Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Africa, Southern; Epidemiology; HIV; Public Health; Tuberculosis; Global Health; Anti-Retroviral Agents; Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis; Infectious Disease Medicine; Geographicals
Public Health Interests
Global Health; HIV/AIDS; Infectious Disease; Infectious Disease Transmission; Social determinants of health; Social inequalities
Dr. Friedland's major research interests are in the provision of HIV care to vulnerable populations and clinical trials of anti-retroviral agents, including adherence to HIV therapies and pharmacologic interaction studies between methadone and buprenorphine and antiretroviral agents. Dr. Friedland is also involved in studies of HIV and risk reduction among HIV seropositives in clinical care and, most recently, in studies on the integration of care and treatment of tuberculosis and HIV disease in resource limited settings, notably South Africa. His group has uncovered the epidemic of XDR TB in South Africa and is working on epidemiologic, clinical and mycobacteriologic studies in this area.
Specialized Terms: HIV care; Injection drug use and HIV; Anti-retroviral agents; Tuberculosis, HIV and TB; drug resistant TB; Prevention and treatment in vulnerable populations
Extensive Research Description
Gerald Friedland is a professor of medicine, epidemiology and public
health at the Yale School of Medicine and the Yale School of Public
Health. He is active in the
provision of clinical care and in clinical and epidemiologic research of
HIV/AIDS. Dr. Friedland's research
interests lie at the interface of HIV biology, clinical care and behavior, and
he directs large-scale clinical and epidemiologic studies among vulnerable
populations with and at risk for HIV.
Dr. Friedland also investigates how to integrate HIV and tuberculosis
care in resource-limited settings, with a focus on South Africa. He also develops programs to educate
health care providers in HIV care and studies transmission of antiretroviral
Dr. Friedland received his M.D. from New York University School of Medicine. He is the director of the AIDS program at Yale-New Haven Hospital and serves on the World Health Organization HIV/TB working group. He is a former member of the governing council of the International AIDS Society and was editor-in-chief of Journal Watch HIV/AIDS Clinical Care. He also serves as the chairman of the board of directors of the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center and is a trustee of the HIV Research Trust. He is a visiting professor at the Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine of the University of KwaZulu-Natal in Durban, South Africa.
Timing of initiation of antiretroviral drugs during tuberculosis therapy.
Abdool Karim SS, Naidoo K, Grobler A, Padayatchi N, Baxter C, Gray A, Gengiah T, Nair G, Bamber S, Singh A, Khan M, Pienaar J, El-Sadr W, Friedland G, Abdool Karim Q. Timing of initiation of antiretroviral drugs during tuberculosis therapy. The New England Journal Of Medicine 2010, 362:697-706.
Averting epidemics of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis.
Basu S, Friedland GH, Medlock J, Andrews JR, Shah NS, Gandhi NR, Moll A, Moodley P, Sturm AW, Galvani AP. Averting epidemics of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences Of The United States Of America 2009, 106:7672-7.
HIV coinfection in multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis results in high early mortality.
Gandhi NR, Shah NS, Andrews JR, Vella V, Moll AP, Scott M, Weissman D, Marra C, Lalloo UG, Friedland GH. HIV coinfection in multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis results in high early mortality. American Journal Of Respiratory And Critical Care Medicine 2010, 181:80-6.
Survival from XDR-TB is associated with modifiable clinical characteristics in rural South Africa.
Shenoi SV, Brooks RP, Barbour R, Altice FL, Zelterman D, Moll AP, Master I, van der Merwe TL, Friedland GH. Survival from XDR-TB is associated with modifiable clinical characteristics in rural South Africa. PloS One 2012, 7:e31786.
Rifampin, but not rifabutin, may produce opiate withdrawal in buprenorphine-maintained patients.
McCance-Katz EF, Moody DE, Prathikanti S, Friedland G, Rainey PM. Rifampin, but not rifabutin, may produce opiate withdrawal in buprenorphine-maintained patients. Drug And Alcohol Dependence 2011, 118:326-34.
