Yale Learners


Learning Objectives

  1. Design a plan for routine screening during a health supervision visit
  2. Describe the organizations that decide the periodicity schedule and recommended interventions
  3. Evaluate the evidence supporting the topics discussed during a well-child visit
  4. Critique current well-child visit models and offer alternative approaches to typical well-child care
  5. Discuss the relevance of well-child care on adult health outcomes

Educational Material

Case Study

Week 1: Health Supervision

Rachel Osborn, MD

Primary References

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Learning Objectives

  1. Recognize the normal progression of development across various domains within the context of health supervision
  2. Provide guidance to parents regarding normal development across various ages in early childhood
  3. Identify and evaluate aberrations from normal development early in order to make appropriate interventions and referrals

Educational Material

Case Study

Week 2: Infant and Toddler Development

Robert Finkelstein, MDCM, A. Joseph Avni-Singer, MD, & Nili E. Major, MD

Primary References

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Learning Objectives

  1. Explain the importance of effective agenda-setting in the outpatient clinic
  2. Identify potential barriers to effective agenda-setting
  3. Demonstrate effective agenda-setting using the exhaustive “What else?” and negotiation of priorities at the outset of the encounter
  4. Indicate in case presentations that they have performed effective agenda-setting

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 3: Agenda Setting in the Outpatient Visit

Jeff Stein, MD

Primary References 

Included Resource

  • 5-step patient-centered interviewing.  Adapted from: Fortin AH 6th, Dwamena FC, Frankel RM, Smith RC. Smith's Patient Centered Interviewing: An Evidence-based Method. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 2012. 
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Learning Objectives

  1. Discuss the potential benefits and harms of antibiotic use from both an individual and a community-based standpoint
  2. Describe principles of responsible antibiotic prescribing
  3. Practice methods to counsel family members about antibiotics.

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 4: Antibiotic Use in Primary Care

Eliza Bullis, MD & Richard Martinello, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Recognize that health care providers have an obligation to provide interpreter services
  2. Become familiar with identification of an appropriate interpreter
  3. Appreciate the consequences of failure to use an interpreter

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 5: Language Support Services

Sarah Gottfried, MD, MPH

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Identify useful resources for questions and concerns about vaccination
  2. Learn the practical aspects of how to administer vaccines
  3. Understand the absolute and relative contraindications to immunization
  4. Explore the issue of parental resistance to immunization

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 6: Primer on Vaccines

Anna Hallemeier, MD, Jaideep S. Talwalkar, MD & Eugene D. Shapiro, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Become familiar with basic principles and effectiveness of injury prevention
  2. Understand the basic epidemiology of injury in children
  3. Discuss age-appropriate anticipatory guidance surrounding home safety

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 7: Injury Prevention

Mark R. Zonfrillo, MD, MSCE

Primary References

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Learning Objectives

  1. Understand the role of the pediatric provider in promoting and protecting breastfeeding
  2. Know the benefits of breastfeeding
  3. Recognize common breastfeeding problems in the postpartum period and danger signs of impending medical complications

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 8: Breastfeeding

Jennifer Moore, MD & Ada M. Fenick, MD

Primary References

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Learning Objectives

  1. Understand formula types and formulations 
  2. Understand uses and indications of common infant formulas

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 9: Formula Feeding

Jennifer Moore, MD & Ada M. Fenick, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Review immunization recommendations for pre-teens and adolescents
  2. Understand common barriers to adolescent immunization
  3. Develop strategies to increase immunization rates among pre-teen and adolescent patients in the primary care setting

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 10: Adolescent Immunization

Veronika Mesheriakova, MD & Peter G. Szilagyi, MD, MPH

Primary References 

  1. Szilagyi PG, et al. Delivering adolescent vaccinations in the medical home: A new era? Pediatrics. 2008;121: S15-S24. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/121/Supplement_1/S15.full.pdf+html
  2. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Birth-18 Years & “Catch-up” Immunization Schedules, United States, 2014. Retrieved May 14, 2014, from http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/downloads/child/0-18yrs-child-combined-schedule.pdf (Note - Same reference used for Week 6: Primer on Vaccines)
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Learning Objectives

