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Placenta predicts the brain
Abnormal folds in the baby's placenta (left) mirror changes in the brain (right), signaling autism risk at birth. See Walker CK, Anderson KW, Milano KM, Ye S, Tancredi DJ, Pessah IN, Hertz-Picciotto I, Kliman HJ. (2013) Trophoblast Inclusions are Significantly Increased in the Placentas of Children in Families at Risk for Autism, Biological Psychiatry, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.03.006
Trophoblast inclusions predict autism risk
Frequencies of inclusions (I), calcified inclusions (C) and total inclusions (T) in the MARBLES (M) and Control (C) placentas at increasing cutoffs (1-9). There were always more inclusions in the MARBLES placentas compared to the Controls. Beyond a cutoff of 3 there were no control cases with any inclusions, while there were 28 cases with three or more total inclusions, and one case with a total of 15 inclusions within the MARBLES placentas. See Walker CK, Anderson KW, Milano KM, Ye S, Tancredi DJ, Pessah IN, Hertz-Picciotto I, Kliman HJ. (2013) Trophoblast Inclusions are Significantly Increased in the Placentas of Children in Families at Risk for Autism, Biological Psychiatry, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.03.006
Trophoblast inclusion formation
Formation of trophoblast invaginations and inclusions. (A) Histologic section of a placental villus which exhibits both a trophoblast invagination (I) and inclusion (TI). Note the increased numbers of cytotrophoblasts (arrow heads) beneath the syncytiotrophoblast layer in the region of the invagination and their paucity away from the invagination (*). When an invagination is sectioned perpendicular to its long axis (S-S) it appears as an inclusion (TI), with dark syncytiotrophoblast nuclei in its center surrounded by cytotrophoblasts (arrow heads). Intervillus space (IVS). (B) Diagram of a villus cross-section showing the outer syncytiotrophoblast layer (blue) and inner cytotrophoblast layer (A-A) with a trophoblast invagination (I) and inclusion (TI) illustrating the relevant morphology and disposition of cytotrophoblasts in the region of the invagination. See Anderson GM, Jacobs-Stannard A, Chawarska K, Volkmar FR, Kliman HJ. (2007) Placental Trophoblast Inclusions in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 61:487-91.
Estimated placental volume (EPV)
A) Diagram showing parameters measured to calculate estimated placental volume (EPV). B) Representative scan used to generate EPV. W = maximal width, H = height at maximal width, T = thickness at maximal width, F = fetus. See Azpurua HJ, Funai EF, Coraluzzi L, Sasson I, Doherty L, Kliman M, Kliman HJ. (2010) Determination of placental weight using two-dimensional sonography and volumetric mathematic modeling, Am J Perinatology, 27:151-155.