Toby C Chai, MD

Professor of Urology and of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences; Vice Chair of Research, Department of Urology; Co-Director, Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery Program

Departments & Organizations

Urology: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery Program | General Adult Urology | Neurourology/Neurogenic Bladder | Reconstructive Surgery & Trauma Program

Cancer Center: Prostate & Urologic Cancers Program | Signal Transduction

Faculty Research

Urogynecology & Reconstructive Pelvic Surgery

Yale Medicine

Office of Cooperative Research

Biography


Dr. Chai has received national attention for his work in the treatment of urinary incontinence and his research in the field of bladder physiology. He joined the Urology Department at Yale in 2013 as a professor and vice-chair of Research and holds a joint position in the department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences. After receiving his MD from Indiana University, he completed residencies in urological surgery at the University of Michigan Medical Center. Before coming to Yale, he held the John D. Young Professorship in Urology at the University of Maryland.

Dr. Chai's dedication to research has been recognized in dozens of awards for scientific investigation and scholarship. Most recently, he was awarded the 2015 Wendy U. and Thomas C. Naratil Pioneer Award for Women's Health Research at Yale, the American Urological Association’s 2013 Victor Politano Award for innovative research in urinary incontinence and the 2015 Society for Urodynamics Female Pelvic Medicine, and Urogenital Reconstruction Distinguished Service Award.

An avid writer and editor, Chai has published more than 130 papers, reviews and medical texts. In addition to serving on the editorial boards of the American Journal of Physiology (Renal), he is a Section Editor for Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery Journal, a Co-Editor-in-Chief of Bladder, and Associate Editor for Journal of Urology. He is also an Executive Committee member of the Society of Urodynamics, Female Pelvic Medicine and Urogenital Reconstruction.

Education & Training

MD Indiana University School of Medicine (1989)
Fellowship University of Virginia - Charlottesville
Residency University of Michigan Medical Center
Residency University of Michigan Medical Center
Board Certification AB of Urology, Urology (1998)
Board Certification AB of Urology, Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery (2015)

Honors & Recognition

  • Best DoctorBest Doctors (2014)

  • Victor A. Politano AwardAmerican Urological Association (2013)

  • Best DoctorBest Doctors (2013)

  • Best DoctorBest Doctors (2012)

  • 2nd Prize Poster, SUFU Annual MeetingSociety for Urodynamics, Female Pelvic Medicine & Urogenital Reconstruction (2011)

  • Best DoctorBest Doctors (2011)

  • Second Prize in Basic Science Investigation (Mentor)American Urological Association (2009)

  • Best Reviewer AwardJournal of Urology (2009)

  • Second Prize Winner (Mentor), AUA-ACMI Basic Science Prize Essay Contest American Urological Association Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL (2009)

  • Honorable Mention (Mentor)Annual Jack Lapides Essay Contest in Neurourology (2009)

  • Honorable Mention, Basic Science PosterNIDDK New Research Directions in UI Symposium, Bethseda, MD (2009)

  • First Prize in Basic Science Investigation (Mentor)MidAtlantic AUA Section (2008)

  • First Prize Winner (Mentor), Resident's Essay ContestMidAtlantic AUA Annual Meeting, Cambridge, MD (2008)

  • John D. Young, Jr. Professorship (2007-2012)University of Maryland School of Medicine (2007)

  • Third Prize in Basic Science Investigation (Mentor)American Urological Association (2007)

  • Best Basic Science PosterSociety for Urodynamics and Female Urology Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA (2007)

  • Third Prize Winner (Mentor), AUA-AMCI, Basic Science Prize Essay ContestAmerican Urological Association Annual Meeting, Anaheim, CA (2007)

  • Honorable Mention (Mentor)Annual Jack Lapides Essay Contest in Neurourology, Anaheim, CA (2007)

  • First Prize in Basic Science Investigation (Mentor)MidAtlantic AUA Section (2006)

  • First Prize in Basic Science Investigations (Mentor)Society for Urodynamics and Female Urology (2006)

  • AUA Leadership Class of 2006-2007American Urological Association (2006)

  • First Prize Winner (Mentor), Basic Science Essay ContestSociety for Urodynamics and Female Urology (SUFU) Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA (2006)

  • First Prize Winner (Mentor), Resident's Essay ContestMidAtlantic AUA Annual Meeting, Washington, DC (2006)

  • Paul Zimskind AwardSociety for Urodynamics, Female Pelvic Medicine & Urogenital Reconstruction (2005)

  • Best ReviewerJournal of Urology (2005)

  • Paul Zimskind Award, For Continuing Excellence and Leadership In Field of Voiding DysfunctionSociety for Urodynamics and Female Urology (2005)

  • Second Prize in Basic Science Investigator (Mentor)American Urological Association (2004)

  • Honorary Member of Academic CouncilDnipropetrovsk State Medical Academy, Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine (2004)

  • Second Prize (Mentor), AUA-AMCI, Basic Science Prize Essay ContestAmerican Urological Association Annual Meeting, San Fransisco, CA (2004)

  • Second Prize in Basic Science Investigation (Mentor)MidAtlantic AUA Section (2003)

  • Research Scholar Award (Mentor)American Foundation for Urologic Disease (AFUD) (2003)

  • Second Prize (Mentor), Resident's Essay ContestMid-Atlantic AUA Meeting (2003)

  • First Prize in Basic Science Investigation (Mentor)MidAtlantic AUA Section (2001)

  • Young Investigator AwardSociety for Basic Urologic Research (2001)