  1. Recognize which sports increase the risk of head injury
  2. Diagnose concussion in the office setting
  3. Create a management plan including a return-to-play timeline for an athlete with concussion
  4. Counsel a young athlete on concussion prevention

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 11: Concussion

Cheryl Anderson, MD & Linda Arnold, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Define asthma and describe its impact on pediatric health
  2. Describe the pathophysiology, triggers and risk factors for asthma
  3. Classify asthma severity and list treatment according to national guidelines
  4. Describe the importance of patient education and use of asthma action plans

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 12: Asthma

Pnina Weiss, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Review the current American Academy of Pediatrics child passenger safety recommendations and strategies to minimize common patterns of car seat misuse
  2. Understand strategies to minimize the risks associated with teen driving
  3. Discuss age-appropriate anticipatory guidance surrounding road traffic safety

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 13: Road Traffic Safety

Mark R. Zonfrillo, MD, MSCE

Primary References

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Learning Objectives

  1. Know the definitions of overweight and obese in children
  2. Understand the prevalence and risk factors for childhood obesity
  3. Develop an appropriate work-up for a child with obesity
  4. Suggest treatment options

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 14: Childhood Obesity

Ada M. Fenick, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Identify the signs and symptoms of an uncomplicated upper respiratory infection, allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis, and acute and chronic sinusitis, differentiating these from other causes of rhinorrhea.
  2. Discuss the available modalities for testing, for environmental control, and for treatment of allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis.
  3. Describe treatment of sinusitis and reasons for referral.

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 15: Rhinorrhea and Congestion

Daniel Anderson, MD Andrea Rock, MD  

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Know the recommendations for screening for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and become familiar with standardized screening tools
  2. Examine common misconceptions about ASD
  3. Be familiar with evidence-based treatments for children with ASD
  4. Outline the appropriate work-up and referrals for a patient with a possible ASD
  5. List community resources that can assist with treatment and support

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 16: Autism Spectrum Disorders

Justin Rowberry, MD & Carol Weitzman, MD

Primary References

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Learning Objectives

  1. Identify the sequence of language and literacy development in young children
  2. Understand the importance of evaluation of language and literacy in routine pediatric health supervision
  3. Learn about the goals of Reach Out and Read
  4. Investigate ways to effectively use Reach Out and Read to help parents foster acquisition of language and literacy skills in young children (especially in at-risk populations)
  5. Learn about the resources available to help families with children with known or suspected disorders of language or reading

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 17: Literacy Development & Reach Out and Read

Rita Das, MD & Sondra Bogursky, MD

Primary References 


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Learning Objectives

  1. Describe normal teething and preventative dental care in children
  2. Explain recommendations regarding oral health promotion and the use of fluoride
  3. Identify common dental problems of childhood

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 18: Pediatric Dental Care

Keri Discepolo, DDS

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Develop a basic understanding of public health services available for children
  2. Learn how to help families gain access to available services
  3. Develop greater understanding of the Medicaid system
  4. Describe provisions in the 2010 healthcare reform legislation that impact children

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 19: Poverty & the Pediatric Safety Net

Saria Hassan, MD & Jaideep S. Talwalkar, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Understand the diagnostic criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the use of ADHD-specific rating scales
  2. Learn how to guide parents in advocating for their children with special needs
  3. Become familiar with appropriate treatment regimens and side effects
  4. Be aware that general pediatricians can diagnose and manage most patients with ADHD

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 20: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Michelle Marcy Barnes, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Understand the basic tenets of motivational interviewing
  2. Explain how motivational interviewing can aid the clinician in helping a patient effect change
  3. Illustrate examples of how to use motivational interviewing in clinical scenarios
  4. Be aware of special considerations when using motivational interviewing in the pediatric population

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 21: Motivational Interviewing

Alicia Chaves, MD & Sheryl Ryan, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Identify the signs and symptoms of food allergy in children
  2. List the foods most commonly associated with food allergy
  3. Discuss the indications, clinical significance, and limitations of diagnostic tests and procedures to diagnose food allergies
  4. Create a treatment plan for a child with food allergies.

