What is the Certificate?
Medical students are able to pursue a variety of didactic, research, and clinical experiences in global health at Yale. The Certificate program organizes coursework and international experiences into a longitudinal curriculum that a student can complete over four (or five) years of medical school, while maintaining flexibility in terms of both the timing and content of these opportunities.
Each student compiles a Global Health Portfolio as he or she completes each portion of the curriculum. A faculty committee in charge of administering the Certificate will review each applicant's portfolio and, if approved, the Certificate will be granted upon graduation from the School of Medicine.
Many medical schools are developing Certificate programs in global health, and the program at Yale School of Medicine provides its students with a comprehensive experience in which they study global health in the classroom and in the clinic, locally and internationally. We expect that graduates of the Certificate program will have a strong foundation in the principles of global health research and clinical practice, and will be positioned competitively for residency programs and careers with a focus on global health.
Upon completion of the requirements for the Global Health Certificate Program, the student will be able to:
- Describe the importance of social, political, economic, and cultural factors in the health and disease of populations living outside the United States.
- Demonstrate an appreciation for the language and culture of a non-American and/or non-English speaking population.
- Apply the basic principles of epidemiology and statistics to understanding the incidence, prevalence, and risk factors for disease in international populations.
- Compare and contrast the health care system and services of the United States with those in other countries, both developed and developing.
- Explain strategies for providing healthcare services, including health promotion, disease prevention, and medical treatment, to individuals and populations in resource-poor settings.
- Recognize the extent of healthcare inequality in both the United States and other countries, and explain how inequality can impact the health outcomes of populations and their access to healthcare services.
- Demonstrate how to conduct a focused, culturally appropriate medical history and physical exam with limited laboratory and supplemental tests in a resource-poor setting, and generate a focused differential diagnosis in this setting.
- Develop and communicate a culturally sensitive plan of care that takes into account risks, benefits, alternatives, and financial consequences for a patient in a resource-poor setting.
- Be aware of and discuss the challenges of serving as a healthcare provider for individuals from a cultural background other than your own.
- Demonstrate qualities of leadership, organization, and collaboration that are crucial for engagement in global health activities.
- Appreciate the medical profession’s responsibility to society, both in our own country and throughout the world. These responsibilities should include not only service to the underserved or disenfranchised members of our own society, but also advocacy for the care of the disadvantaged persons in other nations, who bear a heavy burden of disease, death and disability.
In order to earn the Certificate, a student must complete all requirements before graduation from medical school. Students will be responsible for completing the curriculum at their own pace, although the program provides recommendations for when to complete each component of the Certificate. Students will be responsible for maintaining an electronic portfolio of materials (including reflection papers) to be submitted at the beginning of the final semester of medical school for review by the Certificate committee.
A student may declare his or her participation in the Certificate program at any point before the fall of the academic year of graduation from medical school (for example, Fall 2015 for graduation in May, 2016). Interested students will be encouraged to declare upon beginning their first year so that they can participate in the curriculum as outlined, but students who determine their interest in global health later in their education will not be precluded from participating. They will, however, be required to meet all of the requirements for the Certificate, including submission of all coursework and reflection papers, by February of the year in which the student graduates.
An online declaration document will be made available beginning in Fall 2015 for students who wish to enroll in the program.
Completion of MD Degree
Award of the Certificate is contingent upon completion of the degree program at the School of Medicine. The Certificate cannot be earned independently of the degree. Because the overall Certificate involves a number of requirements open only to medical students, students from other graduate and professional schools will not be eligible for the Certificate.
Assessment for students in the Certificate program occurs in several ways.
- The Certificate program requires attendance in certain didactic courses. Attendance is kept at the Global Health Seminar, Topics in Global Medicine Elective, and Global Mental Health Elective, and records will be checked each year to ensure that adequate attendance was attained by a student who wishes to receive course credit.
- Students must take the qualifier at the end of the Medical Microbiology and Epidemiology and Public Health Course. In addition, students must submit their presentation outline for the EPH course.
Upon completion of each activity required for the Certificate, a student must complete a "reflection paper" discussing his or her experience. This is a well-validated method of assessment in line with the principles of the Yale System. The length of the paper varies with each activity (4-5 pages for clinical and research activities, 1-2 pages for courses, etc). These papers will assist students in organizing their thoughts and faculty reviewers in understanding the student's experience in each component of the program.
Global Health Portfolio
Students are required to compile each of the requirements (listed above) into an electronic portfolio. This includes specific coursework, publications, and presentations, as well as reflection papers. Maintenance of the portfolio is the student's, not the office's, responsibility. The portfolio will be submitted to the Faculty Review Committee by February of the year of graduation.
Faculty Review Committee
During the year of graduation, a student who wishes to earn the Certificate will have his or her portfolio reviewed by a faculty committee led by Dr. Rohrbaugh, which will determine whether the student has completed all of the requirements necessary to earn the Certificate. This committee will meet regularly and will be composed of faculty members active in global health education and/or research activities. Faculty may be from clinical or basic science departments. If there is a question as to the student's eligibility, he or she may be called to a meeting with a member of the committee to assess whether the student has completed all requirements to earn the Certificate.