  • First Prize, Basic Science InvestigationSociety for Urodynamics and Female Urology (2001)

  • Second Alternate American Urological Association - European Urological Association Scholar Exchange Program (2001)

  • WinnerPfizer International Cardura Competitive Awards Program (2001)

  • Young Investigator AwardSociety for Basic Urologic Research (2001)

  • First Prize Winner, Basic Science CategorySociety for Urodynamics and Female Urology (SUFU) Annual Meeting, Anaheim, CA (2001)

  • Honorable MentionAnnual Jack Lapides Essay Contest in Neurourology, Anaheim, CA (2001)

  • First Prize (Mentor), Resident's Essay Contest, Basic ScienceMid-Atlantic AUA Annual Meeting, Hot Springs, VA (2001)

  • Second Prize PosterInternational Bladder Symposium, Washington, DC (1999)

  • Third Prize PosterSociety of Uroradiology Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA (1999)

  • Second Prize in Basic Science InvestigationAmerican Urological Association (1997)

  • Second Prize, AUA CIRCON-ACMI, Basic Science Prize Essay ContestAmerican Urological Association Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA (1997)

  • NIH Mentored Clinical-Scientist Career, Development Award, (K08 Series Award)NIH (1996)

  • Research Scholar Award (Mentee)American Foundation for Urologic Diseases (AFUD) (1995)

  • First PrizeMichigan Urological Society's Residents' Day (1991)

  • First Runner UpMedical Student Research Day, University of Maryland, Baltimore (1986)

  • Representative of USAInternational Symposium on Sciences and Humanities, London, England (1981)

  • Honors GroupWestinghouse Science Talent Search (1981)

Professional Service

  • Term Appointments and Promotions Committee Yale University (2015 - 2018)

  • Member-at-Large Society of Urodynamics, Female Pelvic Medicine & Urogenital Reconstruction, Executive Committee (2014 - 2015)

  • Member NIDDK/NIH, DDK-D (K- and T-applications), Barbara Woynarowska, PhD (2012 - 2016)

  • Research Council Member American Urological Association (2012 - 2015)

  • Section Editor "Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery" (2010 - 2015)

  • Senior Editorial Consultant American Board of Urology, ABU/AUA EC (2010 - 2013)

  • MidAtlantic Section of American Urological Association, Investment Committee (2010 - 2011)

  • American Urogynecologic Society, Research Summit Panel (2010 - 2010)

  • Reviewer Wellcome Trust (UK) Grants (2010 - 2010)

  • Institutional Service for Univ of MD School of Medicine, Search Committee for Chair of Dept. of Ob/Gyn (2010 - 2010)

  • Program Co-Chair American Urological Association Foundation, AUAF/SBUR Summer Research Conference "Urinary Incontinence Intergrating Basic and Clinical Research Perspectives" (2010 - 2010)

  • Member American Board of Urology, Examination Committee (2010 - 2010)

  • Judge Junior Science and Humanities Symposium, National Junior Science and Humanities Symposium (www.jshs.org), Bethseda, MD (2010 - 2010)

  • Reviewer "European Urology" (2009 - 2015)

  • Reviewer "Clinical Chemistry" (2009 - 2009)

  • Reviewer American Urologynecologic Society Foundation Grants (2008 - 2010)

  • Presenter, "Urological Issues in Patients with Spinal Cord Dysfunction" American Syringomyelia & Chiari Alliance Project, American Syringomyelia & Chiari Alliance Project Annual Conference (2008 - 2008)

  • Editorial Board "American Journal of Physiology - Renal" (2007 - 2014)

  • Reviewer American Urologic Association Foundation Research Scholar Grant (2007 - 2008)

  • MidAtlantic Section of American Urological Association, Board of Directors (2007 - 2008)

  • Program Chair MidAtlantic Section of American Urological Association, 2008 Mid-Atlantic AUA Meeting (2007 - 2008)

  • Dept. of Surgery Representative Institutional Service for Univ of MD School of Medicine, SOM Faculty Council (2007 - 2008)

  • Reviewer "American Journal of Physiology - Renal" (2006 - 2015)

  • Reviewer "American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology" (2006 - 2015)

  • Editorial Board "Current Bladder Dysfunction Reports" (2006 - 2014)

  • Reviewer "American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Intergrative and Comparative" (2006 - 2006)

  • AUA Meeting Abstract Reviewer American Urological Association (2005 - 2013)

  • Member CSR/NIH, CSR UKGD Study Section, Ryan Morris, PhD (SRA) (2005 - 2008)

  • Reviewer "FEBS Letters" (2005 - 2005)

  • Presenter, "Treatment of IC - Anything New?" ICA Regional Meeting, Alexandria (2005 - 2005)

  • Deacon Chapelgate Presbyterian Church (PCA), Marriottsville, MD (2004 - 2012)

  • Reviewer Pfizer OAB/LUTS Grants (2004 - 2011)

  • Interstitial Cystitis Association (ICA), Medical Advisory Board (2004 - 2007)

  • Secretary of Diaconate Board Chapelgate Presbyterian Church (PCA), Marriottsville, MD (2004 - 2006)

  • Reviewer American Foundation for Urologic Diseases Grant (2004 - 2004)

  • Judge Institutional Service for Univ of MD School of Medicine, Medical Student Research Day (2004 - 2004)

  • Roundtable Leader National Junior Science and Humanities Symposium, Hunt Valley Marriott, Hunt Valley, MD, "Science and Society" (2004 - 2004)

  • Reviewer "BJU International" (2003 - 2015)