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 22: Food Allergy

Christina Price, MD & Jose Calderon, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Recognize contraindications to athletic participation
  2. Suggest appropriate timing for back-to-sport following injuries
  3. Identify common lower extremity injuries in the pediatric population

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 23: Sports Participation

Cheryl Anderson, MD & Linda Arnold, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Recognize the symptoms of depression in pediatric patients and differentiate common mood disorders
  2. Appreciate the prevalence of depression and suicide in pediatric patients and identify risk factors
  3. Understand the risks and benefits of some of the main treatment options for depression
  4. Identify options for treating patients at risk for suicide

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 24: Depression

Nitasha Shetty, MD & Tim Van Deusen, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Describe the 3 most common circumcision procedures.
  2. Review anticipatory guidance regarding circumcision care. 
  3. Discuss the management of common early circumcision problems.
  4. Know when referral is indicated for circumcision and for management of circumcision problems.

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 25: Newborn Circumcision

Jean C. Carstensen, MD & Elizabeth Simpson, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Know how to respond to common parental misconceptions about fever
  2. Identify children at high risk for serious bacterial infection
  3. Know common management strategies for managing febrile children
  4. Describe the impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the management of fever in children

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 26: Fever in Children Less than 36 Months

Annie Cowell, MD, MPH & Paul McCarthy, MD

Primary References

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Learning Objectives

  1. Review and understand latent tuberculosis screening guidelines and testing options
  2. Learn the definitions of a “positive PPD” in various clinical scenarios
  3. Initiate a treatment plan for a patient with latent tuberculosis

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 27: Tuberculosis Screening and Treatment

Tania Thomas, MD, MPH & Robert S. Baltimore, MD 

Primary References

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Learning Objectives

  1. Identify critical components of a comprehensive sexual history and physical examination
  2. Counsel adolescents sensitively about areas that influence their sexual behavior
  3. Summarize federal and state laws dealing with consent, confidentiality, partner notification, and privacy of medical records regarding screening and treatment for family planning, sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 28: Approach to Adolescent Sexuality

Deepa R. Camenga, MD & Denise Wagner, PNP

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Learn about pediatric growth parameters and the definition of failure to thrive (FTT)
  2. Recognize that a thorough history is the key to generating the differential diagnosis for a patient presenting with growth concerns
  3. Appreciate the multidisciplinary approach to treatment strategies for children with FTT
  4. Consider the developmental implications for children with FTT

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 29: Failure to Thrive

Rita Das, MD & John Leventhal, MD

Primary References

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Learning Objectives

  1. Recognize probable child maltreatment
  2. Understand when to report and how to interact with families following reporting to Child Protective Services
  3. Appreciate that child abuse is common
  4. Identify preventive strategies that can be employed during routine office visits
  5. Consider the long-term effects on victims of child maltreatment

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 30: Management of Suspected Child Abuse

Malachi Courtney, MD & Andrea G. Asnes, MD, MSW

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Understand the difference between normal and abnormal curvatures of the spine
  2. Appreciate the role of the patient’s history in diagnosing idiopathic scoliosis
  3. Perform the Adams test and understand its role in evaluating for scoliosis
  4. Understand the results of spinal radiographs in the context of prognosis, referrals, and treatment
  5. Differentiate between common types of adolescent kyphosis

Educational Material

Case Study

Week 31: Scoliosis and Kyphosis

Julie Leviter, MD & Daniel Wiznia, MD

Primary References

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Learning Objectives

  1. Educate adolescents on the considerations involved in choosing a contraceptive method
  2. Assess the need for, prescribe and monitor the use of contraceptives
  3. Describe the evaluation for emergency contraception

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 32: Adolescent Contraception

Julie M. Kuperman, MD & Beth W. Rackow, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Identify commonly used non-parental childcare options, comparing and contrasting their important features
  2. Be able to counsel parents on how to assess and compare child care programs, and on the health, educational, and psychological implications of group care for young children
  3. Identify community resources that parents can access for information regarding child care resources