Transmission of drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis and the critical importance of airborne infection control in the era of HIV infection and highly active antiretroviral therapy rollouts.
Shenoi SV, Escombe AR, Friedland G. Transmission of drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis and the critical importance of airborne infection control in the era of HIV infection and highly active antiretroviral therapy rollouts. Clinical Infectious Diseases : An Official Publication Of The Infectious Diseases Society Of America 2010, 50 Suppl 3:S231-7.
Improved survival in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients receiving integrated tuberculosis and antiretroviral treatment in the SAPiT Trial.
Padayatchi N, Abdool Karim SS, Naidoo K, Grobler A, Friedland G. Improved survival in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients receiving integrated tuberculosis and antiretroviral treatment in the SAPiT Trial. The International Journal Of Tuberculosis And Lung Disease : The Official Journal Of The International Union Against Tuberculosis And Lung Disease 2014, 18:147-54.
Full List of PubMed Publications
- Shenoi SV, Moll AP, Brooks RP, Kyriakides T, Andrews L, Kompala T, Upadhya D, Altice FL, Eksteen FJ, Friedland G: Integrated Tuberculosis/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Community-Based Case Finding in Rural South Africa: Implications for Tuberculosis Control Efforts. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2017 Summer; 2017 May 4. PMID: 28695145
- Padayatchi N, Naidu N, Friedland G, Naidoo K, Conradie F, Naidoo K, O'Donnell MR: Turning the tide against tuberculosis. Int J Infect Dis. 2017 Mar; 2017 Feb 4. PMID: 28167256
- Gilbert JA, Shenoi SV, Moll AP, Friedland GH, Paltiel AD, Galvani AP: Cost-Effectiveness of Community-Based TB/HIV Screening and Linkage to Care in Rural South Africa. PLoS One. 2016; 2016 Dec 1. PMID: 27906986
- Friedland G: Marking Time in the Global HIV/AIDS Pandemic. JAMA. 2016 Jul 12. PMID: 27404179
- Ogbuagu O, Friedland G, Bruce RD: Drug interactions between buprenorphine, methadone and hepatitis C therapeutics. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2016 Jul; 2016 May 30. PMID: 27140427
- Upadhya D, Moll AP, Brooks RP, Friedland G, Shenoi SV: What motivates use of community-based human immunodeficiency virus testing in rural South Africa? Int J STD AIDS. 2016 Jul; 2015 Jul 1. PMID: 26134323
- Cowell A, Shenoi SV, Kyriakides TC, Friedland G, Barakat LA: Trends in hospital deaths among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients during the antiretroviral therapy era, 1995 to 2011. J Hosp Med. 2015 Sep; 2015 Jun 30. PMID: 26130520
- Jacobson KB, Moll AP, Friedland GH, Shenoi SV: Successful Tuberculosis Treatment Outcomes among HIV/TB Coinfected Patients Down-Referred from a District Hospital to Primary Health Clinics in Rural South Africa. PLoS One. 2015; 2015 May 19. PMID: 25993636
- Gilbert JA, Long EF, Brooks RP, Friedland GH, Moll AP, Townsend JP, Galvani AP, Shenoi SV: Integrating Community-Based Interventions to Reverse the Convergent TB/HIV Epidemics in Rural South Africa. PLoS One. 2015; 2015 May 4. PMID: 25938501
- Jacobson KB, Tate M, Eksteen F, Moll A, Padayatchi N, Friedland G, Shenoi S: Care of the patient with XDR-TB who has failed treatment. Lancet Respir Med. 2015 Apr. PMID: 25890645
- Fisher JD, Cornman DH, Shuper PA, Christie S, Pillay S, Macdonald S, Ngcobo N, Amico KR, Lalloo U, Friedland G, Fisher WA, SA Options Team.: HIV prevention counseling intervention delivered during routine clinical care reduces HIV risk behavior in HIV-infected South Africans receiving antiretroviral therapy: the Izindlela Zokuphila/Options for Health randomized trial. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Dec 15. PMID: 25230288
