Fellowship Training Grant Mentors

Faculty associated with the Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases training grant.
  • Heather Allore

    Professor; Director, Yale Program on Aging Biostatistics Core; Director, Data Management and Statistics Core, Yale Alzheimer's Disease Research Center; Co-director of the Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Core of the Yale Transdisciplinary Collaborative Center for Precision Medicine focused on Health Disparities; Adjunct Professor, Harldsplass Deaconess Hospital, University of Bergen, Norway

    Research Interests
    Aging; Geriatrics; Statistics as Topic; Frail Elderly; Mathematical Concepts; Biostatistics

    The objective of the Yale Institutional Training Grant for Infectious Disease provide greater research opportunities for Yale postdoctoral trainees to be equipped to address the myriad of unanswered questions concerning the diagnosis, etiology, treatment, prevention, and prognosis of the health problems experienced by the ever increasing number of persons. My mentorship skills will allow trainees to rigorously address the myriad of unanswered scientific questions related to infections experienced by older adults through using innovative designs and biostatistical methods. From the statistical literature, I have continually introduced new state-of-the-art analytical methods that are applicable to clinical and basic aging research. Thus, instead of developing analytic methods in the absence of a clinical question, the Biostatistics Core that I direct adapts new statistical methods that suitably model biology and multifactorial geriatric health conditions. Over the past 15 years with the Yale Program on Aging, I have developed and extended analytic methods to address the many challenges of aging research, trained biostatisticians and clinicians in these methods and provided leadership as Director of the Biostatistics Core of the interdepartmental Program on Aging. I have a wealth of experience conducting epidemiologic studies and is a recognized authority on longitudinal statistical methods, including extended Cox models for state transitions, generalized estimating equations, mixed effects models, latent class trajectory models, joint models and recently modified the average attributable fraction for a time-to-event outcome with time-varying medical conditions. I have served as the senior biostatistician on many published methods papers directly related to multifactorial geriatric health conditions. I have also successfully mentored, often with other T32 faculty, 32 postdoctoral fellows including Yale Training Program in Geriatric Clinical Epidemiology and Aging-Related Research Fellows and junior faculty. These efforts have led to receipt of numerous career development awards from the NIH, VA, Brookdale Foundation, and other private foundations. My research has focused on issues related to the design and analysis of studies of multicomponent interventions and observational studies of multifactorial geriatric conditions. Recently, I have been extending methods into second stage translation research using hierarchical spatio-temporal analysis by modifying propensity score methods and different spatial techniques to translate the work of randomized controlled trials to real-world interventions trials. My research also includes developing strategies for handling missing data that frequently occurs in studies of older persons, different longitudinal imputation methods in the context of older subjects where censoring due to death commonly occurs, and medication effects in older adults with multiple chronic conditions.

  • Rick Altice

    Professor of Medicine (Infectious Diseases) and of Epidemiology (Microbial Diseases); Director, Clinical and Community Research; Director, HIV in Prisons Program; Director, Community Health Care Van; Academic Icon Professor of Medicine, University of Malaya-Centre of Excellence for Research in AIDS (CERiA)

    Research Interests
    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Behavioral Medicine; Community Medicine; Decision Making; Epidemiology; Hepatitis, Viral, Human; Social Medicine; Global Health; HIV Infections; Cognitive Therapy; AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections; Health Status Disparities; Healthcare Disparities; Infectious Disease Medicine; Community-Based Participatory Research; Chemicals and Drugs; Health Care

    I am interested in a broad range of clinical and community research activities at the interface of infectious diseases and addiction. I have conducted innovative research in community, clinic-based and criminal justice settings, both domestically and internationally for over 30 years. I am board-certified in both Infectious Diseases and Addiction Medicine and have developed and tested numerous evidence-based interventions that are associated with improved clinical treatment outcomes for patients with HIV, HCV, HBV and TB.My research involves behavioral and biomedical intervention development (Phase I & II), pilot studies and intervention assessment using randomized controlled trials (Phase III), Phase IV adaptation and evaluation of evidence-based interventions and includes novel implementation science strategies for dissemination. In addition to clinical trials and epidemiological research, I have also contributed to pharmacological and pharmacodynamics studies for treatment of opioid and alcohol dependence among HIV-infected patients, treatment of substance use disorders and conducting pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies of medications used to treat HIV, HCV, TB and opioid and alcohol dependence.I am also leading several mHealth technology studies that target behavioral change, including HIV risk, engagement in clinical care and medication adherence.I have funded research programs in Ukraine, Malaysia and Peru where I mentor domestic and international students as part of Yale’s Global Health Equity Scholars (R25) and Doris Duke International Research Fellowship programs.I am qualified as a mentor for the breadth of my research with continual NIDA, NIMH, NIAID, SAMSHA, HRSA and CDC funding since 1993 and the mentorship of many outstanding clinical trainees who have been awarded F30, F31, K01 and K23 awards and have continued onward to academic independence. I have been the primary mentor for the following NIH-sponsored trainees: Drs. Springer (K23), Copenhaver (K23), Bruce (K23), Meyer (K23), Wickersham (K01), Zelenev (K01), Ghosh (K01), Bazazi (F30), Maru (F30), Basu (F30), Loeliger (F30) and the secondary mentor for Drs. Shenoi (K23) and Davis (K01). Drs. Springer, Meyer and Shenoi, together with Althoff, Morano and Muthulingam, were trainees on the Section of Infectious Diseases’ NIAID-sponsored T32 training program.

  • Choukri Ben Mamoun

    Professor of Medicine (Infectious Diseases) and of Microbial Pathogenesis

    Research Interests
    Babesiosis; Malaria; Opportunistic Infections; Protozoan Infections; Infectious Disease Medicine

    Our laboratory studies the agents of human malaria and babesiosis. The primary objectives of our research program are to identify new cellular mechanisms that could be targeted for the development of selective new therapies. Our laboratory discovered several genes that play critical roles in development, differentiation  and survival of Plasmodium and Babesia parasites. We combine various techniques in the fields of biochemistry, structural biology, genetics and medicinal chemistry to identify inhibitors with potent activity against these parasites. 

  • Linda Bockenstedt

    Harold W. Jockers Professor of Medicine, Deputy Dean for Faculty Affairs

    Research Interests
    Faculty; Immunity, Innate; Lyme Disease; Rheumatology; Tick-Borne Diseases; Lyme Neuroborreliosis

    I am a physician-scientist with scientific expertise in the pathogenesis of tick- borne Lyme borreliosis in animal models and in humans. This infection can cause a form of chronic inflammatory pauciarticular arthritis that resembles autoimmune forms of arthritis. My research laboratory has contributed to the understanding of the roles of T cells, B cells, and innate immunity in Lyme disease pathogenesis and in prevention of infection. Recent efforts include the application of 2-photon microscopy to study tick-borne infection in real-time. We also conduct translational studies that evaluate human immune responses for the purposes of improving diagnostic tests for tick-borne diseases and understanding variability in outcomes from infection. In addition to research, I care for patients with autoimmune disorders and with complications from tick-borne diseases, supervise rheumatology MD trainees and serve on the fellowship trainee selection committee and on the committee that evaluates fellow research progress. As Associate Dean for Faculty Development & Diversity at YSM, I am responsible for overseeing programs to enhance the careers of a diverse faculty.