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 33: Child Care

Joseph Donroe, MD & Marjorie Rosenthal, MD, MPH

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Define the diagnostic criteria for common eating disorders
  2. Identify common and serious complications associated with eating disorders
  3. Develop an approach to identify children and adolescents at high risk for eating disorders
  4. Outline a treatment plan for an adolescent with an eating disorder

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 34: Eating Disorders

Nancy Dodson, MD, MPH & Sheryl Ryan, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Identify risk factors and screen families, pre-adolescents, and adolescents for use of alcohol and other drugs.
  2. Demonstrate the use of at least one structured interview tool for screening for alcohol and other substance use.
  3. Identify stages of substance abuse and possible treatment options.
  4. Diagnose a substance use disorder

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 35: Substance Use Disorders

Jennifer Rubin, MD & Jeanette Tetrault, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Elicit, discuss, and record patients’ uses of complementary medical therapies.
  2. Evaluate the strength of evidence behind the use of some common non-allopathic treatments.
  3. Integrate safe and effective complementary therapies into the care of children with common conditions.

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 36: Complementary and Alternative Medicine in the Pediatric Population

Aviva Romm, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Define bullying, including prevalence and contributing factors.
  2. Understand the long-term consequences of bullying both for the bully and the victim.
  3. Learn how to effectively screen for bullying and encourage family discussion.
  4. Know about resources to provide guidance for families.

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 37: Bullying

Amanda Gosling, MD, Lori Ellis, MD & John M. Leventhal, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Understand the role of the primary care provider in the prevention of tobacco use.
  2. Identify and counsel families of children exposed to passive smoking.
  3. Identify and counsel children who actively smoke.
  4. Develop management plans to assist with smoking cessation.

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 38: Tobacco Exposure

Sondra Bogursky, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Recognize common reasons for parental vaccine hesitancy and refusal
  2. Gain comfort and skills in discussing risks and benefits of vaccines with vaccine-hesitant parents
  3. Become familiar with popular beliefs about the link between vaccines and autism

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 39: Vaccine Refusal

Sumeet Banker, MD, MPH

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Review vitamin D metabolism, specifically as it relates to calcium homeostasis
  2. Discuss recommendations regarding vitamin D and calcium intake by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the Institute of Medicine (IOM)
  3. Identify situations in which screening for vitamin D deficiency is necessary
  4. Understand the implications and controversies surrounding vitamin D deficiency and its treatment

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 40: Bone Health in Children: Guidelines for Vitamin D and Calcium Intake

Michelle Vanstone, MD, Grace Kim, MD, Maggie Siska, MD, Neha Patel, DO, & Thomas Carpenter, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Define “hypertension” in the pediatric patient and distinguish between prehypertension, stage 1 hypertension, and stage 2 hypertension
  2. Recognize which children and adolescents need regular blood pressure monitoring
  3. Demonstrate proper technique for blood pressure measurement
  4. Initiate an evaluation for secondary causes, comorbidities, and end-organ damage in the pediatric hypertensive patient
  5. Design an effective management strategy for treatment of children and adolescents with hypertension

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 41: Pediatric Hypertension

Adam Weinstein, MD

Primary References 

  • National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2004;114(2): 555-76. Focus on pages 555-562 and the tables in preparation for conference.

    http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/114/Supplement_2/555.full.pdf+html

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Learning Objectives

  1. Understand the evaluation of an infant with unexplained crying
  2. Know the natural history and characteristics of colic
  3. Become familiar with the treatment options for colic and the evidence supporting these treatments

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 42: Infantile Colic

Beth Liston, MD, PhD

Primary References

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Learning Objectives

  1. Understand societal and developmental effects on child behavior
  2. Develop an understanding of the various discipline modalities
  3. Learn how to guide parents with age-appropriate discipline techniques
  4. Identify some troubleshooting tricks for children who continue to misbehave

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 43: Discipline

Laury Rosefort, MD & Marjorie Rosenthal, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Identify developmental markers that suggest a child is ready for toilet training
  2. Assess parental obstacles to toilet training
  3. Provide anticipatory guidance regarding toilet training
  4. Identify health conditions that would interfere with toilet training