  • Chair Maryland Regional Junior Science and Humanities Symposium, Advisory Committee (2003 - 2005)

  • Speaker Institutional Service for Univ of MD School of Medicine, White Coat Ceremony for Class 2007 (2003 - 2003)

  • Reviewer "Physiologic Genomics" (2003 - 2003)

  • Presenter, "Interstitial Cystitis, a Hypersensory Pelvic Disorder" Interstitial Cystitis Association, Interstitial Cystitis Association (ICA) Regional Support Group Meeting, Maryland City Public Library, Laurel, MD (2003 - 2003)

  • Presenter, "Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome AKA Chronic Prostatitis" ICA 20th Anniversary Meeting, Old Town Alexandria, VA (2003 - 2003)

  • Interviewer Institutional Service for Univ of MD School of Medicine, Office of Admissions (2002 - 2006)

  • Reviewer "Nature Clinical Practice Urology" (2002 - 2002)

  • Reviewer University of Washington, Diabetes Endocrinology Research Research Center (DERA) Pilot And Feasibility Program Project (2002 - 2002)

  • Reviewer "Neuroscience" (2002 - 2002)

  • Reviewer "Neurourology and Urodynamics" (2001 - 2015)

  • Reviewer Interstitital Cystitis Association (ICA) Fishbein Family Foundation Grant (2001 - 2005)

  • Reviewer Research into Ageing Fellowship (UK) Grant (2001 - 2001)

  • Reviewer "Brain Research" (2001 - 2001)

  • Member NIDDK, NIDDK Bladder Research Progress Writing Committee (2001 - 2001)

  • Presenter, "Effect of Prostate Cancer Treatments on Bladder Function" Us Too, Prostate Cancer Support Group Meeting, University of Maryland Hospital, Baltimore, MD (2001 - 2001)

  • Presenter, "Surgical Management of Interstitial Cystitis" Interstitial Cystitis Association, Interstitial Cystitis Association Maryland Chapter Meeting, Columbia, MD (2001 - 2001)

  • Reviewer "Urology" (2000 - 2015)

  • Presenter, "Urinary Incontinence" American Foundation for Urologic Diseases, American Foundation for Urologic Diseases Bladder Health Week, University of Maryland Hospital, Baltimore, MD (1999 - 1999)

  • Reviewer "Journal of Urology" (1998 - 2015)

International Activity

  • Society for Women’s Health Research Scientific Rountables Washington, United States (2014 - 2016)

    Society for Women’s Health Research Scientific Rountables: Understanding urologic heatlh in women across the lifespan. Topic C Leader – Biologic basis of urologic disease,

  • Korean Urology Association Session, "Prolapse and SUI Surgery: Separated or Combined" Orlando, FL, United States (2014 - 2014)

  • "Can the Urothelium Modulate Bladder Function" Boston, MA, United States (2014 - 2014)

  • "Does the Bladder Matter? A Male (Patient's) Perspective." New Haven, CT, United States (2014 - 2014)

  • "Serum and Urine Biomarkers for LUTS (OAB, IC, etc.): Where Are We?" Miami, FL, United States (2014 - 2014)

  • "Comparison of ROC Curves for Preoperative VLPP, MUCP, and Urinary NTx as Predictors for Midurethral Sling Outcomes" Orlando, FL, United States (2014 - 2014)

  • "Comparison of ROC Curves for Preoperative VLPP, MUCP, and Urinary NTx as Predictors for Midurethal Sling Outcomes" Miami, FL, United States (2014 - 2014)

  • "Female Urinary Disorders, Defecatory Disorders and Pelvic Organ Prolapse" Milford, United States (2014 - 2014)

  • "Evidence Based Medicine for Treatment of (Mostly Female) Stress Urinary Incontinence" Mt. Sinai, NY, United States (2013 - 2013)

  • Annual Scientific Meeting Plantsville, CT, United States (2013 - 2013)

  • "What Components are Needed to Develop a Bladder Cancer Program in a Cancer Center?" Salisbury, MD, United States (2013 - 2013)

  • "Stump the Professor ~ An Unusual Presentation of Anterior Wall Prolapse" Las Vegas, NV, United States (2013 - 2013)

  • "Does the urothelium drive bladder function" Winston-Salem, United States (2013 - 2013)

  • "One Person's Perspectives on the Specialties of Urology 1993-2013" Baltimore, MD, United States (2013 - 2013)

  • "Guidelines in Diagnosis and Treatment of (Non-neurogenic) Overactive Bladder in Adults" and "Transvaginal Mesh Complications and Management" Dallas, TX, United States (2013 - 2013)

  • "Urinary Markers After Continence Surgery (UMACS) Study - Potential Utility of Biomarkers in Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence" San Diego, CA, United States (2013 - 2013)

  • "Urinary Markers After Continence Surgery (UMACS) Study - Potential Utility of Biomarkers in Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence" Las Vegas, NV, United States (2013 - 2013)

  • "Urinary Makers After Continence Surgery (UMACS) Study - Potential Utility of Biomarkers in Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence" Charleston, SC, United States (2013 - 2013)

  • "Concept Creation, Collaboration, and Grant Submission: Opportunities and Challenges - Clinical Trials Research" Atlanta, GA, United States (2012 - 2012)

  • "Contribution of Bladder Urothelial Cell (BUC) to Pathphysiologic Bladder Logic" Reno, NV, United States (2012 - 2012)

  • "Midurethreal Slings - Determinants of Success" and "Urodynamics in the Workup in 2012 - Is is Necessary?" Ontario, Canada (2012 - 2012)