- Bruce RD, Winkle P, Custodio JM, Wei X, Rhee MS, Kearney BP, Ramanathan S, Friedland GH: Investigation of the interactions between methadone and elvitegravir-cobicistat in subjects receiving chronic methadone maintenance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013 Dec; 2013 Sep 30. PMID: 24080665
- Friedland GH, Naidoo P, Abdool-Gafoor B, Moosa MY, Ramdial PK, Gandhi RT: Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 29-2013. A 32-year-old HIV-positive African man with dyspnea and skin lesions. N Engl J Med. 2013 Sep 19. PMID: 24047065
- Bruce RD, Winkle P, Custodio JM, Wei LX, Rhee MS, Kearney BP, Ramanathan S, Friedland GH: The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between buprenorphine/naloxone and elvitegravir/cobicistat in subjects receiving chronic buprenorphine/naloxone treatment. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Aug 1. PMID: 23599011
- Lygizos M, Shenoi SV, Brooks RP, Bhushan A, Brust JC, Zelterman D, Deng Y, Northrup V, Moll AP, Friedland GH: Natural ventilation reduces high TB transmission risk in traditional homes in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. BMC Infect Dis. 2013 Jul 1; 2013 Jul 1. PMID: 23815441
- Peluso MJ, Seavey B, Gonsalves G, Friedland G: An inter-professional 'advocacy and activism in global health': module for the training of physician-advocates. Glob Health Promot. 2013 Jun. PMID: 23797942
- Chaiyachati KH, Loveday M, Lorenz S, Lesh N, Larkan LM, Cinti S, Friedland GH, Haberer JE: A pilot study of an mHealth application for healthcare workers: poor uptake despite high reported acceptability at a rural South African community-based MDR-TB treatment program. PLoS One. 2013; 2013 May 28. PMID: 23724075
- Bruce RD, Moody DE, Altice FL, Gourevitch MN, Friedland GH: A review of pharmacological interactions between HIV or hepatitis C virus medications and opioid agonist therapy: implications and management for clinical practice. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2013 May. PMID: 23656339
- Brust JC, Shah NS, van der Merwe TL, Bamber S, Ning Y, Heo M, Moll AP, Loveday M, Lalloo UG, Friedland GH, Gandhi NR: Adverse events in an integrated home-based treatment program for MDR-TB and HIV in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Apr 1. PMID: 23254152
- Douglas Bruce R, Moody DE, Chodkowski D, Andrews L, Fang WB, Morrison J, Parsons TL, Friedland GH: Pharmacokinetic interactions between buprenorphine/naloxone and raltegravir in subjects receiving chronic buprenorphine/naloxone treatment. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2013 Mar. PMID: 23421567
- Shenoi SV, Brooks RP, Barbour R, Altice FL, Zelterman D, Moll AP, Master I, van der Merwe TL, Friedland GH: Survival from XDR-TB is associated with modifiable clinical characteristics in rural South Africa. PLoS One. 2012; 2012 Mar 6. PMID: 22412840
- Bruce RD, Moody DE, Fang WB, Chodkowski D, Andrews L, Friedland GH: Tipranavir/ritonavir induction of buprenorphine glucuronide metabolism in HIV-negative subjects chronically receiving buprenorphine/naloxone. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2011 Jul; 2011 Mar 28. PMID: 21438849
- Friedland G, Vlahov D: Integration of buprenorphine for substance-abuse treatment by HIV care providers. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 Mar 1. PMID: 21317588
- Friedland G: Infectious disease comorbidities adversely affecting substance users with HIV: hepatitis C and tuberculosis. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Dec. PMID: 21045598
- Bruce RD, Altice FL, Moody DE, Morse GD, Andrews L, Lin SN, Fang WB, Ma Q, Friedland GH: Pharmacokinetic interactions between buprenorphine/naloxone and once-daily lopinavir/ritonavir. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Aug. PMID: 20672450
