Timeline of Research, Commentary, and Policy Regarding Preschool Expulsions and Suspensions
Since the first national report on preschool expulsions in 2005, much has been learned about the causes and consequences of early childhood suspensions and expulsions. Fortunately much has also been learned about effective methods to prevent them. This timeline details significant events and documents at the federal, state, and local levels, along with links to the relevant resources.
- Massachusetts mandates annual reporting metrics associated with Pre-K expulsion, including prevention and intervention strategies to address severe behavioral challenges.
- The Children’s Defense Fund launches the Cradle to Prison Pipeline Campaign, engaging with families, youth, communities & policy makers to promote development of healthy, safe and educated children.
- In 2007 the New Jersey State Department of Education prohibited short- and long-term suspension and expulsion of preschoolers.
- North Dakota Licensed Child Care Dismissal Study found that 20% of providers who responded to the survey indicated they had dismissal cases in the last year. Half the providers who reported a dismissal case reported more than one.
- The National Institute for Early Education Research publishes a policy brief on challenging behaviors and the role that preschools play.
- Massachusetts begins requiring annual reports by the Board of Early Education and Care on progress made toward reducing expulsion rates in preschoolers.
- University of Missouri responds to findings from the National Prekindergarten Study, issuing statewide policy recommendations.
- Michigan releases an evaluation of the Childcare Expulsion Prevention initiative, reporting on the outcomes of children and families who participated in its services.
Study of preschool expulsion in Colorado, examining how expulsion data influenced statewide use of early childhood mental health consultation.
A study of early care and education providers in Boulder County, Colorado, reports on expulsion rates, finding that children under age 6 were expelled at 4.5 times the rate of K-12 students in Boulder County public schools.
- Stepping Stones, a comprehensive revision of National Health and Safety Standards in Childcare and Early Education Settings, produces new standards to prevent serious harm and injury to children.
- MBK provides a key recommendation to “eliminate suspensions and expulsions in preschool and other early learning settings.”
- The U.S. Department of Education Office of Civil Rights releases a data snapshot noting that 6% of all districts with participating preschool programs reported suspensions of preschoolers, a disproportionate amount of whom were African American.
- Minneapolis Public Schools bans suspensions of preschoolers for non-violent behaviors.
- Secretary Burwell of Department of Health and Human Services, and Secretary Duncan of the Department of Education issued a joint statement on preschool expulsion and prevention, declaring need for clearly articulated guidelines to address challenging behaviors.
- American Psychological Association features an article by Dr. Gilliam on Pre-K expulsions, highlighting gender and race disparities, teacher factors, program factors, and approaches to reducing the occurrence.
- DC Committee on Education passes pre-k student discipline amendment act banning suspensions and expulsions through the district
- The Administration for Children and Families hosts a two-part webinar on Pre-K expulsion and early childhood mental health consultation.
- Congressional Briefing on “What’s Behind Preschool Expulsion?”hosted by ZERO TO THREE and the National Black Child Development Institute, in cooperation with Representative Rosa DeLauro.
- House Labor HHS appropriations bill includes a provision urging Departments of Education and Health and Human Services to highlight evidence-based approaches to reduce suspensions and expulsions.
- The New York State Education Department issues a memorandum, committing to eliminate expulsion and suspension practices in early childhood programs by the 2017-2018 school year.
- Chicago Public Schools’ Revised Student Code of Conduct prohibits suspensions of PreK to 2nd grade.
- The Center for Children’s Advocacy (CT) hosts panel discussion of Connecticut’s new ban on suspension of young students and what it means for schools and families.
- Child Care Aware of America promotes federal policy agenda with a section on Pre-K expulsion.
- Maryland reports on success of state-funded Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation programs in reducing expulsion and improving mental health climate in preschool classrooms.
- Head Start new performance standards are proposed by the Department of Health and Human Services to include language on preschool expulsion and suspension.
- WBUR reported on Massachusetts suspension rates for the 2014-2015 year, showing Massachusetts public and charter schools suspended kindergarten and pre-K students 603 times during the school year.
- United Way blog responds to WBUR's report of Massachusetts suspension rates for the 2014-2015 year, framing best strategies for young children’s social and emotional development as tools to reduce suspension.
For the first time ever, states are required to report preschool expulsion and suspension policies to the federal government.
Under the 2014 Child Care Development Block Grant Reauthorization, these reports were due by March 2016 in order to access federal child care subsidy funds.