  • "A Randomized Trial on the Effect of Urodynamic Testing Versus Office Evaluation Only Before Stress Urinary Incontinence on Outcomes" Atlanta, GA, United States (2012 - 2012)

  • "Rat and human bladder urothelial cells have decreased ATP-evoked increase in intracellular calcium with knockdown of P2Y2 receptor" Atlanta, GA, United States (2012 - 2012)

  • "Characterization of resting membrane potential in rat and human bladder urothelial cells" Atlanta, GA, United States (2012 - 2012)

  • "The 3 U's: Urothelium, Urinary Incontinence and the Urologist" Philadelphia, PA, United States (2011 - 2011)

  • "Adverse Events in TOMUS Trial." San Antonio, TX, United States (2011 - 2011)

  • "Translational Urology Research: Step-by-step How to Do it from Concepts to Getting Funded" Washington, DC, United States (2011 - 2011)

  • "Use of Intestinal Segments in Urologic Reconstructive Surgery" Birmingham, AL, United States (2011 - 2011)

  • "The Bladder Urothelium - More than Barrier Function: Its Role in Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms" and "What has the Urinary Incontinence Treatment Network Taught Us?" Providence, RI, United States (2011 - 2011)

  • "Trial of retropubic and transobturator midurethral slings (TOMUS): 24 month outcomes." Washington, DC, United States (2011 - 2011)

  • "Baseline and time-varying factors associated with long-term continence outcomes after surgery for stress urinary incontinence." Washington, DC, United States (2011 - 2011)

  • "Urodynamic changes 12 months after retropubic and transobturator midurethral slings." Washington, DC, United States (2011 - 2011)

  • "Vimentin is uniquely expressed by rat bladder urothelium (BU) and rat cultured urothelial cells (BUC) but not by human BU and human BUC." Washington, DC, United States (2011 - 2011)

  • "Effects of Concomitant Surgeries during Mid-Urethral Slings (MUS) on Post-operative Complications, Voiding Dysfunction, Continence Outcomes and Urodynamic Variables." Washington, DC, United States (2011 - 2011)

  • Goldmark E, Heuer M, Chai TC. "Illeal loop urinary diversion for non-bladder cancer Indications - long-term outcomes and complications." Orlando, FL, United States (2011 - 2011)

  • "Urothelial Biology and Overactive Bladder" Linthicum, MD, United States (2010 - 2010)

  • "Risk Factors for UTI After SUI Surgery." Long Beach, CA, United States (2010 - 2010)

  • "Stress Urinary Incontinence AUA Practice Guidelines" Nemacolin, PA, United States (2010 - 2010)

  • Japanese Urological Association Joint Meeting with American Urological Association, "Management of Male LUTS: How Optimized and Different Between Countries" San Fransisco, CA, United States (2010 - 2010)

  • "Bladder Cancer, The Good, The Bad and The Ugly" Salisbury, MD, United States (2010 - 2010)

  • "Minimum important difference for validated instruments in women with urgency incontinence." Long Beach, CA, United States (2010 - 2010)

  • "Minimum important difference for validated instruments in women with urgency incontinence." Toronto, Canada (2010 - 2010)

  • "The role of m3 muscarinic signaling bladder urothelial cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis." San Francisco, CA, United States (2010 - 2010)

  • "Elevated polyamine levels in bladder urothelia cells from subjects with overactive bladder (OAB) mediate oxotremorine (OXO) evoked intracellular calcium increase and acetylcholine release." San Francisco, CA, United States (2010 - 2010)

  • "Stretch-induced expression of HIF-1, HIF-2 and VEGF in bladder urothelial cells (BUC) from subjects with overactive bladder (OAB)." San Francisco, CA, United States (2010 - 2010)

  • "Factors associated with quality of life in women undergoing surgery for stress urinary incontinence." San Francisco, CA, United States (2010 - 2010)

  • "Preoperative symptom of hesitating urinary stream with associated with surgical failure and postoperative voiding dysfunction following Burch colpsosuspension or pubovaginal rectus fascial sling surgery." San Francisco. CA, United States (2010 - 2010)

  • "Clinical and demographic variables associated with static urethral pressure profilemetry in patients undergoing mid urethral sling surgery." San Francisco, CA, United States (2010 - 2010)

  • "Tennstedt S, Richter HE. Urodynamics, the supine empty bladder stress test, and incontinence severity." Hollywood, FL, United States (2010 - 2010)

  • "Preoperative symptom of hesitating urinary stream with associated with surgical failure and postoperative voiding dysfunction following Burch colposuspension or pubovaginal rectus fascial sling surgery. St. Petersburg, FL, United States (2010 - 2010)

  • "Basic Research Update in Overactive Bladder and Urge Urinary Incontinence" Bethseda, MD, United States (2009 - 2009)

  • "Point Counterpoint - Female Pelvic Reconstruction Urology vs. Female Pelvic Medicine" Williamsburg, VA, United States (2009 - 2009)

  • "Bladder urothelial cells from patients with overactive bladder exhibit alterations in michano- and chemosensitivity" Chicago, IL, United States (2009 - 2009)

  • "Preoperative urinary hesitancy is associated with surgical failure and postoperative voiding dysfunction following Burch colposuspension or pubovaginal rectus fascial sling surgery." San Francisco, CA, United States (2009 - 2009)

  • "Characteristics of obese, overweight and normal (healthy) weight women seeking surgical treatment for stress urinary incontinence" San Francisco, CA, United States (2009 - 2009)

