Dr. Stachenfeld's Lab

Research Interests

The regulation of body fluid and sodium content involves the integration of several physiological systems. One important system controls water and sodium output and/or reabsorption by the kidneys. A number of investigations have found that hormones involved primarily in reproductive function, specifically estrogen and progesterone, have important effects on the systems that regulate body fluid balance.

Estrogen, for example, can alter the "set point" around which the thirst mechanism and kidney water reabsorptive functions regulate body fluid content. Progesterone appears to affect body fluid content through its impact on the hormones that regulate body sodium content. The study of these hormones is challenging in young women because estrogen and progesterone fluctuate during the menstrual cycle. 

Consequently, we have examined these systems in older post-menopausal, women before and during treatment with estrogen. We have also used the birth control pill to control the levels of estrogen and progesterone in young women. Most recently we have used medications to temporarily suppress the menstrual cycle in young women while adding back estrogen and/or progesterone to study the effects of these hormones on body fluid regulation under more controlled conditions. Our most recent studies have examined estrogen, progesterone and testosterone effects on endothelial function by using the skin as a model for the cardiovascular system. Our studies include young healthy controls and women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

Stachenfeld, Nina S

Principal Investigator

Associate Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences and of Epidemiology (Environmental Health)

Research Interests:Environmental physiology; Reproductive hormone effects on temperature and body fluid regulation; Polycystic Ovary Syndrome; Orthostatic tolerance; Blood pressure regulation

  • Office:(203) 562-9901 x219

Publications

Alian AA, Galante NJ, Stachenfeld NS, Silverman DG and Shelley KH: Impact of lower body negative pressure induced hypovolemia on peripheral venous pressure waveform parameters in healthy volunteers. Physiol Meas. 2014 Jul;35 (7) :1509-20. Epub 2014 Jun 5. PMID: 24901895


Horvath TL, Stachenfeld NS and Diano S: A temperature hypothesis of hypothalamus-driven obesity. Yale J Biol Med. 2014 Jun;87 (2) :149-58. Epub 2014 Jun 6. PMID: 24910560


Stachenfeld NS: Hormonal changes during menopause and the impact on fluid regulation. Reprod Sci. 2014 May;21 (5) :555-61. Epub 2014 Feb 3. PMID: 24492487


Stachenfeld NS: The interrelationship of research in the laboratory and the field to assess hydration status and determine mechanisms involved in water regulation during physical activity. Sports Med. 2014 May;44 Suppl 1 :S97-104. PMID: 24791921


Stachenfeld NS and Taylor HS: Challenges and methodology for testing young healthy women in physiological studies. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Apr 15;306 (8) :E849-53. Epub 2014 Feb 25. PMID: 24569589


Charkoudian N and Stachenfeld NS: Reproductive hormone influences on thermoregulation in women. Compr Physiol. 2014 Apr;4 (2) :793-804. PMID: 24715568

Wenner MM, Taylor HS and Stachenfeld NS: Androgens influence microvascular dilation in PCOS through ET-A and ET-B receptors. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Oct 1;305 (7) :E818-25. Epub 2013 Aug 6. PMID: 23921139


Wenner MM, Haddadin AS, Taylor HS and Stachenfeld NS: Mechanisms contributing to low orthostatic tolerance in women: the influence of oestradiol. J Physiol. 2013 May 1;591 (Pt 9) :2345-55. Epub 2013 Feb 11. PMID: 23401618

Wenner MM and Stachenfeld NS: Blood pressure and water regulation: understanding sex hormone effects within and between men and women. J Physiol. 2012 Dec 1;590 (Pt 23) :5949-61. Epub 2012 Oct 1. PMID: 23027816


Noonan B and Stachenfeld N: The effects of undergarment composition worn beneath hockey protective equipment on high-intensity intermittent exercise. J Strength Cond Res. 2012 Sep;26 (9) :2309-16. PMID: 22706578


Selvaraj N, Shelley KH, Silverman DG, Stachenfeld N and Chon KH: Autonomic control mechanism of maximal lower body negative pressure application. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012;2012 :3120-3. PMID: 23366586

