Dopamine; Motivation; Neurophysiology; Obesity; Psychophysics; Stress, Psychological; Neuroimaging; Psychiatry and Psychology
Psychiatry: Center for Nicotine and Tobacco Use Research at Yale (CENTURY) | Connecticut Mental Health Center | Neuroscience Research Training Program (NRTP) | Stress & Addiction Clinical Research Program
Obesity Research Working Group
Neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography have made it possible to study brain representation of sensation, motivation and cognition in humans. The primary interest of my lab is to use these techniques in conjunction with psychophysics and behavioral testing to uncover brain substrates of taste, smell, flavor, and food reward. We are particularly interested in multisensory integration of taste and smell as well as in understanding how sensory processing interacts with behavioral choices such as decisions to eat or stop eating in healthy individuals and in people with eating disorders. A new research aim is to examine similarities and differences in the neural representation of food and drug reward to answer questions such as how nicotine addiction may influence the ability of food odors to induce eating. We currently have a fully automated and fMRI compatible olfactometer and gustometer and are using these devices to study taste, smell and food reward in the 3 Tesla Magnet at the Yale MR Imaging Research Center.
Specialized Terms: Neurophysiology of feeding; Chemical senses; Neuroimaging; Dopamine; Addiction; Motivation; Psychophysics; Stress; Obesity
Extensive Research Description
- The role of the amygdala in weight-gain susceptibility
- Cognitive and affective influences on gustatory processing
- Neural correlates of flavor processing
- The influence of smoking on brain encoding of food
- Neural correlates of flavor nutrient conditioning
- Top-down influences on brain encoding of flavors and foods
Relation between obesity and blunted striatal response to food is moderated by Taq1A1 DRD2 Gene
E. Stice, S. Spoor, C. Bohon, D. M. Small “Relation between obesity and blunted striatal response to food is moderated by Taq1A1 DRD2 Gene” Science (2008) 322: 449-452.
Separable networks encode anticipatory and consummatory chemosensation
D. M. Small, M. G. Veldhuizen, J. Felsted, Y.E. Mak, F. McGlone “Separable networks encode anticipatory and consummatory chemosensation.” Neuron (2008) 13: 786-797
Differential neural responses evoked by orthonasal versus retronasal odorant perception in humans.
D.M. Small, J. Gerber, Y. E. Mak, T. Hummel “Differential neural responses evoked by orthonasal versus retronasal odorant perception in humans.” Neuron, (2005) 47: 593-605
Dissociation of neural representation of intensity and affective valuation in human gustation.
D. M. Small, M. D. Gregory, Y. E. Mak, D. Gitelman, M.-M. Mesulam, T. Parrish. “Dissociation of neural representation of intensity and affective valuation in human gustation. Neuron, (2003) 39: 701-711
Feeding induced dopamine release in dorsal striatum correlates with meal pleasantness ratings in healthy human volunteers
D.M. Small, M. Jones-Gotman, A. Dagher. Feeding induced dopamine release in dorsal striatum correlates with meal pleasantness ratings in healthy human volunteers. Neuroimage, (2003) 19: 1709-1715
Metabolic regulation of brain response to food cues
I. de Araujo, T. Lin, M. Veldhuizen, D. M. Small “Metabolic regulation of brain response to food cues. Current Biology, (2013) 23: 878-883.
Neuroimaging the interaction of mind and metabolism in humans"
A. D’Agostino, D. M. Small “Neuroimaging the interaction of mind and metabolism in humans” Molecular Metabolism 2012, 1: 10-20.
Verbal descriptors influence hypothalamic response to low-calorie drinks
M. G. Veldhuizen, D. J. Nachtigal, L. J. Flammer, I.E de Araujo, D. M. Small “Verbal descriptors influence hypothalamic response to low-calorie drinks”. Molecular Metabolism, 2013, 2(3) 270-280.