  • Williamsburg, VA, Kukasabe AO, Chai TC. "Novel Reconstuctive Repair of Illeal Loop Stomal Stenosis or Left Ureteroileal Anastomatic Stricture with a new segment of Illeum" Williamsburg, VA, United States (2009 - 2009)

  • "Building Overactive Bladder Awareness" Sapporo, Japan (2008 - 2008)

  • "Advances and controversies in Management of Overactive Bladder" Orlando, FL, United States (2008 - 2008)

  • "Take Home Message - Urinary Incontinence" Orlando, FL, United States (2008 - 2008)

  • "Bladder Injuries during Hysterectomy: An Need for a Partnership Between the Urologist and the Gynecologist" Salisbury, MD, United States (2008 - 2008)

  • "Increased responsiveness of non-neurogenic OAB bladder urothelial cells to capsaicin and heat stimuli - role for the TRPVI receptor in OAB pathogenesis." Orlando, FL, United States (2008 - 2008)

  • "New insight into non-neurogenic OAB Pathogenesis - the role of BK channel in bladder urothelial cells" Orlando, FL, United States (2008 - 2008)

  • "Urodynamic changes 24 months after Burch colposuspension and autologous fascia pubovaginal sling" Orlando, FL`, United States (2008 - 2008)

  • "Urodynamic changes associated with successful stress urinary incontinence surgery: a little tension is a good thing?" Orlando, FL, United States (2008 - 2008)

  • "Preoperative urodynamic testing does not predict postoperative voiding dysfunction among women undergoing surgery for SUI: results from a prospective randomized trial comparing trial comparing Burch versus pubovaginal sling" Miami, FL, United States (2008 - 2008)

  • Tully BT, Sun Y, Berkowitz J, Li M, Chai TC. "Defects in muscarinic receptor cell signaling in a bladder cancer cell line" Cambridge, MD, United States (2008 - 2008)

  • Women's Health Update, Part 2, "Interstitial Cystitis" Silver Spring, MD, United States (2007 - 2007)

  • "Urinary Incontinence" Ocean City, MD, United States (2007 - 2007)

  • "Urology Update 2007" Annapolis, United States (2007 - 2007)

  • "Medical Management of BPH" and "Treatment of Urinary Incontinence" and "Treatment of Urethral Strictures" and "Surgical Management of Urolithiasis" and "Surgical Management of Erectile Dysfunction" Chiangmai, Thailand (2007 - 2007)

  • "Update from the Urinary Incontinence Treatment Network (UITN): Work from Publications & Presentations (P&P) Committee" San Diego, CA, United States (2007 - 2007)

  • "Interstitial Cystitis - Disease of Syndrome?" Baltimore, MD, United States (2007 - 2007)

  • "Urinary Incontinence" Baltimore, MD, United States (2007 - 2007)

  • "Urinary Incontinence" Annapolis, MD, United States (2007 - 2007)

  • "High 'costs' of urinary incontinence among women electing surgery to treat stress incontinence." Hollywood, FL, United States (2007 - 2007)

  • "Preoperative urodynamic stress incontinence predicts continence outcomes after Burch or pubovaginal sling procedures." Hollywood, FL, United States (2007 - 2007)

  • "Preoperative detrusor overactivty is a poor predictor of continence outcomes after Burch or pubovaginal sling procedures." Hollywood, FL, United States (2007 - 2007)

  • "Valsalva leak point pressures do not predict continence outcomes after Burch or pubovaginal sling procedures." Hollywood, FL, United States (2007 - 2007)

  • "Adverse events from the Stress Incontinence Surgical Treatment Efficacy Trial (SISTEr)." Hollywood, FL, United States (2007 - 2007)

  • "Predictors of treatment failure 24 months after surgery for stress urinary incontinence" Rotterdam, Netherlands (2007 - 2007)

  • "Adverse events from a randomized trial for the surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence." Rotterdam, Netherlands (2007 - 2007)

  • "Voiding symptoms are common in women planning continence surgery" Anaheim, CA, United States (2007 - 2007)

  • "Evidence for Increased Sensitivity of Bladder Urothelial Cell to Carbachol, Based on Changes in [Ca]i, in Patients with Overactive Bladder (OAB)." Anaheim, CA, United States (2007 - 2007)

  • "Increased efficacy and potency of carbachol in inducing increases in intracellular calcuim ([Ca2+]i) and outward potassium currents (I0) in interstitial cystitis (IC) bladder urothelial cells (BUC) : Evidence of persistent phenotypic alteration of cultured human IC BUC." Anaheim, CA, United States (2007 - 2007)

  • "Predictors of treatment failure 24 months after surgery for stress incontinence" Hollywood, FL, United States (2007 - 2007)

  • "Anti-proliferative Factor's (APF) Effect on Purinergic Signaling in Normal Human Bladder Urothelial Cells." Anaheim, CA, United States (2007 - 2007)

  • "Results of the SISTEr Randomized Surgical Trial Comparing the Autologous Rectus Fascia Sling to the Burch Colpsuspension." Anaheim, CA, United States (2007 - 2007)

  • "Link Between Cytokine Expression and Purinergic Signaling in Bladder Urothelial Cells (BUC)." San Diego, CA, United States (2007 - 2007)

  • "Urinary Incontinence 2006" Annapolis, MD, United States (2006 - 2006)

  • "Relevant Surgical Pelvic Anatomy" and "IC Therapy and Role of Neuromodulation" Dallas, TX, United States (2006 - 2006)