  • Richard Bucala

    Waldemar Von Zedtwitz Professor of Medicine (Rheumatology) and Professor of Pathology and of Epidemiology (Microbial Diseases); Chief, Section of Rheumatology, Allergy & Immunology, Rheumatology, Allergy, & Immunology

    Research Interests
    Africa; Epidemiology; Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors; Malaria; Pathology; Public Health; Rheumatology; Stem Cells; Global Health; Communicable Diseases, Emerging; Infectious Disease Medicine

    My career as a physician-scientist has provided me with both the scientific and medical expertise and the mentoring skills necessary to contribute meaningfully to this training program. Since my first faculty appointment in 1991, I have trained nearly 50 scientists in my laboratory. Several of these individuals have advanced to prominent positions of medical and scientific leadership, and they include two chairs of medicine, two division chiefs in departments of medicine, a department chair in biochemistry, a clinical trials director, and two division chiefs for drug and vaccine development in the pharmaceutical industry. Over the prior ten years, I have mentored five recipients of career development awards; four of these individuals advanced to junior faculty positions at Johns Hopkins (Hematology), the University of Pennsylvania (Rheumatology, Infectious Diseases), and Yale (Digestive Diseases), and one is a senior fellow in Yale’s Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine.

    My laboratory investigates the mechanisms by which host immunity converts from a protective response to one producing disease and our current focus is on the role of the MIF cytokine family and functional MIF polymorphisms in autoimmunity. These investigations have encompassed structure-function, signal transduction, and genetic studies. We are credited with cloning MIF and its receptor, the discovery of MIF polymorphisms and their association with disease, and the development of biologic and small molecule MIF antagonists for clinical use. We also discovered the circulating fibrocyte and defined its role contribution to different fibrosing disorders. Our research has led directly to clinical trials for humanized anti-MIF in lupus nephritis and lymphoma (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01541670, NCT01765790), and to an anti-fibrocyte therapy for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and myelofibrosis (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01254409, NCT01981850). Our discovery of functional polymorphisms in human MIF have underscored MIF’s pathogenic role and we have participated in several genetic epidemiology studies (GenIMS, VCRC, WIGGR, SLEGEN) to define the influence of MIF alleles in different autoimmune and infectious diseases. We also investigate the relationship between autoimmunity and malaria. This work led to field studies in immunogenetics and prompted our development of a robust biochip for DNA genotyping suitable for resource-limited settings that required no detector instrumentation. We trained Zambian scientists in its use and we have supported several US Down’s and Fogarty Fellows in genetics work in Zambia, Kenya, and Uganda. These research studies ultimately led to our current ACR-International League against Rheumatism clinical program to enhance rheumatology education and training in Zambia.

  • Michael Cappello

    Professor of Pediatrics (Infectious Disease), of Epidemiology (Microbial Diseases) and of Microbial Pathogenesis; Chair, Council on African Studies, Whitney and Betty MacMillan Center for International and Area Studies; co-Director, Yale Africa Initiative

    Research Interests
    Africa, Western; Developing Countries; Ghana; Hookworm Infections; Malaria; Microbiology; Pediatrics; Public Health; Tropical Medicine; Global Health; Infectious Disease Medicine

    Our research program is focused on the pathogenesis and epidemiology of globally important infectious diseases, with the ultimate goal of developing novel methods of diagnosis, treatment and prevention. For the past 20 years, our group has conducted laboratory and field based translational studies of the parasitic diseases hookworm and malaria, major causes of anemia and malnutrition in resource limited countries. Laboratory research has centered on identifying major virulence factors from globally important parasite pathogens, which has allowed for the development of vaccines, drugs, and diagnostics aimed at reducing the risk of infection or modulating disease pathogenesis. In 2007 I co-founded a research and training program aimed at building capacity around the world. The Yale Partnerships for Global Health sponsors bi-directional exchanges of students and faculty with institutions from resource limited countries, creating opportunities to develop collaborative research projects and build a network of young scientists committed to biomedical research. To date, the Yale Partnerships program has sponsored the training of more than 70 students and post-doctoral fellows from Ghana, Brazil, Saudi Arabia, China, Singapore, Australia and the United States.

    Since 2007, my research group has collaborated with Professor Michael Wilson (PI) and his colleagues at the Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research (NMIMR) at the University of Ghana. These collaborative field based studies have focused on the epidemiology of hookworm, with a goal of identifying risk factors for infection, as well as predictors of treatment response and/or failure. Recent collaborations include a clinical study of deworming on fitness among women farmers in Congo, as well as a clinical trials agreement with PATH aimed at developing drugs for use in community based deworming programs. We are also collaborating with Professor Afzal Siddiqui at Texas Tech University on the clinical development of a novel vaccine against human schistosomiasis.

  • Ted Cohen

    Associate Professor of Epidemiology (Microbial Diseases) and Associate Professor in the Institution for Social and Policy Studies; Co-director, Public Health Modeling Concentration

    Research Interests
    Drug Resistance, Microbial; Epidemiology; Europe, Eastern; Models, Biological; Public Health; South America; Tuberculosis; HIV Infections; Molecular Epidemiology; Africa South of the Sahara

    I am an infectious disease epidemiologist with training and experience in clinical medicine, field epidemiology, and transmission dynamic modeling. My research group’s main area of focus is the emergence, spread, and control of drug resistant tuberculosis, now recognized as a major hurdle to global tuberculosis control.

    My research group includes postdoctoral fellows from a diverse set of fields ranging from clinical medicine, applied mathematics, biostatistics, operations research, evolutionary biology, and chemistry. I have previously been a faculty member in the Harvard School of Public Health Infectious Disease Epidemiology T32 training grant and have provided mentorship to pre-doctoral students supported by this grant. I will be serving as the primary mentor for Dr. Patrick Cudahy, an Infectious Diseases fellow at Yale, who started his research with me in July 2015. I will also be serving as the primary mentor for a pre-doctoral T32 fellow on a training grant led by Prof. Trace Kershaw at Yale School of Public Health, Cynthia Shi. My postdoctoral fellows have been very successful in publishing their findings in high impact journals, in securing additional research support, and in being selected for tenure-track academic positions within high-quality departments in prestigious universities. Four recent postdoctoral fellows started newly secured tenure track faculty positions in 2015.

