Cordelia Wheeler Carter, MD

Assistant Professor of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation

Research Organizations

Orthopaedics & Rehabilitation

Office of Cooperative Research

Research Summary

  • Current clinical research studies
    • "The role of the pediatric attending surgeon on the day of surgery: differences in expectations between parents and surgical providers"
    • "Clinical Assessment of Generalized Ligamentous Laxity Using a Single Test: Is Thumb-to-Forearm Apposition Enough?"
    • "Characterizing Ligamentous Laxity Norms in a US Pediatric Orthopaedic Population: Age- and Sex-based Differences"
    • "Establishment of Normative Values for Shoulder Range of Motion in the Pediatric Population."
    • "Disproportionate Participation of Males and Females in Academic Pediatric Orthopaedics: Quality or Quantity?"
    • "Inclusion of Females and Sex-Specific Data Analysis in Orthopaedic Research: Evaluation of Publications from the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery from 2009 to 2013"
    • "Females, Knee Arthritis, and Joint Replacement Surgery: Do Orthopaedic Surgeons Consider a Patient's Sex as a Factor when Treating Patients?"
    • "The Use of 3-D Printing in Orthopaedic Resident Education: Enhanced Understanding of Triplane Fracture"
  • Current basic / translational science studies
    • None
  • Current clinical trials
    • Evaluation of the Necessity of Operative Irrigation and Debridement: Pediatric Randomized trial of type One Open Fractures (PROOF)"
  • Current grants
    • Agency: POSNA; ID#: HIC #13411/ Grant: M#925368; "Evaluation of the Necessity of Operative Irrigation and Debridement: Pediatric Randomized trial of type One Open Fractures (PROOF)"; Yale Site Principal Investigator

Extensive Research Description

With my background of dual fellowships in pediatric orthopaedic surgery and pediatric orthopedic sports medicine, musculoskeletal injuries of the child and adolescent athlete have naturally become my primary academic focus.

Within this broad topic, I have two chief areas of research interest: specifically, I am first interested in trying to better understand the etiology, risk factors and optimal prevention and treatment strategies for common pediatric sports injuries including ACL tear, meniscal tear, shoulder dislocation, femoroacetabular impingement and overuse injuries such as osteochondritis dissecans.

This is relevant because pediatric sports participation has fundamentally changed over time: children and adolescent athletes today participate at increasingly higher levels of sport at increasingly younger ages, often with significant investment of a family’s time and financial resources. As a result, the incidence of significant sports-associated injuries in the United States has been on the rise. However, this increased incidence of pediatric sports injuries has occurred at a time when our fund of scientific knowledge on pediatric sports injuries – traditionally lumped in with adult injuries in the sports medicine world – is scant.

Consequently, while continued efforts at basic and clinical research into pediatric sports injuries are essential for optimizing the quality, safety, and value of care for young athletes, I believe that it is equally important to identify patterns of sports practice that are potentially injurious and then to advocate for policy changes (from simple ones such as implementing pitch counts for little leaguers to more controversial policies such as mandating ACL prevention programs for high school athletes) to ensure that sports participation for kids remains safe and fun.


A more recent area of academic interest for me has been to focus on the sex-based differences in incidence, presentation, and clinical outcomes for common pediatric sports injuries. This interest has stemmed from my committee membership on the Women’s Health Issues Advisory Board for the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (WHIAB, AAOS) whose mission is to “…advocate, advance, and serve as a resource on sex and gender differences in musculoskeletal health.” In reality, few data are available to describe sexual dimorphisms in pediatric sports medicine (e.g., there is a significantly higher incidence of ACL tears among female adolescent athletes as compared to their males peers); this fact serves to highlight the need for more “thought leaders” advocating for musculoskeletal research that is free of sex and gender bias. My first foray into this discussion in the orthopedic community was a talk entitled “Gender-based differences in adolescent sports injuries,” given at the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America (POSNA) annual meeting (4/2015).