The neural signature of satiation is associated with ghrelin response and triglyceride metabolism
X. Sun, M. G. Veldhuizen, A. E. Wray, I.E. de Araujo, R. Sinja, D. M. Small “The neural signature of satiation is associated with ghrelin response and triglyceride metabolism” Physiology and Behavior, 2014, doi 10.1016/jphsbehav.2014.07.017
Basolateral amygdala response to food cues in the absence of hunger is associated with weight gain susceptibility
X. Sun, N. Kroemer, M.G. Veldhuizen, A.E. Babbs, I.E. de Araujo, D. R. Gitelman, R. S. Sherwin, R. Sinha, D. M. Small "Basolateral amygdala response to food cues in the absence of hunger is associated with weight gain susceptibility". Journal of Neuroscience, 2015 30: 7965-7976.
Full List of PubMed Publications
- Sun X, Luquet S, Small DM: DRD2: Bridging the Genome and Ingestive Behavior. Trends Cogn Sci. 2017 May; 2017 Mar 31. PMID: 28372879
- Small DM: Dopamine Adaptations as a Common Pathway for Neurocognitive Impairment in Diabetes and Obesity: A Neuropsychological Perspective. Front Neurosci. 2017; 2017 Mar 28. PMID: 28400713
- Geha P, Cecchi G, Todd Constable R, Abdallah C, Small DM: Reorganization of brain connectivity in obesity. Hum Brain Mapp. 2017 Mar; 2016 Nov 16. PMID: 27859973
- Heni M, Kullmann S, Ahlqvist E, Wagner R, Machicao F, Staiger H, Häring HU, Almgren P, Groop LC, Small DM, Fritsche A, Preissl H: Interaction between the obesity-risk gene FTO and the dopamine D2 receptor gene ANKK1/TaqIA on insulin sensitivity. Diabetologia. 2016 Dec; 2016 Sep 6. PMID: 27600277
- Kroemer NB, Small DM: Fuel not fun: Reinterpreting attenuated brain responses to reward in obesity. Physiol Behav. 2016 Aug 1; 2016 Apr 13. PMID: 27085908
- Stoeckel LE, Arvanitakis Z, Gandy S, Small D, Kahn CR, Pascual-Leone A, Pawlyk A, Sherwin R, Smith P: Complex mechanisms linking neurocognitive dysfunction to insulin resistance and other metabolic dysfunction. F1000Res. 2016; 2016 Mar 15. PMID: 27303627
- Sun X, Veldhuizen MG, Babbs AE, Sinha R, Small DM: Perceptual and Brain Response to Odors Is Associated with Body Mass Index and Postprandial Total Ghrelin Reactivity to a Meal. Chem Senses. 2016 Mar; 2016 Jan 28. PMID: 26826114
- Kroemer NB, Sun X, Veldhuizen MG, Babbs AE, de Araujo IE, Small DM: Weighing the evidence: Variance in brain responses to milkshake receipt is predictive of eating behavior. Neuroimage. 2016 Mar; 2015 Dec 24. PMID: 26724781
- van Kooten MJ, Veldhuizen MG, de Araujo IE, O'Malley SS, Small DM: Fatty acid amide supplementation decreases impulsivity in young adult heavy drinkers. Physiol Behav. 2016 Mar 1; 2015 Nov 30. PMID: 26656766
- Burke MV, Small DM: Physiological mechanisms by which non-nutritive sweeteners may impact body weight and metabolism. Physiol Behav. 2015 Dec 1; 2015 Jun 3. PMID: 26048305
- Small DM, Pelphrey KA: Autism spectrum disorder: sniffing out a new biomarker. Curr Biol. 2015 Aug 3. PMID: 26241147
- Patel BP, Aschenbrenner K, Shamah D, Small DM: Greater perceived ability to form vivid mental images in individuals with high compared to low BMI. Appetite. 2015 Aug; 2015 Apr 9. PMID: 25865661