- Altice FL, Kamarulzaman A, Soriano VV, Schechter M, Friedland GH: Treatment of medical, psychiatric, and substance-use comorbidities in people infected with HIV who use drugs. Lancet. 2010 Jul 31. PMID: 20650518
- Shenoi SV, Escombe AR, Friedland G: Transmission of drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis and the critical importance of airborne infection control in the era of HIV infection and highly active antiretroviral therapy rollouts. Clin Infect Dis. 2010 May 15. PMID: 20397953
- Simon MD, Altice FL, Moll AP, Shange M, Friedland GH: Preparing for highly active antiretroviral therapy rollout in rural South Africa: an assessment using the information, motivation, and behavioral skills model. AIDS Care. 2010 Apr. PMID: 20204909
- Bruce RD, Altice FL, Moody DE, Lin SN, Fang WB, Sabo JP, Wruck JM, Piliero PJ, Conner C, Andrews L, Friedland GH: Pharmacokinetic interactions between buprenorphine/naloxone and tipranavir/ritonavir in HIV-negative subjects chronically receiving buprenorphine/naloxone. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009 Dec 1; 2009 Sep 1. PMID: 19726139
- Basu S, Friedland GH, Medlock J, Andrews JR, Shah NS, Gandhi NR, Moll A, Moodley P, Sturm AW, Galvani AP: Averting epidemics of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 May 5; 2009 Apr 13. PMID: 19365076
- Shenoi S, Heysell S, Moll A, Friedland G: Multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: consequences for the global HIV community. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2009 Feb. PMID: 19532076
- Shenoi S, Friedland G: Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: a new face to an old pathogen. Annu Rev Med. 2009. PMID: 19630575
- Gandhi NR, Moll AP, Lalloo U, Pawinski R, Zeller K, Moodley P, Meyer E, Friedland G, Tugela Ferry Care and Research (TFCaRes) Collaboration.: Successful integration of tuberculosis and HIV treatment in rural South Africa: the Sizonq'oba study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Jan 1. PMID: 19295333
- Bruce RD, Altice FL, Friedland GH: Pharmacokinetic drug interactions between drugs of abuse and antiretroviral medications: implications and management for clinical practice. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2008 Jan. PMID: 24410515
- Andrews JR, Shah NS, Gandhi N, Moll T, Friedland G, Tugela Ferry Care and Research (TF CARES) Collaboration.: Multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: implications for the HIV epidemic and antiretroviral therapy rollout in South Africa. J Infect Dis. 2007 Dec 1. PMID: 18181698
- Basu S, Andrews JR, Poolman EM, Gandhi NR, Shah NS, Moll A, Moodley P, Galvani AP, Friedland GH: Prevention of nosocomial transmission of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in rural South African district hospitals: an epidemiological modelling study. Lancet. 2007 Oct 27. PMID: 17964351
- Altice FL, Maru DS, Bruce RD, Springer SA, Friedland GH: Superiority of directly administered antiretroviral therapy over self-administered therapy among HIV-infected drug users: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Sep 15; 2007 Aug 13. PMID: 17712763
- Friedland G, Harries A, Coetzee D: Implementation issues in tuberculosis/HIV program collaboration and integration: 3 case studies. J Infect Dis. 2007 Aug 15. PMID: 17624820
- Friedland G, Churchyard GJ, Nardell E: Tuberculosis and HIV coinfection: current state of knowledge and research priorities. J Infect Dis. 2007 Aug 15. PMID: 17624818
- Springer SA, Friedland GH, Doros G, Pesanti E, Altice FL: Antiretroviral treatment regimen outcomes among HIV-infected prisoners. HIV Clin Trials. 2007 Jul-Aug. PMID: 17720660
- Friedland G: Tuberculosis, drug resistance, and HIV/AIDS: a triple threat. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2007 May. PMID: 17430708
- Fiellin DA, Friedland GH, Gourevitch MN: Opioid dependence: rationale for and efficacy of existing and new treatments. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Dec 15. PMID: 17109303
