The Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988) exposed Iranian civilians to high-intensity warfare as well as chemical weapons. Sixty thousand chemical warfare victims survived. Researchers, including an alumnus and faculty from the School of Public Health, have found that the survivors experienced post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression. Other work in the Middle East includes a groundbreaking study examining the social stigma homosexuals and transsexuals face in a culture that does not accept these lifestyles; and assisting in the development of a strategic plan to outline the priorities in medical education, including the prospects for strengthening the School of Nursing and developing a School of Public Health in Iraqi Kurdistan. A newly launched initiative in “Health Diplomacy” will provide a forum for discussion and dialogue on the rising prominence of health in foreign policy.