  • Joseph Craft

    Paul B. Beeson Professor of Medicine (Rheumatology) and Professor of Immunobiology; Paul B. Beeson Professor of Medicine; Program Director, Investigative Medicine

    Research Interests
    Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte; Autoimmune Diseases; Biology; Immunity; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic; Investigative Techniques; Rheumatology; Cytokines

    Dr. Craft investigates CD4 T helper cells in conventional and autoimmune responses in mice and in humans, with a primary focus upon the differentiation and function of follicular helper (Tfh) cells that promote B cell maturation in germinal centers (GC). Tfh cell dependent GC responses are critical for development of humoral immunity and B cell memory upon vaccine administration and following infection, and for driving pathogenic autoreactive B cell responses in autoimmune diseases. Dr. Craft’s studies on Tfh cells build upon the earlier work of his trainees and him in characterizing novel immune targets in the systemic autoimmune disease lupus, and studies of tolerance, inflammation, and therapy in that disorder. His group’s work on Tfh cells focuses upon their development, transcriptional control, and promotion and regulation of GC B cells in normal and autoimmune responses. His lab also has investigated other CD4 T cell populations, including those that promote immune memory and inflammation in tissues.

  • Peter Cresswell

    Eugene Higgins Professor of Immunobiology and Professor of Cell Biology

    Research Interests
    Biology; Cell Biology; Endoplasmic Reticulum; Immunity; Major Histocompatibility Complex

    I have been involved in the study of MHC and CD1 molecules, their assembly, peptide and lipid association, and subsequent T cell stimulation for many years, and we continue work in this field. We have identified many genes that regulate both HLA class I and class II functions. T cell recognition of MHC complexes with self- peptides underlies many T-cell mediated autoimmune diseases, and the relevance of this process to tumor and pathogen recognition is clear. We also study the action of interferon-induced genes, including the Fe-S cluster- binding protein viperin, which we named and characterized, that are highly relevant to infectious disease.

    I have mentored over 75 postdoctoral fellows, graduate students, MD/PhD students and undergraduates, many of whom have gone on to faculty positions at major universities and medical centers, pharmaceutical companies and consulting firms.Among these successful trainees are Amit Kunte, MD, PhD, who was supported by the Infectious Diseases T32 Program.

  • Luke Davis

    Associate Professor of Epidemiology (Microbial Diseases) and Associate Professor in Pulmonary; Associate Professor of Medicine (Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine)

    Research Interests
    Critical Care; Tuberculosis; Global Health; Mobile Applications

    My research uses translational and implementation science to improve diagnostic evaluation and case finding for tuberculosis (TB) in low- and middle-income countries. Through interdisciplinary collaborations with scientists from the biological, engineering, behavioral, and population sciences, I strive to develop better ways of finding and treating the more than 10 million individuals living with TB around the world, using a patient-centered approach. Mentoring and advising trainees is a core aspect of all of my projects:

    TB Biomarker Research in the Mulago Inpatient Novel Diagnostics (MIND) for Pneumonia Study. MIND, a longitudinal cohort study started in 2005 with colleagues from Makerere University and UCSF has now enrolled over 4000 inpatients with pneumonia at Mulago National Referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. MIND provides a robust platform for research on diagnosis and pathogenesis of TB and other acute respiratory illnesses, and includes a bio-specimen repository. Several notable MIND studies have included the early evaluation of the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay, a real-time automated nucleic acid amplification test for TB; studies of human exosome-derived peptide biomarkers for TB diagnosis and prognosis; and gene-expression studies seeking biomarkers of M. tuberculosis persistence and TB relapse.

    TB Diagnostic Evaluation and Case Finding within the Uganda Tuberculosis Implementation Research Consortium (U-TIRC). In 2008, in collaboration with colleagues from Makerere University, the Uganda National TB and Leprosy Programme, and other overseas universities, I established a TB implementation research network at primary health centers across Uganda focused on high-quality, patient-centered care. Ongoing studies include an R01-funded randomized, controlled trial of mobile health-supported, home TB and HIV contact investigation in Uganda, and a study to improve the quality and effectiveness of TB education and counseling in Uganda and South Africa.

    Implementation of GeneXpert MTB/RIF to Guide Triage of Airborne Infection Isolation Rooms in the United States. I recently completed several studies evaluating the clinical and public health impact of GeneXpert MTB/RIF on rapid TB evaluation strategies in clinic and hospital settings. These studies applied novel methods for assessing impact of new TB diagnostics and contributed to the evidence base supporting National TB Controllers' Association recommendations that this test be used to guide triage out of airborne-infection isolation rooms in hospitals.

    Training and Capacity Building in Uganda. Building human capacity for research and patient care in Uganda is an important aspects of all projects. A Fogarty International Center-supported Pulmonary Complications of AIDS Research Training (PART) Program that I lead with Dr. Achilles Katamba of Makerere University and Professor Art Reingold from UC Berkeley is training Ugandan researchers in translational research in HIV-associated lung diseases, including TB. I am also founder and research director of Walimu (www.walimu.org), a US- and Uganda-registered non-profit which uses implementation science to improve care for severe acute illness in low-income countries.

  • Erol Fikrig

    Waldemar Von Zedtwitz Professor of Medicine (Infectious Diseases) and Professor of Epidemiology (Microbial Diseases) and of Microbial Pathogenesis; Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute; Section Chief, Infectious Diseases

    Research Interests
    Bacteria; Epidemiology; Lyme Disease; Parasitology; Public Health; Ticks; Viruses; West Nile virus; Global Health; Ehrlichiosis; Borrelia burgdorferi; Infectious Disease Medicine

    Dr. Fikrig leads a research team studying the molecular immunopathogenesis of arthropod-borne diseases. Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis and West Nile encephalitis are areas of particular interest. Studies are directed at understanding the interactions between pathogen, host, and vector that result in virulence and transmission, and the molecular basis of disease in animal models and patient populations. He is well-suited to lead studies focused in molecular microbiology and immunobiology related to agents of infectious diseases.

    Dr. Fikrig has mentored over 85 postdoctoral fellows, doctoral students, medical students, and undergraduates, many of whom have gone on to faculty positions and investigative careers at major universities, medical centers and institutions.His work involves both basic research and translational work with patients and patient samples.Dr. Fikrig’s initial scientific studies contributed to the development of an FDA-approved human Lyme disease vaccine.He then expanded his research efforts to understanding the pathogenesis of other emerging tick-borne infectious agents, such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Later on, investigations evolved to include new, emerging mosquito-borne infectious diseases, such as West Nile virus. The studies are complementary.Elucidating how an extracellular spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi), an obligate intracellular microbe (A. phagocytophilum), and a flavivirus (West Nile virus), interact with the arthropod vector and mammalian host, uncovers both common and unique strategies that pathogens use for survival.

    Hopefully, this will lead to new methods for preventing infection.Investigating specific clinical manifestations of disease, such as Lyme arthritis, A. phagocytophilum-induced neutropenia, and West Nile encephalitis, may lead to a greater understanding of the pathogenesis of disease and new therapeutic options.

    Dr. Fikrig is based at The Anlyan Center for Medical Education and Research at Yale. This rich environment includes collaborators in the departments of Immunobiology, Microbial Pathogenesis, Genetics, and in the School of Public Health.A diverse group of important collaborators helps to facilitate the cross-departmental scholarly studies that are essential for the success of these research efforts.