  • "Race/Ethnic Differences in Symptoms and Impacts of Urinary Incontinence in Women Undergoing Stress Urinary Incontinence Surgery." Christchurch, New Zealand (2006 - 2006)

  • "Voiding Dysfunction and the Bladder Urothelium" Washington, DC, United States (2006 - 2006)

  • "Race/Ethnic Differences in Symptoms and Impacts of Urinary Incontinence in Women Undergoing Stress Urinary Incontinence Surgery." Palm Springs, CA, United States (2006 - 2006)

  • "Correlation of MESA and VLPP With Other Measures of Urinary Incontinence Severity." Grand Bahama, Bahamas (2006 - 2006)

  • "Demographic and Urodynamic Baseline Predictors of Vasalva Leak Point Pressure." Atlanta, GA, United States (2006 - 2006)

  • "Link Between Cytokine Expression and Augmented Purinergic Signaling in Interstitial Cystitis (IC) Bladder Urothelial Cella (BUC)." Atlanta, GA, United States (2006 - 2006)

  • "Increased Efficacy and Potency Of Carbachol In Inducing Increases In Intracellular Calcium ([Ca2+]i) In Overactive Bladder (OAB) and Interstitial Cystitis (IC) Bladder Urothelial Cells (BUC)." Washington, DC, United States (2006 - 2006)

  • "Changes In M2 Receptor Expression On Human Bladder Urothelial Cells (BUC) In Response To Carbachol and Tolterodine." Washington, DC, United States (2006 - 2006)

  • "Role of Bladder Urothelium in Bladder Hypersensory Disease" Baltimore, MD, United States (2005 - 2005)

  • "Bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) and Overactive Bladder (OAB) - Empiricism versus Science" Kaoshiung, Taiwan (2005 - 2005)

  • "Role of Bladder Urothelium in Bladder Sensation - From Bench to Bedside" Kaoshiung, Taiwan (2005 - 2005)

  • "Treatment of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms - Are We Treating BPH or Something Else?" Taipei, Taiwan (2005 - 2005)

  • "Treatment of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms - Are We Treating BPH or Something Else?" Taipei, Taiwan (2005 - 2005)

  • "Management of Incontinence After Sling Procedure: Surgery vs. Drugs - Point Counterpoint" San Antonio, TX, United States (2005 - 2005)

  • "Role of bladder urothelia cell in sensory signal transduction using interstitial cystitis as a human model" San Diego, CA, United States (2005 - 2005)

  • "Update on mediators of bladder afferent activity" Washington, United States (2005 - 2005)

  • "Evidence-based Medicine in Male LUTS: Review of NIH-Sponsored Clinical Trials" Taichung, Taiwan (2005 - 2005)

  • "The Overactive Bladder: More Options or Differences without Distinction" Phoenix, AZ, United States (2005 - 2005)

  • "Interstitial Cystitis - Translational Research" Boston, MA, United States (2005 - 2005)

  • "The effect of carbachol on Kir2. conductance in bladder urothelial cells." San Antonio, TX, United States (2005 - 2005)

  • "The effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on inward potassium rectifying currents in bladder urothelial cells." San Antonio, TX, United States (2005 - 2005)

  • "Effect Of Muscarine Agonists On Outward Current In Bladder Urothelial Cells" Phoenix, AZ, United States (2005 - 2005)

  • "Normalization Of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) Mediated Alterations In Interstitial Cystitis (IC) Bladder Urothelial Cells (BUC) Correlate With Normalization Of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Alterations." Phoenix, AZ, United States (2005 - 2005)

  • "Overactive Bladder: Form and Function" Frederick, MD, United States (2004 - 2004)

  • "Overactive Bladder: Evolving Concepts" Baltimore, MD, United States (2004 - 2004)

  • "Overactive Bladder: Evolving Concepts" Baltimore, MD, United States (2004 - 2004)

  • "ATP Sensitization" McLean, VA, United States (2004 - 2004)

  • "Modern Treatment of Urinary Incontinence" San Fransisco, CA, United States (2004 - 2004)

  • "Antiproliferative Involvement in Interstitial Cystitis" Paris, France (2004 - 2004)

  • "Report on NIH Studies - Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndromes" Phoenix, AZ, United States (2004 - 2004)

  • "Prostate Cancer" and "Urinary Incontinence" Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine (2004 - 2004)

  • "Overactive Bladder: Form and Function" Timonium, MD, United States (2004 - 2004)

  • "Hypersensitive Bladder Conditions: Overactive Bladder and Interstitial Cystitis" Washington, DC, United States (2004 - 2004)

  • "Overactive Bladder: Form and Function" Baltimore, MD, United States (2004 - 2004)

  • "Overactive Bladder: Evolving Concepts" Baltimore, MD, United States (2004 - 2004)

  • "Overactive Bladder: Evolving Concepts" Bel Air, MD, United States (2004 - 2004)

  • "Overactive Bladder: Evolving Concepts" Baltimore, MD, United States (2004 - 2004)

  • "Overactive Bladder: Evolving Concepts" Randallstown, MD, United States (2004 - 2004)

  • "Overactive Bladder: Evolving Concepts" Ocean City, MD, United States (2004 - 2004)

  • "Overactive Bladder: Evolving Concepts" Baltimore, MD, United States (2004 - 2004)

  • "Effect of botulinum toxin on overactive bladder contractions induced by intravesical ATP and capsaicin in the rat model." San Francisco, CA, United States (2004 - 2004)