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 44: Toilet Training

Michael Monaco, MD & Marjorie Rosenthal, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Define developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) and describe its detection through physical exam in infants as well as in older children
  2. Identify infants at an increased risk for DDH based on history
  3. Recognize which infants require imaging based on history and physical and determine the most appropriate imaging modality based on age
  4. Understand the basic principles of DDH treatment

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 45: Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip 

Kelly Hodges, MD & Eve Colson, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Understand the distinction between transition and transfer of care
  2. Appreciate the importance of planning for the transition from child- to adult-oriented health care
  3. Become familiar with barriers to the transition of care
  4. Outline one model for transition to an adult-oriented care system

Educational Material

Case Study

Week 46: Transition from Pediatric to Adult-Oriented Healthcare

Tracy Rabin, MD, SM & Jaideep S. Talwalker, MD

Primary References

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Learning Objectives

  1. Become aware of negative feelings during encounters with difficult families
  2. Be able to use empathic, understanding responses during difficult encounters
  3. Set clear boundaries effectively when appropriate

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 47: The Difficult Family

Ambika Shenoy, MD & Andrea G. Asnes, MD, MSW

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Understand the definition of key primary headache types including migraine and tension type headaches and how these definitions differ from adult definitions
  2. Know the indications for imaging and referral in the evaluation of primary headache
  3. Identify the key components in the management of pediatric headaches including the role for complementary and alternative medicines
  4. Understand the key components in the management of chronic daily headaches

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 48: Headache

Jean Carstensen, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Become familiar with the epidemiology of gun-related violence in children and adolescents.
  2. Describe the AAP's policy on firearms and firearm-related injuries.
  3. Identify the pediatric provider's role in gun violence prevention.

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 49: Firearm Safety

Mariann Nocera, MD & Karen Dorsey, MD, PhD

Primary References

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Learning Objectives

  1. Understand and identify normal pubertal development in males and females
  2. Become familiar with the common causes of delayed puberty in males and females
  3. Develop an evaluation and management plan for a child with delayed puberty

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 50: Normal and Delayed Pubertal Development

David R. Weber, MD, Jill L. Brodsky, MD & Thomas Carpenter, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Learn effective and efficient use of the telephone and computer in communicating with patients and families
  2. Recognize strengths and limitations of out-of-office communication
  3. Understand risk management principles inherent in providing advise to patients by telephone or email
  4. Describe the pros and cons of different options available for daytime and after-hours out-of-office communication with patients.

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 51: Telephone & E-mail Medicine

Jaideep S. Talwalkar, MD, Jessie C. Long, MD & Jonathan Miller, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Identify forms and frequency of media exposure
  2. Review evidence of potential positive and negative effects of media exposure on children
  3. Counsel families regarding the responsible and productive use of media

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 52: Media and Child Health

Ali Vaezy, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Review the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris
  2. Recognize the different types of acne vulgaris
  3. Be able to effectively educate patients about the nonpharmacologic treatment of acne
  4. Develop a treatment strategy for acne identifying the common and serious side effects of acne medications

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 53: Acne Vulgaris

Sondra Bogursky, MD

Primary References

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Learning Objectives

  1. Identify normal caloric requirements and growth parameters throughout childhood
  2. Review management of the “picky” child
  3. Understand the concerns for a vegetarian diet in children.

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 54: Childhood Nutrition 

Tamika Brierley, MD & Ada M. Fenick, MD

Primary References

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Learning Objectives

  1. Recognize the challenges facing children and families following major life events
  2. Understand how grief varies based on developmental stage
  3. Provide a framework for counseling a family facing divorce, bereavement, and other events that dramatically alter the family landscape
  4. Know how to find and access community resources that can assist a family facing major life changes.

