Timeline of Research, Commentary, and Policy Regarding Preschool Expulsions and Suspensions

Since the first national report on preschool expulsions in 2005, much has been learned about the causes and consequences of early childhood suspensions and expulsions.  Fortunately much has also been learned about effective methods to prevent them. This timeline details significant events and documents at the federal, state, and local levels, along with links to the relevant resources. 


Yale Leads First National Study of Preschool Expulsion

Yale University conducts a seminal study of national Prekindergarten programs, revealing that preschoolers are expelled at 3x the rate of K-12 students. (Full report) (Report brief)


Massachussetts Mandates Annual PreK Reporting

Massachusetts mandates annual reporting metrics associated with Pre-K expulsion, including prevention and intervention strategies to address severe behavioral challenges.


Children's Defense Fund Launches Cradle to Prison Pipeline

The Children’s Defense Fund launches the Cradle to Prison Pipeline Campaign, engaging with families, youth, communities & policy makers to promote development of healthy, safe and educated...

New Jersey Bans Suspension and Expulsion of Preschoolers

In 2007 the New Jersey State Department of Education prohibited short- and long-term suspension and expulsion of preschoolers.

North Dakota Releases Child Care Dismissal Study

North Dakota Licensed Child Care Dismissal Study found that 20% of providers who responded to the survey indicated they had dismissal cases in the last year. Half the providers who reported...

Yale's Edward Zigler Center Releases the First-Ever Statewide Random-Controlled Evaluation of Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation (ECMHC)

Early Childhood Consultation Partnerships (ECCP) is currently the only statewide system of ECMHC evaluated in a rigorous experiment. (study brief)

Report on Challenging Behaviors and Preschools

The National Institute for Early Education Research publishes a policy brief on challenging behaviors and the role that preschools play.


Massachusetts Amends Early Education Laws

Massachusetts begins requiring annual reports by the Board of Early Education and Care on progress made toward reducing expulsion rates in preschoolers.


University of Missouri State Recommendations

University of Missouri responds to findings from the National Prekindergarten Study, issuing statewide policy recommendations.

Michigan Evaluation of Expulsion Prevention

Michigan releases an evaluation of the Childcare Expulsion Prevention initiative, reporting on the outcomes of children and families who participated in its services.


Colorado Uses State Expulsion Data to Inform Service Provision

Study of preschool expulsion in Colorado, examining how expulsion data influenced statewide use of early childhood mental health consultation.

Colorado Study Finds that Preschoolers Expelled at 4.5 times the Rate of K-12

A study of early care and education providers in Boulder County, Colorado, reports on expulsion rates, finding that children under age 6 were expelled at 4.5 times the rate of K-12 students...

National Safety Standards Revised

Stepping Stones, a comprehensive revision of National Health and Safety Standards in Childcare and Early Education Settings, produces new standards to prevent serious harm and injury to...


President Obama Launches My Brother's Keeper (MBK) Initiative

MBK provides a key recommendation to “eliminate suspensions and expulsions in preschool and other early learning settings.”

Civil Rights Snapshot

The U.S. Department of Education Office of Civil Rights releases a data snapshot noting that 6% of all districts with participating preschool programs reported suspensions of preschoolers,...

Minneapolis Bans Preschool Suspension

Minneapolis Public Schools bans suspensions of preschoolers for non-violent behaviors.

Joint HHS/ED Departmental Policy Statement

Secretary Burwell of Department of Health and Human Services, and Secretary Duncan of the Department of Education issued a joint statement on preschool expulsion and prevention, declaring...

Featured Guest Post on Pre-K Expulsions

American Psychological Association features an article by Dr. Gilliam on Pre-K expulsions, highlighting gender and race disparities, teacher factors, program factors, and approaches to...

Yale’s Edward Zigler Center Releases a Report of Three Separate Statewide Random-Controlled Evaluation of Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation (ECMHC).

Early Childhood Consultation Partnerships (ECCP) has been found successful in reducing challenging classroom behaviors in several experimentally-rigorous statewide evaluations.


District of Columbia Bans Pre-K Suspensions and Expulsions

DC Committee on Education passes pre-k student discipline amendment act banning suspensions and expulsions through the district

Webinar: Expulsion and Prevention

The Administration for Children and Families hosts a two-part webinar on Pre-K expulsion and early childhood mental health consultation.

What's Behind Preschool Expulsion?

Congressional Briefing on “What’s Behind Preschool Expulsion?”hosted by ZERO TO THREE and the National Black Child Development Institute, in cooperation with Representative Rosa DeLauro.

House Bill Urges Evidence-Based Reduction Approaches

House Labor HHS appropriations bill includes a provision urging Departments of Education and Health and Human Services to highlight evidence-based approaches to reduce suspensions and...

New York State Commits to End Expulsion, Suspension

The New York State Education Department issues a memorandum, committing to eliminate expulsion and suspension practices in early childhood programs by the 2017-2018 school year.

Connecticut is the first state to enact legislation limiting expulsions and suspensions in early education programs

CT Public Act 15-96 prohibits public schools from suspending pre-K to second grade unless there is evidence of extreme danger. Dr. Gilliam provided testimony to the Connecticut Senate.

Chicago Public Schools Revises Student Conduct Code

Chicago Public Schools’ Revised Student Code of Conduct prohibits suspensions of PreK to 2nd grade.

What does CT Public Act 15-96 Mean?

The Center for Children’s Advocacy (CT) hosts panel discussion of Connecticut’s new ban on suspension of young students and what it means for schools and families.

Child Care Aware of America on Pre-K expulsion

Child Care Aware of America promotes federal policy agenda with a section on Pre-K expulsion.


Maryland Reports Success

Maryland reports on success of state-funded Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation programs in reducing expulsion and improving mental health climate in preschool classrooms.

Head Start to Address Preschool Expulsion and Suspension

Head Start new performance standards are proposed by the Department of Health and Human Services to include language on preschool expulsion and suspension.

2014-2015 Massachusetts Suspensions

WBUR reported on Massachusetts suspension rates for the 2014-2015 year, showing Massachusetts public and charter schools suspended kindergarten and pre-K students 603 times during the...

United Way Responds to WBUR Report

United Way blog responds to WBUR's report of Massachusetts suspension rates for the 2014-2015 year, framing best strategies for young children’s social and emotional development as tools to...

First Reports Due From States

For the first time ever, states are required to report preschool expulsion and suspension policies to the federal government.

Under the 2014 Child Care Development Block Grant...