hierarchy of intrinsic timescales across primate cortex. Nature Neuroscience 17: 1661-1663. [web
  • Seo H, Cai X, Donahue CH, Lee D (2014) Neural correlates of strategic reasoning during competitive games. Science 346: 340-343 [abstract][reprint][Supplementary Material][Medical Xpress][Yale News][Scienceon][Yale Daily
  • Livingstone MS, Pettine WW, Srihasam K, Moore BS, Morocz IA, Lee D (2014) Symbol addition by monkeys: evidence for normalized quantity coding. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the USA. 111:6822-6827. [web

2013 (8)

  • Donahue CH, Seo H, Lee D (2013) Cortical signals for rewarded actions and strategic exploration. Neuron 80: 223-234 [pdf file] [preview
  • Newsome WT, Glimcher PW, Gottlieb J, Lee D, Platt ML (2013) Comment on "In monkeys making value-based decisions, LIP neurons encode salience and not action value". Science 340: 430. [pdf file]
  • Lee D (2013) Decision making: from neuroscience to psychiatry. Neuron 78: 233-248. [pdf file]
  • Kim H, Lee D, and Jung MW (2013) Signals for previous goal choice persist in the dorsomedial, but not dorsolateral striatum of rats. Journal of Neuroscience 33: 35-51. [pdf file]
  • Jo S, Kim K, Lee D, Jung MW (2013) Effect of orbitofrontal lesions on temporal discounting in rats. Behavioural Brain Research 245: 22-28 [pdf file]
  • Lee D, Kim S, and Seo H (2013) Role of prefrontal cortex in reinforcement learning and decision making. In: Stuss DT, Knight RT (eds), Principles of Frontal Lobe Functions. 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, pp.259-272.
  • Maoz U, Rutishzuser U, Kim S, Cai X, Lee D, Koch C (2013) Predeliberation activity in prefrontal cortex and striatum and the prediction of subsequent value judgment. Frontiers in Neuroscience 7:225. [pdf file]
  • Lee D, Dorris MC (2013) Brain circuitry for social decision-making in non-human primates. In: Glimcher PW, Fehr E (eds) Neuroeconomics: decision making and the brain. 2nd ed. Oxford University Press pp. 259-272.

2012 (6)

  • Seo H and Lee D (2012) Neural basis of learning and preference during social decision making. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 22: 990-995 [pdf file]
  • Chen LL, Lee D, Fukushima K, and Fukushima J (2012) Submovement composition of head movement. PLoS One 7: e47565 [web][pdf]
  • Lee H, Ghim JW, Kim H, Lee D, and Jung MW (2012) Hippocampal neural correlates for values of experienced events. Journal of Neuroscience 32: 15053-15065 [pdf file]
  • Kim S, Cai X, Hwang J, and Lee D (2012) Prefrontal and striatal activity related to values of objects and locations. Frontiers in Neuroscience 6: 108. [pdf file]
  • Lee D, Seo H, and Jung MW (2012) Neural basis of reinforcement learning and decision making. Annual Review of Neuroscience 35: 287-308 [pdf file]
  • Kim S, Bobeica I, Gamo NJ, Arnsten AFT, Lee D (2012) Effects of alpha-2A adrenergic receptor agonist on time and risk preference in primates. Psychopharmacology 219: 363-375.  [pdf file]

2011 (11)

2010 (4)

  • Sul JH, Kim H, Huh N, Lee D, and Jung MW (2010) Distinct roles of rodent orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortex in decision making. Neuron 66: 449-460. [pdf file]
  • Curtis CE, Lee D (2010) Beyond working memory: the role of persistent activity in decision making. Trends Cog Sci 14: 216-222. [pdf file]
  • Seo H and Lee D (2010) Orbitofrontal cortex assigns credit wisely. Neuron 65: 736-738. [pdf file] [Walton et al. (2010)]
  • Lee D (2010) Neuroethology of decision making. In: Platt ML and Ghazanfar AA (eds) Primate Neuroethology. Oxford Univ Press, pp. 550-569.

2009 (7)

  • Kim H, Sul JH, Huh N, Lee D, and Jung MW (2009) Role of striatum in updating values of chosen actions. J Neurosci 29: 14701-14712 [pdf file].
  • Seo H, Lee D (2009) Persistent feedback. Nature 461: 50-51. [pdf file] [Histed et al. (2009)]
  • Hwang J, Kim S, and Lee D (2009) Temporal discounting and inter-temporal choice in rhesus monkeys. Front Behav Neurosci 3:9 [pdf file]
  • Seo H, Barraclough DJ, and Lee D (2009) Lateral intraparietal cortex and reinforcement learning during a mixed-strategy game. J Neurosci 29: 7278-7289 [pdf file] [supplemental material]
  • Seo H and Lee D (2009) Behavioral and neural changes after gains and losses of conditioned reinforcers. J Neurosci. 29: 3627-3641. [pdf file] [supplemental material]
  • Kim S, Hwang J, Seo H, and Lee D (2009) Valuation of uncertain and delayed rewards in primate prefrontal cortex. Neural Networks 22: 294-304. [pdf file]
  • Lee D (2009) Games in monkeys: neurophysiology and motor decision making. In: Squire LR (eds) Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, volume 4, pp. 505-510. Oxford: Academic Press.