- Friedland GH: HIV medication adherence. The intersection of biomedical, behavioral, and social science research and clinical practice. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006 Dec 1. PMID: 17133202
- Friedland G, Khoo S, Jack C, Lalloo U: Administration of efavirenz (600 mg/day) with rifampicin results in highly variable levels but excellent clinical outcomes in patients treated for tuberculosis and HIV. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2006 Dec; 2006 Oct 10. PMID: 17032686
- Gandhi NR, Moll A, Sturm AW, Pawinski R, Govender T, Lalloo U, Zeller K, Andrews J, Friedland G: Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis as a cause of death in patients co-infected with tuberculosis and HIV in a rural area of South Africa. Lancet. 2006 Nov 4. PMID: 17084757
- Kozal MJ, Amico KR, Chiarella J, Cornman D, Fisher W, Fisher J, Friedland G: A population-based and longitudinal study of sexual behavior and multidrug-resistant HIV among patients in clinical care. MedGenMed. 2006 Jun 13; 2006 Jun 13. PMID: 16926811
- Bruce RD, Altice FL, Gourevitch MN, Friedland GH: Pharmacokinetic drug interactions between opioid agonist therapy and antiretroviral medications: implications and management for clinical practice. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006 Apr 15. PMID: 16652030
- Friedland G, Andrews L, Schreibman T, Agarwala S, Daley L, Child M, Shi J, Wang Y, O'Mara E: Lack of an effect of atazanavir on steady-state pharmacokinetics of methadone in patients chronically treated for opiate addiction. AIDS. 2005 Oct 14. PMID: 16184033
- Kozal MJ, Amico KR, Chiarella J, Cornman D, Fisher W, Fisher J, Friedland G: HIV drug resistance and HIV transmission risk behaviors among active injection drug users. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 Sep 1. PMID: 16123691
- Kozal MJ, Amico KR, Chiarella J, Schreibman T, Cornman D, Fisher W, Fisher J, Friedland G: Antiretroviral resistance and high-risk transmission behavior among HIV-positive patients in clinical care. AIDS. 2004 Nov 5. PMID: 15577652
- Jack C, Lalloo U, Karim QA, Karim SA, El-Sadr W, Cassol S, Friedland G: A pilot study of once-daily antiretroviral therapy integrated with tuberculosis directly observed therapy in a resource-limited setting. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 Aug 1. PMID: 15220699
- Friedland G, Abdool Karim S, Abdool Karim Q, Lalloo U, Jack C, Gandhi N, El Sadr W: Utility of tuberculosis directly observed therapy programs as sites for access to and provision of antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited countries. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Jun 1. PMID: 15156433
- Altice FL, Mezger JA, Hodges J, Bruce RD, Marinovich A, Walton M, Springer SA, Friedland GH: Developing a directly administered antiretroviral therapy intervention for HIV-infected drug users: implications for program replication. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Jun 1. PMID: 15156426
- Schreibman T, Friedland G: Use of total lymphocyte count for monitoring response to antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Jan 15; 2003 Dec 18. PMID: 14699459
- Altice FL, Springer S, Buitrago M, Hunt DP, Friedland GH: Pilot study to enhance HIV care using needle exchange-based health services for out-of-treatment injecting drug users. J Urban Health. 2003 Sep. PMID: 12930880
- Schreibman T, Friedland G: Human immunodeficiency virus infection prevention: strategies for clinicians. Clin Infect Dis. 2003 May 1; 2003 Apr 14. PMID: 12715313
- Rainey PM, Friedland GH, Snidow JW, McCance-Katz EF, Mitchell SM, Andrews L, Lane B, Jatlow P: The pharmacokinetics of methadone following co-administration with a lamivudine/zidovudine combination tablet in opiate-dependent subjects. Am J Addict. 2002 Winter. PMID: 11876585