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 55: Parental Loss and Separation

Nancy Dodson, MD, MPH & Marjorie Rosenthal, MD, MPH

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Recognize the importance of observation in identifying sick children
  2. Understand the value of a clinician's instinct in determing which childern have serious illness
  3. Become familiar with the most common serious illnesses in young children

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 56: Identification of the Sick Child

Jaideep S. Talwalkar, MD & Paul McCarthy, MD

Primary References

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Learning Objectives

  1. Discern situations in which obtaining a urine sample in a febrile child is appropriate
  2. Review methods of obtaining urine samples and their relative merits and drawbacks
  3. Develop an age-appropriate approach to diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection
  4. Evaluate when further work-up, specifically imaging studies, is necessary

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 57: Urinary Tract Infections 

Christine Patterson, MD & Marietta Vázquez, MD

Primary References

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Learning Objectives

  1. Understand the rates and risk factors for sudden unexpected infant death (SUID)
  2. Know the guidelines for optimizing safety of the sleep environment
  3. Learn to address common parental concerns regarding SUID prevention

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 58: Safe Infant Sleep

Beth Liston, MD, PhD, & Eve Colson, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Define temperament and its theoretical components
  2. Distinguish temperament from behavior
  3. Learn to use discussions of temperament to engage parental concerns

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 59: Temperament in the Pediatric Visit

Casey Braitsch, MD & Ada M. Fenick, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Review the physiology of normal growth.
  2. Define “short stature” and distinguish it from failure to thrive.
  3. Describe features in the history and physical that are suggestive of normal variations in growth.
  4. Identify pathologic causes of short stature and develop a diagnostic approach.
  5. Discuss the indications for growth hormone therapy.

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 60: Short Stature

Mareen Thomas, MD & Tania Burgert, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. List reasons why trainees should learn basics of coding and billing
  2. Explain the meaning and use of CPT and ICD-9-CM codes
  3. Select diagnosis codes that are appropriate for both clinical and coding/billing purposes
  4. Distinguish, from a coding standpoint, between new and established patients and between problem-oriented and preventive medicine/well-child visits
  5. Name the 3 key components that are used to determine CPT codes for problem-oriented visits
  6. Explain how contributory factors, especially time, are used in determining a CPT E/M code for an outpatient office visit

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 61: Coding and Billing in Ambulatory Care Part I:  “Nuts and Bolts”

Jeff Stein, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. List the categories of each key component used in deriving CPT E/M codes and explain the criteria for determining the type or complexity of each key component using the references or a coding aid
  2. Select an appropriate CPT E/M code (“overall level”) for an out-patient office visit when given any combination of key component types
  3. Indicate whether, for coding/billing purposes, a preceptor must physically see a patient in any given out-patient visit with a trainee

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 62: Coding and Billing in Ambulatory Care Part II:  “Putting it All Together”

Jeff Stein, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Identify the external and environmental factors that influence child health
  2. Find resources in the community to address child health on the local, state, and federal levels

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 63: The Pediatrician in the Community

Shilpa Pai, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Understand how the nutritional needs of the premature infant differ from those of term infants
  2. Review projected growth and developmental trajectories for premature infants
  3. Identify recommended screening evaluations and immunizations for premature infants

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 64: Primary Care of the Premature Infant

Carol Lynn O’Dea, MD & Elaine Romano, APRN

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Describe the pathophysiology of acute otitis media (AOM), including the underlying anatomy, common pathogens, and natural history
  2. Differentiate between mild and severe AOM utilizing history and physical exam findings
  3. Develop a step-wise treatment approach including indications for observation or active treatment
  4. Understand the possible complications of AOM, and indications for referral to specialty services
  5. Differentiate otitis externa from AOM and describe pathogenesis, treatment, and indications for referral.