2008 (5)

  • Luhmann CC, Chun MM, Yi D-J, Lee D, and Wang X-J (2008) Neural dissociation of delay and uncertainty in intertemporal choice. J Neurosci 28: 14459-14466. [pdf file]
  • Seo H and Lee D (2008) Cortical mechanisms for reinforcement learning in competitive games. Philos Trans Roy Soc Lond B Biol Sci 363: 3845-3857. [pdf file]
  • Kim S, Hwang J, and Lee D (2008) Prefrontal coding of temporally discounted values during intertemporal choice. Neuron 59: 161-172. [pdf file] [ScienceDaily] [EurekAlert] [Chosun Ilbo]
  • Lee D and X-J Wang (2008) Neural circuit mechanisms for stochastic decision making in the primate frontal cortex. In Neuroeconomics: Decision making and the brain (Glimcher PW, Camerer CF, Fehr E, and Poldrack RA, eds), Academic Press, pp 481- 501.
  • Lee D (2008) Game theory and neural basis of social decision making. Nature Neurosci. 11: 404-409. [pdf file]

2007 (10)

  • Sohn J-W, and Lee D (2007) Order-dependent modulation of directional signals in the supplementary and pre-supplementary motor areas. J Neurosci. 27: 13655-13666. [pdf file]
  • Lee D (2007) To touch or not to touch: posterior parietal cortex and voluntary behavior. Neuron 56: 419-421. [pdf file]
  • Kim Y, Huh N, Lee H, Baeg E, Lee D, and Jung MW (2007) Encoding of action history in the rat ventral striatum. J Neurophysiol. 98: 3548-3556. [pdf file]
  • Kim H, Lee D, Shin Y-M, and Chey J (2007) Impaired strategic decision-making in schizophrenia. Brain Res. 1180: 90-100. [pdf file]
  • Seo H and Lee D (2007) Temporal filtering of reward signals in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex during a mixed-strategy game. J Neurosci 27: 8366-8377.[pdf file]
  • Lee D, Rushworth M, Walton M, Watanabe M, and Sakagami M (2007) Functional specialization of the primate frontal cortex during decision making. J Neurosci 27: 8170-8173. [pdf file]
  • Seo H, Barraclough DJ, and Lee D (2007) Dynamic signals related to choices and outcomes in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Cereb Cortex 17: i110-i117. [pdf file]
  • Lee D and Seo H (2007) Mechanisms of reinforcement learning and decision making in the primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1104: 108-122. [pdf file]
  • Averbeck BB and Lee D (2007) Prefrontal neural correlates of memory for sequences. J Neurosci 27: 2204-2211. [pdf file]
  • Lee D, Barraclough DJ, and Seo H (2007) Neural basis of social interactions in primates. In: Attention and Performance XXII: sensorimotor foundation of higher cognition (Haggard P, Rossetti, Y. & Kawato, M. Eds). Oxford Univ. Press, pp. 249-265.

2006 (8)

  • Lee D (2006) Neuroeconomics: best to go with what you know? Nature 441: 822-823. [pdf file]
  • Funahashi S, Lee D, Rushworth M (2006) Neurobiology of decision making. Neural Network. 2006 Special Issue on Neurobiology of Decision Making. 19: 977-979. [pdf file]
  • Sohn J-W and Lee D (2006) Effects of reward expectancy on sequential eye movements in monkeys. Neural Networks 19:1181-1191. [pdf file]
  • Soltani A, Lee D, and Wang X-J (2006) Neural mechanism for stochastic behavior during a competitive game. Neural Networks 19: 1075-1090. [pdf file]
  • Lee D and Schieber MH (2006) Serial correlation in lateralized choices of hand and target. Exp Brain Res 174: 499-509. [pdf file]
  • Averbeck BB and Lee D (2006) Effects of noise correlations on information encoding and decoding. J Neurophysiol. 95: 3633-3644 [pdf file]
  • Lee D (2006) Neural basis of quasi-rational decision making. Curr Op Neurobiol 16:191-198. [pdf file]
  • Averbeck BB, Sohn J-W, and Lee D (2006) Activity in prefrontal cortex during dynamic selection of action sequences. Nature Neurosci 9: 276-282. [pdf file]

2005 (2)

  • Lee D, McGreevy BP, and Barraclough DJ (2005) Learning and decision making in monkeys during a rock-paper-scissors game. Cogn Brain Res 25: 416-430. [pdf file] [coverage in Gardian]
  • Lee D (2005) Neuroeconomics: making risky choices in the brain. Nature Neurosci 8: 1129-1130. [pdf file]

2004 (4)

  • Lee D, Conroy ML, McGreevy BP, and Barraclough DJ (2004) Reinforcement learning and decision making in monkeys during a competitive game. Cogn. Brain Res. 22: 45-58. [pdf file][related article in Trends in Cognitive Sciences]
  • Lee D (2004) Behavioral context and coherent oscillations in the supplementary motor area. J Neurosci. 24:4453-4459. [pdf file]
  • Barraclough DJ, Conroy ML, and Lee D (2004) Prefrontal cortex and decision making in a mixed-strategy game. Nature Neurosci. 7: 404-410. [pdf file] [News and views][related review in Nature Rev Neurosci]
  • Averbeck BB and Lee D (2004) Coding and transmission of information by neural ensembles. Trends Neurosci. 27: 225-230. [pdf file]

2003 (5)

  • Averbeck BB and Lee D (2003).  Neural noise and movement-related codes in the macaque supplementary motor area. J Neurosci. 23: 7630-7641. [pdf file]
  • Lee D (2003). Coherent oscillations in neuronal activity of the supplementary motor area during a visuomotor task. J Neurosci. 23: 6798-6809. [pdf file]
  • Lee D and Quessy S (2003). Visual search is facilitated by scene and sequence familiarity in rhesus monkeys. Vision Research 43:1455-1463. 
  • Lee D and Quessy S (2003). Activity in the supplementary motor area related to learning and performance during a sequential visuomotor task. J. Neurophysiol. 89: 1039-1056. [pdf file]
  • Kruse W, Port NL, Lee D, and Georgopoulso AP (2003) Neural mechanisms of catching: translating moving target information into hand interception movement. In: Johnson-Frey SH (Ed), Taking action: cognitive neuroscience perspective on intentional acts. Cambridge: MIT Press.

2002 (1)

  • Lee D (2002) Analysis of phase-locked oscillations in multi-channel single-unit spike activity with wavelet cross-spectrum. J. Neurosci. Methods. 115: 67-75 [pdf file]

2001 (3)

  • Lee D and Chun MM (2001) What are the units of visual short-term memory: objects or spatial locations? Perception and Psychophysics 63: 253-257. [pdf file]
  • Port NL, Kruse W, Lee D, and Georgopoulos AP (2001) Motor cortical activity during interception of moving targets. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 13: 306-318. [pdf file]
  • Lee D, Port NL, Kruse W, and Georgopoulos AP (2001) Neuronal clusters in the primate motor cortex during interception of moving targets. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 13: 319-331. [pdf file]

2000 (2)

  • Lee D (2000) Learning of spatial and temporal patterns in sequential hand movements. Cogn. Brain Res. 9:35-39. [pdf file]
  • Jung MW, Qin Y, Lee D, and Mook-Jung I (2000) Relationship among discharges of neighboring neurons in the rat prefrontal cortex during spatial working memory tasks. J. Neurosci. 20: 6166-6172. [pdf file]

Before 2000 (11)

  • Lee D (1999) Effects of exogenous and endogenous attention on visually guided hand movements. Cogn. Brain Res. 8: 143-156. [pdf file]
  • Lee D, Port NL, Kruse W, and Georgopoulos AP (1998) Variability and correlated noise in the discharge of neurons in motor and parietal areas of the primate cortex. J. Neurosci. 18: 1161-1170. [pdf file]
  • Lee D and Malpeli JG (1998) Effects of saccades on the activity of neurons in the cat lateral geniculate nucleus. J. Neurophysiol. 79: 922-936. [pdf file]
  • Lee D, Port NL, Kruse W, and Georgopoulos AP (1998). Neuronal population coding: Multielectrode recordings in primate cerebral cortex. H. Eichenbaum and J. Davis (Eds), In Neuronal Ensembles : Strategies for Recording and Decoding, New York: Wiley.
  • Port NL, Lee D, Dassonville P, and Georgopoulos AP (1997) Manual interception of moving targets: I. Performance and movement initiation. Exp. Brain Res. 116: 406-420. [pdf file]
  • Lee D, Port NL, and Georgopoulos AP (1997) Manual interception of moving targets: II. Online control of overlapping submovements. Exp. Brain Res. 116: 421-433. [pdf file]
  • Malpeli JG, Lee D, and Baker FH (1996). Laminar and retinotopic organization of the macaque lateral geniculate nucleus: magnocellular and parvocellular magnification functions. J. Comp. Neurol. 375: 363-377. [pdf file]
  • Lee D and Malpeli JG (1995) Retinal representation: response. Science 267: 1038. [pdf file]
  • Lee D and Malpeli JG (1994) Global form and singularity: modelling the blind spot's role in geniculate morphogenesis. Science 263: 1292-1294. [pdf file]
  • Malpeli JG and Lee D (1994) Thermodynamic model of the morphogenesis of the primate lateral geniculate nucleus. Proc. Inter. Conf. Neural Information Processing, 1: 309-314.
  • Lee D, Lee C, and Malpeli JG (1992). Acuity-sensitivity trade-offs of X and Y cells in the cat lateral geniculate complex: role of the medial interlaminar nucleus in scotopic vision. J. Neurophysiol. 68: 1235-1247. [pdf file]