  • Richard Flavell

    Sterling Professor of Immunobiology; Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute

    Research Interests
    Biology; Diabetes Mellitus; DNA, Recombinant; Immune System; Immunity; Lyme Disease; Autoimmunity; Gene Expression; Gene Transfer Techniques; Mice, Knockout; Cell Lineage; Lyme Neuroborreliosis

    My laboratory uses mouse reverse genetics to study innate and adaptive immunity, T cell tolerance, apoptosis and autoimmunity, and the regulation of T cell differentiation. Recent studies include the NLR family of innate sensors and their role in anti-infective responses and inflammatory disease. Most recently we have established the connection between inflammasomes, microbial homeostasis and chronic diseases. We have shown that dysbiosis of the microbiota leads to IBD and Metabolic Syndrome, including Obesity, Fatty Liver disease and Type 2 diabetes. For the past ten years, we have been developing and improving an entirely novel humanized mouse model capable of supporting engrafted human hematopoietic stem cells enabling generation of both adaptive and innate immune cells.I have mentored numerous young investigators, most of whom have gone on to distinguished careers of their own. This group of outstanding scientists includes Fayyaz Sutterwala MD, PhD, who was supported on the Infectious Diseases T32 training grant.

  • Ellen F Foxman

    Assistant Professor of Laboratory Medicine and Immunobiology

    Research Interests
    Asthma; Bacterial Infections; Biology; Common Cold; Cell Biology; Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System; Environmental Health; Epithelial Cells; Histology; Immune System; Immunity, Innate; Interferons; Microbiology; Pathology; Respiratory System; Rhinovirus; RNA Virus Infections; RNA Viruses; Viruses, Unclassified; Virology; Immunity, Mucosal; Respiratory Mucosa; Genomics; Infectious Disease Medicine; Translational Medical Research; Epigenomics; Transcriptome

    My laboratory investigates the natural defense mechanisms that protect the airway from viral infections, focusing on the epithelial cells that form the lining of the airways. Our aim is to identify mechanisms that block viral replication and to understand why these defenses don’t always work. The long-term goal of these studies is to find new ways to prevent, treat, and diagnose common respiratory infections.  Our work focuses on rhinovirus, the most frequent cause of common colds and asthma attacks.

     

    Interestingly, these studies have begun to reveal antagonism between protection against viral infection and protection against other types of epithelial damage.  Therefore, a broader goal of our work is to understand the principles and molecular mechanisms that govern how epithelial cells integrate competing needs to protect against infections, environmental exposures, and cancer.

  • Gerald Friedland

    Professor Emeritus of and Senior Research Scientist in Medicine (Infectious Diseases); Professor Emeritus of Medicine and Epidemiology and Public Health; Senior Research Scientist, Infectious Diseases

    Research Interests
    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Africa, Southern; Epidemiology; HIV; Public Health; Tuberculosis; Global Health; Anti-Retroviral Agents; Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis; Infectious Disease Medicine; Geographicals

    I have focused my career in infectious diseases on creating new knowledge to improve the health of marginalized and under-served populations in the US and globally. I have been deeply involved in training, research and care in infectious diseases, specifically HIV/AIDS and TB since 1981 and internationally since 2001. I have established and directed HIV/AIDS clinical programs, integrated biomedical, clinical, epidemiological and behavioral research, observational studies, clinical trials and implementation research in health care and community settings. Trainees have been involved in all of these activities. I have worked collaboratively with South African colleagues in Durban and rural Tugela Ferry since 2002 to combat and reverse the syndemics of HIV, TB and drug resistant TB. I have received funding from US governmental agencies, including NIDA, NIAID, USAID and CDC and non-governmental foundations and have served on national and international organizations addressing issues of HIV, TB, and global health including the DHHS Panel on the Use of Antiretroviral Agents chairing the sections on injection drug use, medication adherence and TB. Throughout my career, I have taken great pleasure in serving as a mentor for students, residents, fellows and faculty in infectious diseases, HIV/AIDS and TB in the US and international sites.

  • Jorge Galán

    Lucille P. Markey Professor of Microbial Pathogenesis and Professor of Cell Biology; Chair, Department of Microbial Pathogenesis

    Research Interests
    Bacteriology; Genetics, Microbial; Microbiology; Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment

    My laboratory studies the molecular mechanisms of host/pathogen interactions with special focus on the enteric pathogens Salmonella and Campylobacter jejuni.  We use multidisciplinary approaches to define bacterial and host molecules involved in the pathogenic mechanisms and host defense.  Of particular interest are the study of bacterial protein secretion machines, bacterial effector and toxin molecules, and their role in modulating host cellular functions, inflammation, and the host immune responses. I have been involved in training and teaching for my entire career and I have mentored 15 Graduate Students and more than 60 postdoctoral fellows. I also serve as director of the Microbial Pathogenesis training program.

  • Thomas M. Gill

    Humana Foundation Professor of Medicine (Geriatrics) and Professor of Epidemiology (Chronic Diseases) and of Investigative Medicine; Director, Yale Program on Aging; Director, Claude D. Pepper Older Americans Independence Center; Director, Yale Center for Disability and Disabling Disorders; Director, Yale Training Program in Geriatric Clinical Epidemiology and Aging-Related Research

    Research Interests
    Aging; Disability Evaluation; Epidemiology; Geriatrics; Geriatric Assessment; Clinical Trial

    I have the expertise, leadership, training, and motivation necessary to serve as a mentor for postdoctoral fellows and other trainees. As a board certified geriatrician and epidemiologist, I have done groundbreaking research on the epidemiology and prevention of disability, a challenging and complex problem of immense importance to older persons, their families and society. I direct the Center on Disability and Disabling Disorders, which conducts longitudinal studies and clinical trials to enhance the scientific knowledge base of the disablement process and to rigorously evaluate promising intervention strategies. My overarching goal is to translate findings from longitudinal studies and clinical trials to promote the functional independence of older persons in an aging society. During the past 20+ years, my research has been continuously funded by the NIH. My research accomplishments have been recognized through the receipt of numerous awards, including the Beeson Award, RWJ Generalist Physician Faculty Scholar Award, 2001 AGS Outstanding Scientific Achievement for Clinical Investigation Award, a MERIT Award from the NIA, the Ewald Busse Research Award in the Biomedical Sciences, the Joseph T. Freeman Award, and election to the American Society of Clinical Investigation (ASCI) and Association of American Physicians (AAP). I have had a leadership role in the Yale Program on Aging and Claude D. Pepper Older Americans Independence Center for the past 16 years and have served as its Director since 2010. I was supported by an NIA Midcareer Mentorship (K24) Award (for 10 years) and am currently supported by an NIA Leadership (K07) Award. My trainees have competed successfully for nationally prominent career development awards, including Beeson, K23, K01, VA, Brookdale, Williams, Hartford, GEMSSTAR and AGS/ Pfizer. I was the founding co-director of the Geriatrics T32 training grant (in 2001) and have served as the PI since 2004.

  • Akiko Iwasaki

    Waldemar Von Zedtwitz Professor of Immunobiology and Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology; Professor of Molecular Cellular and Developmental Biology; Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute

    Research Interests
    Arboviruses; Autophagy; DNA Viruses; Herpes Simplex; Immune System; Immunity, Cellular; Immunity, Innate; Influenza, Human; Molecular Biology; Pneumonia, Viral; Pregnancy Complications; Proviruses; RNA Viruses; Sexually Transmitted Diseases; Tumor Virus Infections; Encephalitis, Viral; Central Nervous System Viral Diseases; Inflammasomes

    Dr. Iwasaki’s laboratory is interested in understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of innate virus recognition and in elucidating innate signals that lead to the generation of protective immunity. Her studies on how to generate memory lymphocytes at the site of infection that protect the host against viral infections provide key clues to designing effective vaccines. Dr. Iwasaki has been a faculty at the Yale School of Medicine since 2000, and has a strong interest in graduate student and postdoctoral fellow training and education. She has served as a member of the Immunology Track admissions committee for 3 years. Dr. Iwasaki has been the chair of postdoctoral committee in the department for many years, which is responsible for ensuring career transition and success of the postdocs in the department and resolving conflicts. In addition, Dr. Iwasaki served as a member and then the chair of the medical school fellowship committee, which advises on the selection of fellows for the Alexander Brown Coxe postdoctoral fellowship program. She also serves on the Executive Committee of the Virology Training Grant at Yale and of the Immunobiology Training Grant at Yale. Dr. Iwasaki served as a mentor to 11 postdoctoral fellows and 11 graduate students, 8 of whom have already establish their own laboratories as faculty at various academic institutions, including associate professors in Tokyo University (Takeshi Ichinohe), Osaka University (Miwa Sasai), KAIST (Heung Kyu Lee), Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (Jennifer Lund), and assistant professors in University of Washington (Susan Fink), Washington University (Haina Shin), Rutgers University (Yosuke Kumamoto) and Yale University (Ellen Foxman). In summary, Dr. Iwasaki has a demonstrated record of successful and productive mentoring record, and the experience and expertise has prepared Dr. Iwasaki to serve as a member of the training program. 

  • Raymond Johnson

    Associate Professor of Medicine (Infectious Diseases) and of Microbial Pathogenesis

    Research Interests
    Chlamydia trachomatis; Trachoma; Infectious Disease Medicine

    I am by training and aptitude a physician scientist with a keen interest in translational aspects of cellular immunology. My graduate research investigated the cellular immune response to Herpes simplex virus infections. I was among the first to derive T cell clones specific for Herpes simplex viral glycoproteins, and the first to derive a pathogen-specific gamma/delta T cell clone from infected mice. I have ongoing translational projects in diagnostic testing and therapeutic interventions for Kawasaki Disease and chronic transplant rejection.

    The major focus of my laboratory is the rational development of a Chlamydia vaccine. This is a challenging vaccine because Chlamydia trachomatis is a stealth pathogen replicating almost exclusively in the monolayer of epithelial cells lining the reproductive tract. A successful vaccine will likely need to generate a CD4 T cell response robust enough to provide surveillance of a vast reproductive tract mucosa. This research project incorporates a basic science small animal model that remarkably reproduces the clinical features of human C. trachomatis genital tract infections, and translational investigations of individuals with C. trachomatis infections.

    During the course of my career in academic medicine I have supervised and published with postdoctoral fellows in basic research and clinical training.

  • Manisha Juthani

    Associate Professor of Medicine (Infectious Diseases) and Epidemiology (Microbial Diseases); Program Director, Infectious Diseases Fellowship Program; Associate Program Director for Career Development, Traditional Internal Medicine Residency Program; Director of Internal Medicine Fellowship Programs

    Research Interests
    Aging; Nursing Homes; Palliative Care; Pneumonia; Urinary Tract Infections; Infectious Disease Medicine

    I am the Infectious Diseases Fellowship Program Director and co-PI of the T32 Training Grant in Infectious Diseases. I serve in both of these roles because I have a demonstrated interest in mentorship and the development of trainees. For the past 15 years, I have been investigating infections in older adults, specifically urinary tract infection (UTI) and pneumonia. As a board certified infectious disease physician with training in geriatric clinical epidemiology, I have been ideally positioned to investigate these conditions. Based on my training supported by a T32 training grant under the mentorship of Dr. Tinetti and Dr. Quagliarello, I successfully obtained an NIA funded R03 small research grant and K23 career development award, T. Franklin Williams Career Development Award, Research Career Development Award through the Yale Pepper Center, Yale Center for Clinical Investigation (Yale CTSA) Scholar Award, and R01 research grant. I served as the Chair for the Internal Safety Committee for Dr. Quagliarello’s R01 funded clinical trial entitled, “A Randomized Controlled Trial to Reduce Pneumonia in Nursing Home Residents.” Through the support of these grants, I have gained expertise in conducting prospective observational cohort studies, low risk clinical trials in the nursing home setting, and secondary data analyses of existing datasets. My recently completed R01 funded clinical trial entitled “Cranberry Capsules for Prevention of UTI in Nursing Home Residents” was published in JAMA in November 2016. It was one of the most viewed articles in 2016 and identified by The New Yorker as one of the most notable medical findings of 2016. To date, I have successfully mentored students, residents, and fellows on research projects. Currently, I am mentoring two MPH students, a resident, and an ID fellow on projects regarding the use of antimicrobials at the end of life, particularly in patients with end stage cancer. Within this context, I became a research member of the Yale Cancer Center. New investigative opportunities are developing in my research portfolio at the interface of antimicrobial stewardship.

  • Barbara Kazmierczak

    Gustavus and Louise Pfeiffer Research Foundation M.D.-Ph.D. Program Director and Professor of Medicine (Infectious Diseases) and of Microbial Pathogenesis; Professor, Microbial Pathogenesis; Director, MD-PhD Program, Yale University

    Research Interests
    Bacterial Infections; Education, Medical, Graduate; Immunity, Innate; Microbiology; Pseudomonas; Biomedical Research; Host-Pathogen Interactions; Infectious Disease Medicine

    I am a physician-scientist whose laboratory studies the bacterial and host factors that allow environmental and commensal bacteria to cause disease. My laboratory provides an excellent training environment for investigating the microbiology, cell biology and immunology of host-pathogen interactions. Our main focus is on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a pathogen associated with both acute and chronic infections of the respiratory tract. My pre- and post-doctoral trainees have made fundamental contributions to understanding the regulation of virulence factor expression by P. aeruginosa and the innate immune responses elicited and manipulated by this pathogen.Clinically relevant questions, including the basic mechanisms responsible for P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance, and the influence of the microbiome on inflammation and disease progression in Cystic Fibrosis, are current topics of study by trainees.

  • Albert Ko

    Department Chair and Professor of Epidemiology (Microbial Diseases) and of Medicine (Infectious Diseases); Department Chair, Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases

    Research Interests
    Dengue; Epidemiology; Leptospirosis; Urban Health; Global Health; Meningitis, Bacterial; Infectious Disease Medicine

    I have the expertise and leadership to serve as a mentor in this T32 training grant application given my experience in implementing multidisciplinary clinical, translational and community-based research to address global health problems. My academic interest focuses on the intersection of public health and social equity and more specifically on the infectious diseases that have emerged due to rapid urbanization and urban poverty.I have long-term experience in establishing international sites for clinical and field epidemiology investigations, having been stationed in Brazil for 16 years (1995-2010) as a Cornell faculty member at the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation/Brazilian Ministry of Health.I have served as the US program director of the research and training program on urban slum health, which my Brazilian collaborators and I established in 1996 after an outbreak investigation that raised awareness of the rapid emergence of rat-borne leptospirosis in slum settings. We have conducted field and laboratory research since then to study the natural history and transmission dynamics of leptospirosis, identify the pathogen, host and environment-related factors that influence infection and disease progression, and use these observations to develop and evaluate community- based interventions, improved diagnostics and vaccine candidates.Since 2003, we have conducted prospective cohort investigations of 14,000 slum residents to study the natural history and ecology of leptospirosis and evaluate the effectiveness of improved sanitation in reducing the risk for this rat-borne disease.Furthermore, our studies on leptospirosis has created the capacity to address a range of emerging slum health problems, such as bacterial meningitis, vaccine preventable diseases, dengue and tuberculosis. I am the Yale program director of the Fogarty Global Health Equity Scholars Program, served as program director of a previous Fogarty Global Infectious Disease Training Program (2003-2012) and Fogarty International Clinical Research Scholars and Fellows Program (2004-2012) and supervise students and fellows from the Fulbright-Fogarty Program and Doris Duke International Clinical Research Fellows Program.I will use my extensive experience in establishing global health training programs and mentoring fellows internationally and at Yale for the program proposed in this application.

  • Michael Kozal

    Professor of Medicine (AIDS); Vice Chair for Veteran Affairs, Yale Dept. of Internal Medicine; Chief, Medical Service, VACT Healthcare System; Medicine Service Line Director for VISN 1: VA New England Healthcare System

    Research Interests
    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Clinical Trials as Topic; Drug Resistance; Hepatitis C; HIV; Veterans; Infectious Disease Medicine

    Dr. Kozal is a translational researcher who has focused his research career on three areas: 1) investigating the genetic determinants of HIV and HCV drug resistance, 2) the development of new molecular methods to detect viral mutations, and 3) HIV and HCV clinical trials involving new drugs and diagnostic technology. Dr. Kozal is an expert in microarray and deep sequencing technology receiving patents for his work in genotyping which are licensed by 6 companies. Dr. Kozal has 20 years of experience in HIV and HCV clinical trials. Dr. Kozal served as the primary mentor for four recent trainees: Max Lataillade, D.O., MPH, Gustine Liu-Young, M.D., Thuy Le, M.D. and Shiven Chabria, MD.

  • Priti Kumar

    Associate Professor of Infectious Diseases

    Research Interests
    T-Lymphocytes; RNA Interference; Infectious Disease Medicine; Molecular Targeted Therapy

    The Kumar laboratory conducts translational research with a main focus on the development of novel gene therapies for viral infections. This research leverages Dr. Kumar’s diverse background, which includes training as a virologist and an immunologist, as well as extensive expertise in engineering viral and non-viral vectors for gene therapy. For her doctoral studies at the Indian Institute of Science, Dr. Kumar identified the correlates for protective immunity in individuals infected with the Japanese encephalitis virus. As a post-doctoral researcher in the Immune Disease Institute at Harvard, Dr. Kumar pioneered the use of small interfering RNA (siRNA) as treatment for infections caused by RNA viruses such as West Nile and HIV.

    Over the last 6 years as faculty at Yale, Dr. Kumar’s laboratory has been involved in understanding pathogenesis of RNA viruses in relevant small animal models and expanding research efforts towards the use of novel gene therapeutic strategies for their prevention and treatment. Dr. Kumar and her lab are particularly recognized for their work on viral and non-viral gene therapy platforms for HIV in human immune cells as well as in humanized mice, the new generation small animal model for HIV.

  • Ruslan Medzhitov

    Sterling Professor of Immunobiology; Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute

    Research Interests
    Allergy and Immunology; Immunity; Inflammation; Macrophages; Gene Expression; Host-Pathogen Interactions; Adaptive Immunity

    I have experience in studying innate immune system and innate control of adaptive immunity, as well as experience in studying dendritic cells specialization in control of T cell responses. Over the past ten years, I have trained 39 post docs, 22 pre docs, plus numerous undergraduates and clinical fellows, most of whom have secured faculty positions in prestigious institutions in the US as well as in Europe.I have served on the mentorship committee of David van Duin, MD, PhD, who was a trainee supported by the Infectious Diseases T32 training grant.

  • Walther Mothes

    Professor of Microbial Pathogenesis; Co-Leader, Cancer Microbiology

    Research Interests
    Cell Biology; HIV; Immune System; Retroviridae

    Our laboratory is interested in various aspects of viral spread and pathogenesis of HIV-1 and other retroviruses. Retroviruses can efficiently spread from cell to cell through contact zones, called virological and infectious synapses. Our laboratory has contributed to the understanding of this process by directly visualizing how cell-cell contracts between infected and uninfected cells form, virus assembly is directed towards cell-cell contact sites and viruses are actively transferred to infect neighboring cells. A major current interest of our laboratory is to monitor viral spread and aspects of retroviral pathogenesis directly in living animals using multi- photon laser scanning microscopy. We are also applying single molecule imaging to understand how conformational events in the HIV-1 envelope protein lead to fusion between viral and cellular membranes. A detailed understanding of these processes will permit the rational design of vaccines and antiviral therapies that prevent virus spreading and the infection of new cells. These interests have obvious relevance to Infectious Diseases, and I believe I am well qualified to serve as a member of the training faculty for this T32 training grant.

  • Vincent Quagliarello

    Professor of Medicine (Infectious Diseases); Clinical Chief, Infectious Diseases; Vice Chair for Education and Academic Affairs, Department of Internal Medicine

    Research Interests
    Endocarditis; Meningitis; Nursing Homes; Pneumonia; Infectious Disease Medicine

    Dr. Quagliarello’s experience and expertise, as an Infectious Disease trained physician whose current research focuses on infections in older adults, make him well qualified to serve as a training faculty for this T32 renewal proposal. Following a successful career investigating the pathophysiology and clinical management of meningitis, Dr. Quagliarello has focused on the interdisciplinary projects studying common infections (i.e., pneumonia, urinary tract infection) affecting older adults. This work was supported initially by Yale Older American Independence Center (OAIC) pilot funding and an NIA funded R21 grant and led to two NIA funded R01 awards: 1) an R01 award, in which Dr. Quagliarello was the PI, to conduct a randomized clinical trial studying a multicomponent intervention strategy to prevent pneumonia among elderly nursing home residents; and 2) an R01 award, in which Dr. Quagliarello’s mentee [Dr. Juthani-Mehta] is the PI, to conduct a randomized clinical trial of the effect of oral cranberry capsules in preventing urinary tract infection among elderly nursing home women. In the context of both of these clinical trials, Dr. Quagliarello has led several observational studies of infection (especially pneumonia and urinary tract infection) affecting older adults and mentored several trainees as part of an NIA K07 Academic Leadership Award. These studies can serve as templates for future trainee projects in collaboration with Dr. Juthani-Mehta and the infrastructure of data management and biostatistics expertise of the Yale OAIC in which Dr. Quagliarello serves as Director of the Operations Core. Dr. Quagliarello’s success in mentoring trainees, who have garnered K and R01 awards, further enhances his value to this proposal.

  • Craig Roy

    Waldemar Von Zedtwitz Professor of Microbial Pathogenesis and of Immunobiology; Vice-Chair, Department of Microbial Pathogenesis

    Research Interests
    Bacteria; Immune System; Macrophages; Protozoan Proteins; Legionella pneumophila; Coxiella burnetii; Vesicular Transport Proteins

    I have over twenty years of experience studying bacterial pathogenesis and the host response to infection. The focus of our research is to understand the molecular and cellular events that enable microbial pathogens to replicate intracellularly and to define responses triggered during infection that provide host protection. To address these questions we are using both Legionella pneumophila and Coxiella burnetii as model intracellular pathogens. The multidisciplinary training fellows receive in my laboratory provides them with the expertise needed to become successful independent investigators and physician scientists.

  • Albert C Shaw

    Professor of Medicine (Infectious Diseases)

    Research Interests
    Aging; DNA Repair; Immune System; Immunity, Innate; Influenza Vaccines; Toll-Like Receptors; Infectious Disease Medicine

    Research in my laboratory is focused on understanding mechanisms underlying age-associated alterations in the immune system.My laboratory has a particular interest in aging of the human innate immune system, and was the first to elucidate age-associated defects in human Toll-like Receptor (TLR) function that predict antibody response to influenza immunization.Our ongoing work focuses on mechanisms of TLR dysfunction and on additional innate immune pattern recognition receptor function in the context of human aging.We are also seeking to elucidate immunologic and gene expression signatures of influenza vaccine response, and the effects of aging and functional status such as frailty on these signatures. I serve as Director of the Pilot and Exploratory Studies Core and Co-Director of the Research Career Development Core; in these capacities, I facilitate new studies in translational aging research, with a particular emphasis on new and early-stage investigators.I also hold a Mid-Career Investigator Award in Patient-Oriented Research (K24) from the National Institute on Aging that is designed to promote mentorship and training of junior investigators studying mechanisms underlying aging of the immune system, and serve as a Director for the T32 Research Training Program for the Section of Infectious Diseases at Yale.

  • Sandra Springer

    Associate Professor of Medicine (AIDS) and Associate Clinical Professor of Nursing; Director, Infectious Disease Outpatient Clinic, Veterans Administration Healthcare Services, Newington

    Research Interests
    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Alcoholism; Buprenorphine; HIV; Naloxone; Naltrexone; Opioid-Related Disorders; Prisoners; Risk-Taking; Substance-Related Disorders

    I am an Associate Professor of Medicine in the Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases at the Yale School of Medicine. I am Board-Certified in Internal Medicine, Infectious Diseases and Addiction Medicine. I have a significant research experience persons with alcohol and substance use disorders and with persons living with HIV (PLH). I am the Director of the Infectious Disease Clinic at the Newington campus of the Veterans Administration Healthcare System CT where I care for persons living with HIV (PLH). I am NIH- funded clinical researcher focusing on interventions to improve HIV and substance use disorder outcomes and in particular have a strong emphasis on using medication assisted therapies for alcohol and opioid use disorder. I have recently completed two 5-year R01s that have substantial amount of data to analyze including HIV VL, CD4, ART adherence, depression, homelessness, criminal record, quality of life, HIV risk taking behaviors and substance use outcomes. Such rich prospective data is ready to be analyzed , written up into a peer-reviewed manuscript and published, and therefore would be a perfect project to start upon immediately for any incoming fellow. In addition I currently have a new R01 that started 2016 that is also a five year project among HIV + and HIV - participants with opioid use disorders and this study has on-going prospective data that includes substance use and HIV outcomes as well for a fellow to evaluate as a project.

  • Serena Spudich

    Dr. Harry M. Zimmerman and Dr. Nicholas and Viola Spinelli Professor of Neurology; Division Chief, Neurological Infections & Global Neurology; Co-director, Center for Neuroepidemiology and Clinical Neurological Research

    Research Interests
    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Antiviral Agents; Cerebrospinal Fluid; Dementia; HIV; Nervous System; Neurology; Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy; Biomarkers, Pharmacological

    My translational research background, clinical training, and ongoing research programs make me uniquely suited to contribute to the proposed T32 application. My relevant clinical expertise arises from training in both Internal Medicine and Neurology, as well as fellowship training in Neuro-infectious Disease, Neuro- AIDS, and clinical research methods.My primary research concentration is the pathogenesis of HIV infection in the nervous system, focusing particularly on establishment of inflammation, injury, and a potential CNS ‘reservoir’ for HIV. These studies have involved intensive and coordinated multidisciplinary studies of difficult to access and identify subjects, for example systemic HIV controllers, patients with CNS ‘escape,’ and individuals with acute and early infection in San Francisco, USA and Bangkok, Thailand. Having overseen these unique neurologic studies, I have extensive experience with implementation and interpretation of measures of host CNS immune responses, CNS virologic and neural biomarkers, and neurological assessment in HIV infected and uninfected individuals as proposed in the current application. I have led and collaborated on novel studies employing CSF cellular immunology and virology with numerous colleagues in systemic HIV and other disciplines. Additionally, my current positions as Chair of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Neurology Collaborative Science Group and as the first neuroscientist elected to the ACTG Viral Eradication and Reservoirs Transformative Science Group have given me a broad and rigorous view of the most critical issues in pathogenesis and treatment of CNS HIV, and unique insight into cutting-edge challenges in and approaches to HIV treatment and CNS HIV persistence which will provide crucial insight for the design and interpretation of the proposed studies.I have extensive experience with mentorship and training of junior investigators, having served as the primary mentor for 25 predoctoral trainees and 8 postdoctoral trainees, all of whom published first author publications and/or presented at international conferences. Furthermore, I served as the co-PI on a successful T32 translational research fellowship training program in NeuroHIV at UCSF prior to my move to Yale.

  • Richard Sutton

    Professor

    Research Interests
    HIV; Molecular Biology; Infectious Disease Medicine

    I have been studying HIV replication in murine models and using HIV vectors for gene therapy applications for two decades.Recently I have been interested in the genetics of elite control of HIV in man, with a manuscript published recently in Journal of Virology demonstrating that a subset of elite controllers (ECs) have cell intrinsic resistance to R5-tropic virus that may be explained by higher levels of secreted chemokines. I have also been using helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vectors to produce third generation replication-defective HIV particles of extremely high titer for gene transfer into human cells (Molecular Therapy-Methods and Clinical Development, also just published). These studies led to the question whether adenoviral vectors can encode anti-HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies or bNAbs, to be used both prophylactically and therapeutically.In collaboration with Dr. Priti Kumar, our lab has designed, constructed, and amplified first generation adenoviral vectors encoding various bNAbs, and demonstrated prophylactic efficacy in the NSG-hu PBL model, with a manuscript just published in Human Gene Therapy.Other work in the lab describes our use of an HIV-based vector system to comprehensively identify and categorize ~19,000 enhancer-like elements in human embryonic stem cells, and a novel host factor that inhibits the canonical NFkB pathway, the latter in collaboration with the Fikrig laboratory (just published). Of note, I am a board-certified infectious diseases clinician who has taken care of HIV-infected patients since the late 1980s. I am now chief of Infectious Diseases at the West Haven VA. Thus, I have the pleasure of interacting with all of the ID fellows on a clinical basis, as each rotates through the VA. I also regularly attend Wednesday morning case conference, where I actively contribute, and monthly ID journal club at which the ID fellows and faculty present published papers.I organize the weekly Tuesday noon ID-Rheumatology research-in-progress conference, which each ID fellow should attend and must present on an annual basis. I also co-organize the monthly HIV club with Drs. Ditas Villanueva and Serena Spudich, which hosts both internal and external speakers. Currently my research laboratory has a number of post-doctoral fellows and post-graduate/visiting scholars, associate research scientists, one clinical fellow, and at any given time either master students, Yale and visiting undergraduates, and even local high school students.

  • Mary Tinetti

    Gladys Phillips Crofoot Professor of Medicine (Geriatrics) and Professor in the Institution for Social and Policy Studies; Section Chief, Geriatrics

    Research Interests
    Accidental Falls; Decision Making; Geriatrics; Risk Factors

    I am currently the Gladys Phillips Crofoot Professor of Medicine, Epidemiology/Public Health, and Investigative Medicine; Chief of the Division of Geriatric Medicine; and Director of the Harford Center of Excellence and will continue to assist Dr. Gill in the overall direction of the NIA Training Program. I was the founding Director of the Geriatrics T32 Training Grant from the NIA, a cofounder of the interdepartmental Yale Program on Aging, and first principal investigator for the Yale Claude D. Pepper Older Americans Independence Center for the past 12 years I have been continuously funded by the NIA and several foundations since joining the faculty at Yale in 1984.I have published 175 original reports as well as numerous reviews and book chapters. Through my own research and mentoring experience, I am well equipped to support the mission of the training grant program. I am one of the leading international experts in the area of falls and fall injury risk factors identification and prevention. Through my own studies and through the development of rigorous methodologies for addressing geriatric health problems, I helped develop and launch the field of geriatric clinical epidemiology in general, and multifactorial geriatric syndromes in particular. I have devoted my skills and efforts not only to my own research but also to the creation of a world class program in aging research at the Yale School of Medicine.My current research focus includes determining the health outcomes associated with treating one disease in the face of the co-occurrence of another disease that worsens with treatment of the first disease (therapeutic competition) and measuring the net benefit and harms of commonly used medications in individuals with multiple chronic conditions. I am also leading a national effort to develop and test patient health outcome goal and care preference-directed care for older adults with multiple chronic conditions (MCC) achieved through primary/specialty care alignment. I have contributed to the development of some of the most successful geriatric clinical epidemiologists and leaders in this country, including Drs. Thomas Gill, Sharon Inouye, Mark Lachs, Richard Marottoli, Cary Reid, Terri Fried, Cynthia Brown, Lisa Walke, and Manisha Juthani-Mehta (who is now a PI of this Infectious Diseases T32 application). I have senior-authored and co- authored a large number of publications from my trainees including topics such as prediction and prevention of disability, ascertainment of patients’ goals with advanced illness, alcohol use in older adults, effectiveness of physical therapy for mobility maintenance, diagnosis and management of UTIs in frail older adults. My experience and expertise as a mentor and leader is further evidenced by my selection as a member of the advisory/selection committees of several prestigious national career development programs as noted below. I am the recipient of numerous awards, including, among others, the MacArthur Foundation Fellowship, Eisenberg Award from the Society of General Internal Medicine, and Henderson Award from the American Geriatrics Society, and am a member of the Institute of Medicine.These activities make me well qualified to serve as a mentor and member of the T32 training program faculty.

  • Christian Tschudi

    John Rodman Paul Professor of Epidemiology (Microbial Diseases); Director of Graduate Studies

    Research Interests
    Parasitic Diseases; Tropical Medicine; Trypanosomiasis, African; Genomics; RNA Interference

    I have extensive experience in graduate student training and mentoring, which was recognized in 2008 by the appointment as Director of Graduate Studies in the School of Public Health. I am also the co-Director of an NIH-sponsored Global Infectious Disease Training Program (D43) in translational research training on leishmaniasis & emerging infectious diseases. My main involvement as a teacher includes directing courses, giving lectures in courses, supervising and mentoring rotation students, Master of Public Health (MPH) students, graduate students and postdoctoral fellows in my laboratory, advising MPH, graduate and MD/PhD students and being a member of qualifying exams and thesis committees. I am a member of three admission committees, namely for PhD students in the School of Public Health, and for PhD students in Microbiology and for MD/PhD students in the School of Medicine.

    I have regular meetings with students and postdoctoral fellows in my laboratory to discuss, analyze and plan their research. In addition, I mentor them in writing abstracts, scientific manuscripts and dissertations, as well as guide them to give conference presentations and advise them on career choices. In my teaching both in and out of class, I provide an environment that shows that I care about my students and postdocs as learners and individuals. I believe that this results in an atmosphere of trust that allows students and postdocs to feel part of a learning community. I very much enjoy teaching and mentoring and it is a great privilege for me to help students and postdocs embark on and pursue their careers.

    Finally, I have a demonstrated record of successful and productive research projects in the field of molecular parasitology. I have a broad background in RNA biology, with in-depth expertise in the analysis of gene expression in trypanosomatid protozoa. I have over 33 years of experience in trypanosome molecular biology with many seminal contributions in the areas of polycistronic transcription, trans-splicing, RNA interference, small nuclear RNA synthesis, genome-wide transcriptome analysis and a demonstrated ability to successfully implement demanding techniques. One of the fundamental steps in the life of a pathogen is the acquisition of infectivity. In the case of African trypanosomes, this occurs in the tsetse fly. Although the intricate nature of trypanosome development in the fly has been recognized for more than a century, the molecular mechanisms are still mysterious, due to experimental challenges of studying parasites in the fly. By overexpressing a single RNA-binding protein (RBP6) in non-infectious trypanosomes, we recapitulated in vitro the events leading to acquisition of infectivity in tsetse. The in vitro process opens numerous research avenues that will further our understanding how the pathogen becomes infectious and, further down the road, will provide an opening for new intervention strategies.