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Pediatric Ophthalmology and Adult Strabismus

In Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, we promote the science and art of pediatric eye care to improve the visual health of children. Children are susceptible to all eye diseases that occur in adults and additional disease entities. We also deal with evaluation and treatment of amblyopia, strabismus, double vision, and other ocular motility disorders in children and adults.

The mission of this Section is two-fold:

  • To advance the quality of children’s eye care by establishing standards of practice at the highest level of clinical competence and by fostering concepts which benefit children’s eye health through prevention.
  • To provide excellent care to those adult patients with newly developed eye muscle problems secondary to illness, head trauma, or old residual problems from childhood strabismus.

As the only Pediatric Ophthalmology and Adult Strabismus group in Southern New England located within an academic medical center (Yale University School of Medicine), our clinical team, with Dr. Martha Howard, MD as Interim Director, provides expertise in diagnosing and treating children’s simple & complex eye pathology and adult strabismus disorders.


  • Associate Professor of Clinical Ophthalmology & Visual Science; Director, Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, Ophthalmology and Visual Science

    Dr. Howard graduated from Duke University with an AB in Biology and then completed her medical degree at Brown University. While a medical student she was awarded a March of Dimes fellowship to do research at the Whitehead Institute, an affiliate of MIT. An internship in internal medicine at Salem Hospital was followed by an ophthalmology residency at the Yale School of Medicine where she was Chief Resident and was awarded the Marvin Sears Award for Clinical excellence in Ophthalmology in 1991.  After a Retina fellowship at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, she practiced for several years as a retina surgeon. Subsequently she completed a second fellowship in Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus at Duke University. She is a Principal Investigator for studies in the Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group, serves on the Executive Board of the Connecticut Society of Eye Physicians, and is a Liaison for the Status of Women in Medicine at the Yale School of Medicine. She is a Fellow of the American Academy of Ophthalmology and member of the American Association of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Dr. Howard believes educating the next generation of physicians is as important as clinical practice, reflected by teaching Yale medical students for many years and serving as a Clinical Instructor at the Cornell Scott-Hill Health Center for Yale ophthalmology residents from 2005-2016 prior to joining the Department of Ophthalmology. In addition, she has been an invited lecturer and surgeon in Fujairah, United Arab Emirates, and volunteer strabismus surgeon in Quito, Ecuador. She is driven to help children achieve their best visual potential to succeed in their lives by treating patients with amblyopia, genetic disorders, eyelid capillary hemangiomas, performing procedures for blocked tear ducts and dermoid cysts, and surgical correction of strabismus in children. She is also compelled to help adults regain their independence by treating debilitating diplopia with non-surgical and surgical solutions.
  • Assistant Professor of Ophthalmology and Visual Science

    Dr. Rotruck is a Fellowship-trained pediatric ophthalmologist and adult strabismus at the Yale Eye Center. She is originally from West Virginia, where she received a BS in Biology and BA in Music from Shepherd University and a Medical Doctorate from the West Virginia University School of Medicine.  Dr. Rotruck completed her internship in internal medicine at West Virginia University, and completed an ophthalmology residency at the California Pacific Medical Center in San Francisco, CA, followed by a fellowship in pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus at the Duke Eye Center. In her current role, she sees a variety of clinical and surgical conditions, including comprehensive pediatric ophthalmology, strabismus in children and adults, amblyopia, nasolacrimal duct obstruction, pediatric cataracts, eyelid disease, and a variety of other disorders. Her research interests include binocular treatments for amblyopia, the use of optical coherence tomography in pediatric eye disease, and pediatric ocular infection. Additional interests include international medical outreach and resident education.