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 65: Otitis Media & Externa

Benjamin Bodnar, MD & Eugene Shapiro, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Identify normal variations in gait and posture
  2. Become familiar with normal physiologic variations in foot, knee, and leg development
  3. Learn basic examination maneuvers to help distinguish normal from pathologic variations
  4. Develop management plans for children with in-toeing, out-toeing, bowed legs, or knocked-knees

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 66: Lower Extremity Angular and Rotational Deformity

James Bullock, MD & Brian G. Smith, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Learn age-appropriate anticipatory guidance regarding sleep
  2. Recognize and treat inappropriate sleep patterns in childhood and adolescence
  3. Understand how to diagnose and treat childhood obstructive sleep apnea

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 67: Sleep 

Jonathan Gaffin, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Understand the historical evolution of newborn screening
  2. Learn essential components of an effective newborn screening program and potential benefits/ drawbacks to screening
  3. Manage a child with positive newborn screening results

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 68: Newborn Screening

Nicholas Pietris, MD & Margretta R. Seashore, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Describe normal newborn movements and habits.
  2. Understand the timing of and risks for shaken baby syndrome, and outline anticipatory guidance that may be preventive.
  3. Delineate the rationale behind the suggestion that pediatric providers screen for post-partum depression.

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 69: Common Newborn Concerns

Emily Gritz, MD, Andrea Rock, MD & Jaspreet Loyal, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Understand the definition of constipation
  2. Create a treatment plan for constipation, including initial and maintenance therapy, relapse prevention, and medication discontinuation
  3. Know when subspecialty referral is indicated

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 70: Constipation

Jean Carstensen, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Describe the typical role of the father and discuss the socioeconomic factors that shape current attitudes about paternal expectations.
  2. Understand the importance of fathers' interactions with their children on child development.
  3. Learn techniques to engage fathers in the office setting.

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 71: Fatherhood

Amanda Gosling, MD, Lori Ellis, MD, Marta Mieczkowska, MD & John M. Leventhal, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Identify sources of environmental lead exposure
  2. Describe acute and chronic problems caused by lead poisoning
  3. Become familiar with screening recommendations and available tests
  4. Review treatment of children with elevated lead levels

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 72: Lead

Keith Cross, MD, MSc

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Identify the essential elements to be covered during a pre-travel visit in pediatrics.
  2. Recognize the variations in the routine vaccination schedule based on region of travel.
  3. Identify the need for prophylactic medications and/or point of care treatments prior to travel.
  4. Counsel families on the prevalence of accidental injury during travel.

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 73: Travel Preparedness

Cosby Stone, Jr., MD, MPH & Marietta Vázquez, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Describe published recommendations for routine screening of hearing
  2. Appreciate common disorders of hearing in childhood
  3. Practice physical exam techniques to identify common problems related to childhood hearing
  4. Review interpretation of the audiogram

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 74: Hearing Screening

Lana Lee, MD & Benjamin Doolittle, MD, MDiv

Primary References

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Learning Objectives

  1. Describe published recommendations for routine screening of vision
  2. Appreciate common disorders of vision in childhood
  3. Practice physical exam techniques to identify common problems related to childhood vision

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 75: Vision Screening

Virginia Brady, MD & Benjamin Doolittle, MD, MDiv

Primary References

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Learning Objectives

  1. Review normal menstrual physiology in the adolescent.
  2. Identify common causes of abnormal vaginal bleeding and a diagnostic approach.
  3. Develop a treatment plan for an adolescent with abnormal vaginal bleeding.
  4. Identify when a referral to a sub-specialist is necessary.

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 76: Adolescent Menstrual Disorders

Beth W. Rackow, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Understand the dynamic concepts of positive, tolerable, and toxic stress
  2. Review the body’s physiologic response to stress, the consequences of significant dysregulation of this response, and the effects on the developing brain of a child
  3. Appreciate how early traumatic experiences, innate vulnerabilities and strengths, and the presence or absence of external supports interact to alter a child’s vulnerability to stress-related disease
  4. Recognize the steps the pediatric provider can take to prevent the development of, ameliorate and reduce damage from toxic stress.

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 77: Early Childhood Toxic Stress

Amy Amin, MD & Andrea G. Asnes, MD, MSW

Primary References

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Learning Objectives

  1. Identify patients who should be screened for hyperlipidemia according to current national guidelines.
  2. Develop a diagnostic and therapeutic plan for a child with hyperlipidemia
  3. Identify the indications for referral in a child with hyperlipidemia.