Selected Publications

  • Firearm-Related Musculoskeletal Injuries in Children and Adolescents Cordelia W. Carter, Felicity Fishman, Melinda Sharkey. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2017 Mar;25(3):169-178.
  • "Medical Perspectives" Cordelia W. Carter and Tamara John. “Medical Perspectives.” In Routledge Handbook of Talent Identification and Development in Sport, edited by Joseph Baker, Steve Cobley, Jörg Schorer and Nick Wattie, 2017.
  • "Pediatric Knee, Leg, Ankle and Foot Trauma" Cordelia W. Carter and A. Reed Estes. In Orthopaedic Knowledge Update 12, edited by Jonathan N. Grauer MD, 2017.
  • “Meniscal Injuries of the Knee.” Carter CW, Sharkey MS. “ “Meniscal Injuries of the Knee.” In Pediatric Orthopaedic Knowledge Update 4, edited by Jeffrey Martus MD, 2016.
  • "Ligamentous Injuries of the Knee" Carter CW, Sharkey MS. “Ligamentous Injuries of the Knee.” In Pediatric Orthopaedic Knowledge Update 4, edited by Jeffrey Martus MD, 2016.
  • “Disproportionate Participation of Males and Females in Academic Pediatric Orthopaedics: An Analysis of Abstract Authorship at POSNA 2009-2013.” Sharkey MS, Feinn RS, Tate VV, Carter CW, Cassese TT. “Disproportionate Participation of Males and Females in Academic Pediatric Orthopaedics: An Analysis of Abstract Authorship at POSNA 2009-2013.” Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics 2016; 36(4):433-6
  • “Current Concepts Review: The Use of Regional Anesthesia in Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery. Melinda Sharkey, Victoria Tate, Cordelia W. Carter. “Current Concepts Review: The Use of Regional Anesthesia in Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery.” Orthopaedic Knowledge Online Journal, 2015; 13(11):1. http://dx.doi.org/10.5435/ OKOJ-13-11-1.
  • “The Importance of Sex of Patient in the Management of Femoroacetabular Impingement.” Andrea Halim, Raghav Badrinath, Cordelia W. Carter. “The Importance of Sex of Patient in the Management of Femoroacetabular Impingement.” Am J Orthop. 2015; 44(4):172-175.
  • Open and Closed Management of Pediatric Forearm Fractures Cordelia W. Carter and Felicity Fishman. “Open and Closed Management of Pediatric Forearm Fractures.” Orthopaedic Knowledge Online Journal, 2015; 13(5):1. http://dx.doi.org/10.5435/OKOJ-13-5-1.
  • “Children CT and radiation-induced malignancies. Does sex play a role in determining cancer risk?” Hannah Dzimitrowicz and Cordelia W. Carter. “Children CT and radiation-induced malignancies. Does sex play a role in determining cancer risk?” AAOS Now, September 2015. http://www.aaos.org/AAOSNow/2015/Sep/research/research1/?ssopc=1
  • “The relationship between cam lesion and physis in skeletally immature patients.” Carter CW Bixby S, Yen Y, Nasreddine AY and Kocher MS. “The relationship between cam lesion and physis in skeletally immature patients.” Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics 2014; 34(6): 579-84.
  • “Injuries and Conditions of the Pediatric Adolescent Athlete." Cordelia W. Carter and Jennifer M. Weiss. “Injuries and Conditions of the Pediatric Adolescent Athlete.” In Orthopaedic Knowledge Update 11. Ed: L Cannada. AAOS, Rosemont, IL 2014, pp 899-912.
  • “Contemporary management of the pediatric patient with achondroplasia.” Cordelia W. Carter and Melinda S. Sharkey. “Contemporary management of the pediatric patient with achondroplasia.” Orthopaedic Knowledge Online Journal 2014; 12(1): 1.
  • “The role of sex in the evaluation and management of CRPS.” Erica Giles and Cordelia W. Carter. “The role of sex in the evaluation and management of CRPS.” AAOS Now 2014 8 (3); http://www.aaos.org/news/aaosnow/mar14/clinical3.asp
  • Clinical Outcomes as a Function of Meniscal Stability in the Discoid Meniscus: A Preliminary Report.

    Cordelia W. Carter, Jason Hoellwarth and Jennifer M. Weiss. “Clinical Outcomes as a Function of Meniscal Stability in the Discoid Meniscus: A Preliminary Report.” Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics 2012; 32(1): 9-14.

  • Meniscal Repair in Children.

    Cordelia W. Carter and Mininder S. Kocher. “Meniscal Repair in Children.” Clinics in Sports Medicine 2012; 31: 135-154.

  • Sports-related injuries unique to children.

    Cordelia W. Carter and Lyle J. Micheli. “Sports-related injuries unique to children.” Pediatric Annals 2012; 41(10): 396.

  • Training the child athlete: inadequate physical fitness is a risk factor for injury.

    Cordelia W. Carter and Lyle J. Micheli. “Training the child athlete: inadequate physical fitness is a risk factor for injury.” British Journal of Sports Medicine 2011; 45: 880-885.

  • Training the child athlete: how much is enough, how much is too much?

    Cordelia W. Carter and Lyle J. Micheli. “Training the child athlete: how much is enough, how much is too much?” Clinics in Sports Medicine 2011; 30: 679-690.

  • Assessment of Shoulder Range-of-Motion: Introduction of a Novel Patient Self-Assessment Tool.

    Carter CW, Levine WN, Kleweno C, Bigliani L and Ahmad C. “Assessment of Shoulder Range-of-Motion: Introduction of a Novel Patient Self-Assessment Tool.” Arthroscopy 2008; 24(6): 712-17.

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Contact Info

Cordelia Wheeler Carter, MD
Patient Care Locations
Yale Pediatric Specialty Center747 Belden Avenue
Norwalk, CT 06850
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Yale Pediatric Specialty Center1 Long Wharf Drive, Ste 2nd floor
New Haven, CT 06511
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Yale OrthopaedicsYale Physicians Building
800 Howard Avenue, Ste 1st floor

New Haven, CT 06519
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Greenwich Hospital - 15 Valley Drive
15 Valley Drive

Greenwich, CT 06831
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Mailing Address
PO Box 208071
New Haven, CT 06520-8071

Curriculum Vitae