  • "Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) stimulates more ATP release fro m interstitial cystitis bladder urothelial cells compared to control cells." San Francisco, CA, United States (2004 - 2004)

  • "Altered membrane ion channel properties in human bladder urothelial cells from interstitial cystitis patients: insights into basic urothelial cell function." San Francisco, CA, United States (2004 - 2004)

  • "The effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on Kir2.1 Channel in Bladder Urothelial Cells." Cambridge, MD, United States (2004 - 2004)

  • "The Role of Bladder Urothelium in Sensory Transduction: Can IC Bladder Urothelial Cells be Hypersensitive?" Old Town Alexandria, VA, United States (2003 - 2003)

  • "Interstitial Cystitis" Ocean City, MD, United States (2003 - 2003)

  • "Modern Treatment of Urinary Incontinence" Chicago, IL, United States (2003 - 2003)

  • "Management of Interstitial Cystitis" Baltimore, MD, United States (2003 - 2003)

  • "Surgery for Non-neoplastic Conditions of the Lower Urinary Tract" Orlando, FL, United States (2003 - 2003)

  • "Effect of Potassium Chloride on Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Release by Cultured Bladder Uroepithelial Cells from Interstitial Cystitis (IC) and Control Patients." Chicago, IL, United States (2003 - 2003)

  • "Upregulation of ATP P2X3 Receptor in Bladder Urothelial Cells from Interstitial Cystitis (IC) Patients Induced by In Vistro Cell Stretch Suggesting Paracrine Function for Extracellular ATP." Chicago, IL, United States (2003 - 2003)

  • "Intravesical Agents and Gene Therapy in Treatment of Overactive Bladder" Boca Raton, FL, United States (2003 - 2003)

  • "Extracellular ATP Stimulates More ATP Release from Interstitial Cystitis Bladder Urothelial Cells Compared to Control Cells." Florence, Italy (2003 - 2003)

  • "Effect of Botulinim Toxin on ATP-induced Bladder Contractions in Rat Bladders." Boca Raton, FL, United States (2003 - 2003)

  • "Modern Treatment of Urinary Incontinence" Orlando, FL, United States (2002 - 2002)

  • "Basic Science and Translational Research in Female Pelvic Floor Disorders" Bethseda, MD, United States (2002 - 2002)

  • "Advancing the Treatment of Fecal and Urinary Incontinence Through Research: Trial Design, Outcome Measures, and Research Priorities" Milwaukee, WI, United States (2002 - 2002)

  • "Modern Perspectives and Historical Footnotes and Surgery for Stress Incontinence" Baltimore, MD, United States (2002 - 2002)

  • "Urinary Incontinence" Baltimore, MD, United States (2002 - 2002)

  • "Effect of Doxazosin on Stretch-Activated ATP Release in Bladder Urothelial Cells Obtained from BPH." Orlando, FL, United States (2002 - 2002)

  • Regional InterStim Training Course Lecture Columbia, MD, United States (2002 - 2002)

  • "Overactive Bladder and Interstitial Cystitis" Olney, MD, United States (2002 - 2002)

  • "Stress Urinary Incontinence - The Need for Data" Baltimore, MD, United States (2002 - 2002)

  • "Urinary Incontinence" Ocean City, MD, United States (2002 - 2002)

  • "Effect of Potassium Chloride on Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Release by Cultured Bladder Uroepithelial Cells from Interstitial Cystitis (IC) and Control Patients." Baltimore, MD, United States (2002 - 2002)

  • "Upregulation of P2X3-ATP Receptor in Bladder Uroepithelial Cells from Interstitial Cystitis (IC) Patients Induced by In Vitro Cell Stretch Suggesting Paracrine Function for Extracellular ATP." Baltimore, MD, United States (2002 - 2002)

  • Regional InterStim Training Course Lecture Columbia, MD, United States (2001 - 2001)

  • "Neural Control of Bladder Function" Tucson, AZ, United States (2001 - 2001)

  • "Sacral Neuromodulation in Treatment of Voiding Dysfunction" Anaheim, CA, United States (2001 - 2001)

  • "InterStim Therapy: S3 Neural Modulation for Treatment of Voiding Dysfunction" Taipei, Taiwan (2001 - 2001)

  • "Urinary Incontinence" Bethseda, MD, United States (2001 - 2001)

  • Regional IntersStim Training Course Lecture Morristown, NJ, United States (2001 - 2001)

  • "InterStim Therapy: S3 Neuromodulation for Treatment of Voiding Dysfunction" Cleveland, OH, United States (2001 - 2001)

  • Regional IntersStim Training Course Lecture Newton, MA, United States (2001 - 2001)

  • "InterStim Therapy: S3 Neural Modulation for Treatment of Voiding Dysfunction" Cleveland, OH, United States (2001 - 2001)

  • "Management of UTIs and Intersitital Cystitis" Solomons Island, United States (2001 - 2001)

  • "Urinary Incontinence - The Need for Data" Baltimore, MD, United States (2001 - 2001)

  • "Pathophysiology of Stress Urinary Incontinence" Baltimore, MD, United States (2001 - 2001)

  • "InterStime Therapy: S3 Neuromodulation for Treatment of Voiding Dysfunction or The Bladder Matters" Timonium, MD, United States (2001 - 2001)

  • "Stretch and the Bladder Urothelia: Why You Feel the Urge" Baltimore, MD, United States (2001 - 2001)

  • Regional IntersStim Training Course Lecture Richmond, VA, United States (2001 - 2001)

  • National InterStim Training Course Lecture Memphis, TN, United States (2001 - 2001)

  • Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Course Innovations in Medical Education and Training Lecture Baltimore, United States (2001 - 2001)

  • "Workup and Treatment of Urinary Incontinence" Salisbury, MD, United States (2001 - 2001)

  • "Effect of Doxazosin on Stretch-Activated ATP Release in Bladder Urothelial Cells Obtained from BPH Patients." Tucson, AZ, United States (2001 - 2001)

  • "Stretch Activated Release of ATP by Bladder Uroepithelia is Augmented in Interstitial Cystitis." Anaheim, CA, United States (2001 - 2001)

  • "Stretch Activated Release of ATP by Bladder Uroepithelia is Augmented in Interstitial Cystitis." Washington, DC, United States (2001 - 2001)

  • "Evidence for Increased Stretch-Activated ATP Release from Bladder Epithelial Cells Obtained from BPH Patients." Hot Springs, VA, United States (2001 - 2001)

  • "Stretch Activated Release of ATP by Bladder Uroepithelia is Augmented in Interstitial Cystitis." Minneapolis, MD, United States (2000 - 2000)

  • "Pilot Study on Effectiveness of Viagra for Treatment of Female Sexual Dysfunction: Physiologic Predictor for Success." Atlanta, GA, United States (2000 - 2000)

  • "Overactive Bladder and Urinary Incontinence" Rocky Gap, MD, United States (2000 - 2000)

  • "Interstitial Cystitis: A Boon to Understanding Basic Bladder Physiology?" Baltimore, MD, United States (2000 - 2000)

  • "Neurophysiology of Micturition and Continence" Baltimore, MD, United States (2000 - 2000)

  • "Surgical Management of Interstitial Cystitis?" Baltimore, MD, United States (2000 - 2000)

  • "Percutaneous S3 Nerve Root Stimulation Decreases Symptoms and Normalizes Urinary HB-EGF and APF Activity in IC Patients" Atlanta, GA, United States (2000 - 2000)

  • "Stretch Activated Release of ATP by Bladder Uroepithelial is Augmented in Interstitial Cystitis." Rio Mar, Puerto Rico (2000 - 2000)

  • "Percutaneous S3 Nerve Root Stimulation Decreases Symptoms and Normalizes Urinary HB-EGF and APF Activity in IC Patients" Washington, DC, United States (1999 - 1999)

  • "Pilot Study on Effectiveness of Viagra for Treatment of Female Sexual Dysfunction: Physiologic Predictor for Success." Boston, MA, United States (1999 - 1999)

  • "Double Blind Placebo Controlled Study with Crossover to Assess Effect of Sildenafil on the Female Sexual Response." Dallas, TX, United States (1999 - 1999)

  • "Bladder Overdistention Decreases Urine Antiproliferative Activity and Increases Urine HB-EGF Levels in Patients with Interstitial Cystitis." Dallas, TX, United States (1999 - 1999)

  • "Urinary Incontinence and Overactive Bladder" Baltimore, MD, United States (1999 - 1999)

  • "Neuroplasticity Diagnosed by Urodynamics" Baltimore, MD, United States (1999 - 1999)

  • "Overactive Bladder and Urinary Incontinence" Baltimore, MD, United States (1999 - 1999)

  • "Doppler evaluation of the effect Sildenafil citrate on perineal blood flow in women." New Orleans, LA, United States (1999 - 1999)

  • "Mechanisms Underlying Hyperactive Voiding After Relief of Obstruction." San Diego, CA, United States (1998 - 1998)

  • "Neuroplasticity of the Aged Bladder: Evidence for Altered Neutrophic Interactions." San Diego, CA, United States (1998 - 1998)

  • "Detection of a spinal reflex in patients with bladder outlet obstruction using ice water cystometry." New Orleans, LA, United States (1997 - 1997)

  • "Hyperactive voiding in rats secondary to obstruction: expression of a novel gene encoding for protein D123." New Orleans, LA, United States (1997 - 1997)

  • "Altered neural control of micturition in the aged F344 rat." New Orleans, LA, United States (1997 - 1997)

  • "Genetics Models of Hyperactive Voiding in Rats" Boston, MA, United States (1996 - 1996)

  • "Reversibility of hyperactive voiding after bladder outlet obstruction" Orlando, FL, United States (1996 - 1996)

  • "Compliance and compliance of clean intermittent catherization in SCI population." San Francisco, CA, United States (1994 - 1994)

  • "Compliance and complications of clean intermittent catherization in spinal cord injured patients." Boca Raton, FL, United States (1994 - 1994)

  • "Laparoscopic varicocelectomy for treatment of male infertility." Milwaukee, WI, United States (1993 - 1993)

  • "Comparison of voiding system scores in age matched males and females." Cerromar, Puerto Rico (1992 - 1992)

  • "Processing of d,beta-diaspartamide of TRIS (beta-lactosyloxamethyditrislac-6,animohexaniminido)-methane by isolated hepatocytes." Chicago, IL, United States (1984 - 1984)

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Contact Info

Toby C Chai, MD
Patient Care Locations
Prostate and Urologic Cancers ProgramSmilow Cancer Hospital at Yale - New Haven
35 Park Street, Ste 4th floor

New Haven, CT 06511
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Orchard Medical CenterOrchard Medical Center
330 Orchard Street, Ste 116

New Haven, CT 06511
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Mailing Address
PO Box 208058
New Haven, CT 06520-8058

Curriculum Vitae

Scanning EM of apical urothelial

Apical urothelial cells seen from the luminal side.