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 78: Lipid Screening and Dyslipidemia

Diana Lee, MD 

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Identify the common causes of precocious puberty in males and females
  2. Develop an evaluation and management plan for a child with precocious puberty
  3. Understand the potential implications of childhood obesity on pubertal development
  4. Develop insight into the current trend toward earlier puberty

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 79: Precocious Puberty

David R. Weber, MD, Jill L. Brodsky, MD, & Thomas Carpenter, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Identify common types of specific learning disabilities in children
  2. Create a differential diagnosis for children with suspected learning difficulties
  3. Develop a plan for assessment and treatment of a child with learning difficulties
  4. Discuss the role of the school system in special education services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 80: Learning Disabilities

Marianne San Antonio, DO & Nili Major, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Know the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations for screening urinalysis
  2. Identify the most common causes of proteinuria and hematuria
  3. Describe the diagnostic approach used to evaluate proteinuria and hematuria

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 81: Hematuria and Proteinuria

Patricia Seo-Mayer, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Understand basic dermatology vocabulary
  2. Learn how to describe dermatologic findings
  3. Understand the importance of vehicle selection when prescribing topical medications
  4. Become familiar with the mechanism, classification, and side effect profile of topical corticosteroids

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 82: Dermatology Vocabulary & Topical Medications General Principles

Jonathan Miller, MD & Richard Antaya, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Review normal skull anatomy and head growth
  2. Distinguish between positional plagiocephaly and craniosynostosis
  3. Describe the prevention and treatment of plagiocephaly
  4. Understand the evaluation and treatment of craniosynostosis
  5. Describe the diagnosis and evaluation of macrocephaly

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 83: Abnormal Head Size and Shape

Kelly Hodges, MD, Robert Finkelstein, MDCM & Shilpa Pai, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Identify the six systolic and two continuous innocent murmurs of childhood
  2. Recognize specific clinical features that are suggestive of pathologic murmurs
  3. Describe options for further evaluation of murmurs and discuss their costs and benefits

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 84: Heart Murmurs

Rakesh Singh, MD & Alan Friedman, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Recognize the importance of early childhood environment as it relates to successful kindergarten entry
  2. Identify key indicators of school readiness
  3. Describe causes of school failure and outline an assessment strategy
  4. Recognize the pediatrician’s role in helping parents get their children ready for school and in helping those who are having difficulty

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 85: School Readiness & Failure

Beth Emerson, MD & Sarah Schlegel, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Define health literacy and understand its clinical importance.
  2. Identify signs of suboptimal health literacy.
  3. Learn how to assess patients’ health literacy in the office.
  4. Practice methods for addressing poor health literacy, including the “Teach Back Method.”

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 86: Health Literacy- Closing the Gap

Erin Vaughn, MD & Marjorie Rosenthal, MD

Primary References 

  1. Safeer RS, Keenan J. Health literacy: the gap between physicians and patients. American Family Physician. 2005;72(3): 463-468. http://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0801/p463.pdf
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Learning Objectives

  1. Understand the diagnostic evaluation of an anemic child
  2. Describe common reasons for iron depletion/deficiency in US children
  3. Outline the diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency anemia and the next steps of management if a trial of supplemental iron has failed
  4. Know the screening guidelines for anemia recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 87: Iron Deficiency Anemia

Shari Storeygard, MD & Carly Varela, MD

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Define the characteristics of Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN)
  2. Describe the principles of the Patient-Centered Medical Home and how these principles enhance the health care outcomes for CSHCN
  3. Identify your role as a pediatric primary care provider in establishing quality care services for CSHCN 

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 88: The Medical Home and Children with Special Health Care Needs

Patricia Jackson Allen, RN, MS, PNP-BC, FAAN

Primary References 

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Learning Objectives

  1. Delineate the classification of urinary incontinence
  2. Understand the importance of history in identification of the cause of daytime wetting
  3. Become familiar with different etiologies of daytime urinary incontinence and enuresis
  4. Develop counseling techniques for families whose children have enuresis
  5. Become familiar with pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions for  enuresis

Educational Material 

Case Study

Week 89: Urinary Incontinence

Cynthia D’Alessandri-Silva, MD

Primary References 

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