Who should I contact with questions?
Dr. Robert Rohrbaugh
Office of International Medical Student Education
Director, Office of International Medical Student Education
Siyu (Sue) Xiao
Student Coordinator for Global Health, Yale School of Medicine
The requirements for the Certificate fall into five broad areas: didactics, scholarship, clinical work, cultural appreciation, and leadership.
Complete the following four coursework requirements.
1. Global Health Foundations (recommended, 1st year). Offered Fall Semester Only. 75% attendance, submit 4-5 page summary of your experience in the course and include a case study on as issue related to global health.
2. Critical Issues in Global Health (recommended, 1st year). Offered Spring Semester Only. Full attendance and completion of course work required. Provide 1-2 page summary of your educational experience related to global health.
3. Additional Global Health Course (must complete one of the following):
3a. Topics in Global Medicine Elective 75% attendance
- If you complete a presentation for the course, submit presentation and provide a 1-2 page summary of your educational experience in relation to global health.
- If you do not complete a presentation for the course, submit a 4-5 page summary of your experience in the course and include a case study on an issue related to global medicine.
3b. Global Mental Health Elective 75% attendance
- If you complete a presentation for the course, submit presentation and provide a 1-2 page summary of your educational experience in relation to global mental health.
- If you do not complete a presentation for the course, submit a 4-5 page summary of your experience in the course and include a case study on an issue related to global mental health.
3c. An elective course related to global health offered by another graduate school at Yale (recommended, 3rd or 5th year). Submit all coursework for inclusion in your portfolio, and provide a 1-2 page summary of your educational experience in relation to global health. A comprehensive list of courses can be found at http://ghi.yale.edu/courses.
3d. U.S. Health Justice Course (recommended, 1st year) Offered Fall Semester Only. Submit all coursework for inclusion in your portfolio and provide a 4-5 page summary of your educational experience related to global health.
4. Medical Microbiology (1st year YSM core curriculum: included as section within Attacks & Defenses course). Submit a 1-2 page summary of your educational experience in relation to microbiology in global health.
4. Epidemiology and Public Health (A thread though first 18 months of YSM core curriculum). Submit a 1-2 page summary of your educational experience in relation to epidemiology and public health in global health.
Complete one of the following:
a. Submit your medical thesis based on your original research in a topic of importance in the field of global health. Attach a 4-5 page reflection paper outlining the social, political, economic, and cultural dimensions of your work, the relevance of your topic to global health, and the implications your results have for the field.
b. Conduct research (including, but not limited to, basic science, clinical, educational, ethics, and public health/epidemiology research) that focuses on an important topic in global health. If this work is not your thesis, provide an 4-5 page multidisciplinary report on your research, including the social, political, economic, and cultural context of the work and the relevance of the results to understanding a specific topic in global health.
Demonstrate appreciation for the language/culture of a non-American/non-English-speaking population by completing one of the following:
a. Conducting research or providing healthcare services in a language other than English. Provide a 4-5 paper reflecting on this experience.
b. Appropriately utilizing a translator in a healthcare interaction in an international setting as a part of your International Clinical Elective or Scholarly Work. Provide a 4-5 paper reflecting on this experience.
c. If your international work involves an English-speaking population, reflect on your experience with the population's customs and culture. Provide a 4-5 page paper reflecting on this experience.
Complete one of the following:
a. Serve for 1 academic year on the course leadership for one of the following global health education activities:
a) lead the organization of the Global Health Foundations* (* Global Health Foundation is semester course, will need to combine with another leadership role);
b) lead the organization of the Topics in Global Medicine Elective, the Global Mental Health Elective, or another global health activity; or
c) be selected to be the Global Health Student Coordinator for OIMSE. Provide a 4-5 page paper summarizing your involvement and reflecting on the challenges and opportunities it presented.
b. Serve for 1 academic year as a leader of another student organization that directly addresses global health issues internationally or locally. Provide a 4-5 page paper summarizing your involvement and reflecting on the challenges and opportunities it presented. Sample organizations include, but are not limited to, the HAVEN Free Clinic Leadership Board, Universities Allied for Essential Medicines (UAEM), Integrated Refugee & Immigrant Services (IRIS), etc. (see the Global Health Booklet for a list of more organizations.)
Complete one of the following:
a. Another didactic elective in global health (in addition to the four courses in Requirement #1.) Submit all coursework for inclusion in your portfolio, and provide a 1-2 page summary of your experience in the course.
b. Another scholarly project in global health (including, but not limited to, basic science, clinical, educational, ethics, public health/epidemiology research.) This must be a different project and topic from Requirement #2. Provide a 4-5 page multidisciplinary report on your research, including the social, political, economic, and cultural context of the work and the relevance of the results to understanding a specific topic in global health.
c. Another international or cultural clinical experience in global health (in addition to the elective in Requirement #3.) Provide a 4-5 page reflection paper on your experience for inclusion in your portfolio.
d. Another experience in global health, approved by the Office of International Medical Student Education. Provide a 4-5 page reflection paper on your experience for inclusion in your portfolio. The US Health Justice course, may be used to meet this requirement.