Wenner MM, Wilson TE, Davis SL and Stachenfeld NS: Pharmacological curve fitting to analyze cutaneous adrenergic responses. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2011 Dec;111 (6) :1703-9. Epub 2011 Aug 25. PMID: 21868682


Alian AA, Galante NJ, Stachenfeld NS, Silverman DG and Shelley KH: Impact of central hypovolemia on photoplethysmographic waveform parameters in healthy volunteers part 2: frequency domain analysis. J Clin Monit Comput. 2011 Dec;25 (6) :387-96. Epub 2011 Nov 6. PMID: 22057245


Alian AA, Galante NJ, Stachenfeld NS, Silverman DG and Shelley KH: Impact of central hypovolemia on photoplethysmographic waveform parameters in healthy volunteers. Part 1: time domain analysis. J Clin Monit Comput. 2011 Dec;25 (6) :377-85. Epub 2011 Nov 4. PMID: 22051898


Wenner MM, Taylor HS and Stachenfeld NS: Endothelin B receptor contribution to peripheral microvascular function in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Physiol. 2011 Oct 1;589 (Pt 19) :4671-9. Epub 2011 Aug 8. PMID: 21825025


Selvaraj N, Shelley KH, Silverman DG, Stachenfeld N, Galante N, Florian JP, Mendelson Y and Chon K: A novel approach using time-frequency analysis of pulse-oximeter data to detect progressive hypovolemia in spontaneously breathing healthy subjects. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2011 Aug;58 (8) Epub 2011 Apr 21. PMID: 21518656


Wenner MM, Taylor HS and Stachenfeld NS: Progesterone enhances adrenergic control of skin blood flow in women with high but not low orthostatic tolerance. J Physiol. 2011 Feb 15;589 (Pt 4) :975-86. Epub 2010 Dec 20. PMID: 21173076

Moore CL, Tham ET, Samuels KJ, McNamara RL, Galante NJ, Stachenfeld N, Shelley K, Dziura J and Silverman DG: Tissue Doppler of early mitral filling correlates with simulated volume loss in healthy subjects. Acad Emerg Med. 2010 Nov;17 (11) :1162-8. PMID: 21175513


Stachenfeld NS, Yeckel CW and Taylor HS: Greater exercise sweating in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome compared with obese controls. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010 Sep;42 (9) :1660-8. PMID: 20195177


Hinds K and Stachenfeld NS: Greater orthostatic tolerance in young black compared with white women. Hypertension. 2010 Jul;56 (1) :75-81. Epub 2010 May 10. PMID: 20458005

Stachenfeld NS and Taylor HS: Sex hormone effects on body fluid and sodium regulation in women with and without exercise-associated hyponatremia. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009 Sep;107 (3) :864-72. Epub 2009 Jun 25. PMID: 19556454


Stachenfeld NS and Taylor H: Role of polycystic ovary syndrome in menstrual dysfunction in female athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009 Jun;41 (6) :1239-40. PMID: 19461543

Stachenfeld NS: Acute effects of sodium ingestion on thirst and cardiovascular function. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2008 Jul-Aug;7 (4 Suppl) :S7-13. PMID: 18843231


Stachenfeld NS: Sex hormone effects on body fluid regulation. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2008 Jul;36 (3) :152-9. PMID: 18580296


Van Gelder CM, Pranger LA, Wiesmann WP, Stachenfeld N and Bogucki S: An experimental model of heat storage in working firefighters. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2008 Apr-Jun;12 (2) :225-35. PMID: 18379922

Noonan B, Mack G and Stachenfeld N: The effects of hockey protective equipment on high-intensity intermittent exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007 Aug;39 (8) :1327-35. PMID: 17762366


Stachenfeld NS and Taylor HS: Exogenous oestradiol and progesterone administration does not cause oedema in healthy young women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2007 Mar;66 (3) :410-8. PMID: 17302877


Sawka MN, Burke LM, Eichner ER, Maughan RJ, