Hypoxia, Brain; Cerebral Cortex; Education, Medical; Neurobiology; Neurosciences
The research in my laboratory is concerned with the organization and development of the mammalian cerebral cortex, the influence of prenatal and neonatal experiences on the final organization of these regions and the impact on behavioral function. Studies in non-human primates focus on the organization and synaptic features of cortical areas in developing and mature monkeys, with particular emphasis on cortico-cortical, cortical-thalamic, and local circuit neurons. Studies in mice focus on the impact of perinatal hypoxia on brain development, behavioral maturation and mechanisms of recovery using a variety of wild type, knockout and overexpressing mouse models.
Studies currently in progress in the laboratory include:
- Examination of the expression of neurotransmitter substances in the cerebral cortex of fetal and postnatal monkeys;
- Analysis of the role of GABA and FGF on neuronal proliferation and transmitter phenotype;
- The impact of prenatal ultrasound exposure on brain development and behavioral function in non-human primates and mice;
- The impact of hypoxia on the emergence of cortical connectivity and behavioral function.
The studies in the lab utilize a variety of techniques including fetal and adult neurosurgery, light (LM) and electron microscopy (EM), immunocytochemistry, tract tracing methods, and behavioral analysis techniques.
Specialized Terms: Mammalian cerebral cortex
Hypoxic injury during neonatal development in murine brain: correlation between in vivo DTI findings and behavioral assessment.
Chahboune H, Ment LR, Stewart WB, Rothman DL, Vaccarino FM, Hyder F, Schwartz ML. 2009. Hypoxic injury during neonatal development in murine brain: correlation between in vivo DTI findings and behavioral assessment. Cereb Cortex. 2009 Dec;19(12):2891-2901. PMID:19380380
Astroglial cells in development, regeneration, and repair.
Vaccarino, F.M., et al. (2007). Astroglial cells in development, regeneration, and repair. Neuroscientist 13(2):173-85.
Uncoupling protein-2 promotes nigrostriatal dopamine neuronal function.
Andrews, Z.B., et al. (2006). Uncoupling protein-2 promotes nigrostriatal dopamine neuronal function. Eur. J. Neurosci. 24(1):32-6.
Early expression and distribution of GABA-containing neurons in the prefrontal and visual cortices of fetal and neonatal monkeys.
Schwartz, M.L. and D.L. Meinecke (1992) Early expression and distribution of GABA-containing neurons in the prefrontal and visual cortices of fetal and neonatal monkeys. Cerebral Cortex 2: 16-37.
Cholinergic innervation of the mediodorsal nucleus in the monkey: ultrastructural evidence supportive of functional diversity.
Schwartz, M.L. and L. Mrzljak (1993) Cholinergic innervation of the mediodorsal nucleus in the monkey: ultrastructural evidence supportive of functional diversity. J. Comp. Neurol. 327:48-62.
Early phenotypic expression of cortical neurons: Evidence that a subclass of migrating neurons have callosal axons.
Schwartz, M.L., P. Rakic, and P.S. Goldman-Rakic (1991) Early phenotypic expression of cortical neurons: Evidence that a subclass of migrating neurons have callosal axons. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:1354-1358.
Full List of PubMed Publications
- Cyrus KD, Angoff NR, Illuzzi JL, Schwartz ML, Wilkins KM: When patients hurt us. Med Teach. 2018 Jan 29; 2018 Jan 29. PMID: 29375008
- Lau KHV, Farooque P, Leydon G, Schwartz ML, Sadler RM, Moeller JJ: Using learning analytics to evaluate a video-based lecture series. Med Teach. 2018 Jan; 2017 Nov 7. PMID: 29113565
- Solotke M, Sitkin NA, Schwartz ML, Encandela JA: Twelve tips for incorporating and teaching sexual and gender minority health in medical school curricula. Med Teach. 2017 Nov 27; 2017 Nov 27. PMID: 29179617
- Daniel M, Fleming A, Grochowski CO, Harnik V, Klimstra S, Morrison G, Pock A, Schwartz ML, Santen S: Why Not Wait? Eight Institutions Share Their Experiences Moving United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 After Core Clinical Clerkships. Acad Med. 2017 Nov. PMID: 28422816
- Xenos D, Kamceva M, Tomasi S, Cardin JA, Schwartz ML, Vaccarino FM: Loss of TrkB Signaling in Parvalbumin-Expressing Basket Cells Results in Network Activity Disruption and Abnormal Behavior. Cereb Cortex. 2017 Aug 18; 2017 Aug 18. PMID: 28968898
- Li Q, Michaud M, Park C, Huang Y, Couture R, Girodano F, Schwartz ML, Madri JA: The role of endothelial HIF-1 αin the response to sublethal hypoxia in C57BL/6 mouse pups. Lab Invest. 2017 Apr; 2017 Jan 16. PMID: 28092362
- Salmaso N, Stevens HE, McNeill J, ElSayed M, Ren Q, Maragnoli ME, Schwartz ML, Tomasi S, Sapolsky RM, Duman R, Vaccarino FM: Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 Modulates Hypothalamic Pituitary Axis Activity and Anxiety Behavior Through Glucocorticoid Receptors. Biol Psychiatry. 2016 Sep 15; 2016 Mar 2. PMID: 27133954
- Ellman MS, Schwartz ML: Online Learning Tools as Supplements for Basic and Clinical Science Education. J Med Educ Curric Dev. 2016 Jan-Dec; 2016 Sep 12. PMID: 29349323
- Varela L, Schwartz ML, Horvath TL: Mitochondria controlled by UCP2 determine hypoxia-induced synaptic remodeling in the cortex and hippocampus. Neurobiol Dis. 2016 Jun; 2016 Jan 9. PMID: 26777666
- Salmaso N, Dominguez M, Kravitz J, Komitova M, Vaccarino FM, Schwartz ML: Contribution of maternal oxygenic state to the effects of chronic postnatal hypoxia on mouse body and brain development. Neurosci Lett. 2015 Sep 14; 2015 Jul 26. PMID: 26222256
- Komitova M, Xenos D, Salmaso N, Tran KM, Brand T, Schwartz ML, Ment L, Vaccarino FM: Hypoxia-induced developmental delays of inhibitory interneurons are reversed by environmental enrichment in the postnatal mouse forebrain. J Neurosci. 2013 Aug 14. PMID: 23946395
- Salmaso N, Silbereis J, Komitova M, Mitchell P, Chapman K, Ment LR, Schwartz ML, Vaccarino FM: Environmental enrichment increases the GFAP+ stem cell pool and reverses hypoxia-induced cognitive deficits in juvenile mice. J Neurosci. 2012 Jun 27. PMID: 22745493
- Stevens HE, Jiang GY, Schwartz ML, Vaccarino FM: Learning and memory depend on fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 functioning in hippocampus. Biol Psychiatry. 2012 Jun 15; 2012 Apr 27. PMID: 22541947
- Müller Smith K, Williamson TL, Schwartz ML, Vaccarino FM: Impaired motor coordination and disrupted cerebellar architecture in Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 double knockout mice. Brain Res. 2012 Jun 15; 2012 Apr 11. PMID: 22578469
- Kwan KY, Lam MM, Johnson MB, Dube U, Shim S, Rašin MR, Sousa AM, Fertuzinhos S, Chen JG, Arellano JI, Chan DW, Pletikos M, Vasung L, Rowitch DH, Huang EJ, Schwartz ML, Willemsen R, Oostra BA, Rakic P, Heffer M, Kostović I, Judaš M, Sestan N: Species-dependent posttranscriptional regulation of NOS1 by FMRP in the developing cerebral cortex. Cell. 2012 May 11. PMID: 22579290
- Bi B, Salmaso N, Komitova M, Simonini MV, Silbereis J, Cheng E, Kim J, Luft S, Ment LR, Horvath TL, Schwartz ML, Vaccarino FM: Cortical glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells generate neurons after perinatal hypoxic injury. J Neurosci. 2011 Jun 22. PMID: 21697371
- Kataoka Y, Kalanithi PS, Grantz H, Schwartz ML, Saper C, Leckman JF, Vaccarino FM: Decreased number of parvalbumin and cholinergic interneurons in the striatum of individuals with Tourette syndrome. J Comp Neurol. 2010 Feb 1. PMID: 19941350
- Chahboune H, Ment LR, Stewart WB, Rothman DL, Vaccarino FM, Hyder F, Schwartz ML: Hypoxic injury during neonatal development in murine brain: correlation between in vivo DTI findings and behavioral assessment. Cereb Cortex. 2009 Dec; 2009 Apr 20. PMID: 19380380
- Li Q, Liu J, Michaud M, Schwartz ML, Madri JA: Strain differences in behavioral and cellular responses to perinatal hypoxia and relationships to neural stem cell survival and self-renewal: Modeling the neurovascular niche. Am J Pathol. 2009 Nov; 2009 Oct 8. PMID: 19815710
- Müller Smith K, Fagel DM, Stevens HE, Rabenstein RL, Maragnoli ME, Ohkubo Y, Picciotto MR, Schwartz ML, Vaccarino FM: Deficiency in inhibitory cortical interneurons associates with hyperactivity in fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 mutant mice. Biol Psychiatry. 2008 May 15; 2007 Nov 7. PMID: 17988653
- Vaccarino FM, Fagel DM, Ganat Y, Maragnoli ME, Ment LR, Ohkubo Y, Schwartz ML, Silbereis J, Smith KM: Astroglial cells in development, regeneration, and repair. Neuroscientist. 2007 Apr. PMID: 17404377
- Smith KM, Ohkubo Y, Maragnoli ME, Rasin MR, Schwartz ML, Sestan N, Vaccarino FM: Midline radial glia translocation and corpus callosum formation require FGF signaling. Nat Neurosci. 2006 Jun; 2006 May 21. PMID: 16715082
- Kalanithi PS, Zheng W, Kataoka Y, DiFiglia M, Grantz H, Saper CB, Schwartz ML, Leckman JF, Vaccarino FM: Altered parvalbumin-positive neuron distribution in basal ganglia of individuals with Tourette syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Sep 13; 2005 Aug 30. PMID: 16131542
- Schwartz ML, Vaccarino F, Chacon M, Yan WL, Ment LR, Stewart WB: Chronic neonatal hypoxia leads to long term decreases in the volume and cell number of the rat cerebral cortex. Semin Perinatol. 2004 Dec. PMID: 15693394
- Korada S, Zheng W, Basilico C, Schwartz ML, Vaccarino FM: Fibroblast growth factor 2 is necessary for the growth of glutamate projection neurons in the anterior neocortex. J Neurosci. 2002 Feb 1. PMID: 11826116