Research has been a long-standing strength of Yale University and of each department. The medical school requires each student to produce a thesis in partial requirement for their graduation, and this value is consistent with each department's emphasis on scholarly activity as well. In order to accomplish this mission, our department provides substantial financial investments. This supports a core histology laboratory, photographic services, computers and library facilities which are available regularly to all residents. Up to 8 months of protected research time is available during the final four years of the residency. Residents are assigned a research advisor and are exposed to faculty research interests through departmental publications and organized "research-in-progress" sessions given by senior residents and clinical and Full-time Research Faculty members. Residents are encouraged to apply for pilot funding through the department for their research projects. Projects are assessed and critiqued at a research forum held annually. Funds are allocated to support resident travel for educational courses and for presentation of research at national meetings.