- Sun X, Kroemer NB, Veldhuizen MG, Babbs AE, de Araujo IE, Gitelman DR, Sherwin RS, Sinha R, Small DM: Basolateral amygdala response to food cues in the absence of hunger is associated with weight gain susceptibility. J Neurosci. 2015 May 20. PMID: 25995480
- Cosgrove KP, Veldhuizen MG, Sandiego CM, Morris ED, Small DM: Opposing relationships of BMI with BOLD and dopamine D2/3 receptor binding potential in the dorsal striatum. Synapse. 2015 Apr; 2015 Mar 11. PMID: 25664726
- Frost R, Quiñones I, Veldhuizen M, Alava JI, Small D, Carreiras M: What can the brain teach us about winemaking? An fMRI study of alcohol level preferences. PLoS One. 2015; 2015 Mar 18. PMID: 25785844
- Coppin G, Nolan-Poupart S, Jones-Gotman M, Small DM: Working memory and reward association learning impairments in obesity. Neuropsychologia. 2014 Dec; 2014 Oct 14. PMID: 25447070
- Small DM, Geary N: Introduction to the 2013 SSIB Special Issue. Physiol Behav. 2014 Sep; 2014 Nov 15. PMID: 25455126
- Sun X, Veldhuizen MG, Wray AE, de Araujo IE, Sherwin RS, Sinha R, Small DM: The neural signature of satiation is associated with ghrelin response and triglyceride metabolism. Physiol Behav. 2014 Sep; 2014 Apr 13. PMID: 24732416
- Geha P, Dearaujo I, Green B, Small DM: Decreased food pleasure and disrupted satiety signals in chronic low back pain. Pain. 2014 Apr; 2013 Dec 31. PMID: 24384160
- Babbs RK, Sun X, Felsted J, Chouinard-Decorte F, Veldhuizen MG, Small DM: Decreased caudate response to milkshake is associated with higher body mass index and greater impulsivity. Physiol Behav. 2013 Sep 10; 2013 Apr 3. PMID: 23562867
- Rudenga KJ, Small DM: Ventromedial prefrontal cortex response to concentrated sucrose reflects liking rather than sweet quality coding. Chem Senses. 2013 Sep; 2013 Jul 4. PMID: 23828907
- Veldhuizen MG, Nachtigal DJ, Flammer LJ, de Araujo IE, Small DM: Verbal descriptors influence hypothalamic response to low-calorie drinks. Mol Metab. 2013; 2013 Jun 26. PMID: 24049739
- Jastreboff AM, Sinha R, Lacadie C, Small DM, Sherwin RS, Potenza MN: Neural correlates of stress- and food cue-induced food craving in obesity: association with insulin levels. Diabetes Care. 2013 Feb; 2012 Oct 15. PMID: 23069840
- de Araujo IE, Geha P, Small DM: Orosensory and Homeostatic Functions of the Insular Taste Cortex. Chemosens Percept. 2012 Mar 1. PMID: 25485032
- Veldhuizen MG, Gitelman DR, Small DM: An fMRI Study of the Interactions Between the Attention and the Gustatory Networks. Chemosens Percept. 2012 Mar 1. PMID: 25419265
- Small DM, Scott TR: Symposium overview: What Happens to the pontine processing? repercussions of interspecies differences in pontine taste representation for tasting and feeding. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009 Jul. PMID: 19686158
- Small DM: Central gustatory processing in humans. Adv Otorhinolaryngol. 2006. PMID: 16733340
- Small DM, Apkarian AV: Increased taste intensity perception exhibited by patients with chronic back pain. Pain. 2006 Jan; 2005 Dec 19. PMID: 16360267
- Mak YE, Simmons KB, Gitelman DR, Small DM: Taste and olfactory intensity perception changes following left insular stroke. Behav Neurosci. 2005 Dec. PMID: 16420174
- Small DM, Prescott J: Odor/taste integration and the perception of flavor. Exp Brain Res. 2005 Oct; 2005 Jul 19. PMID: 16028032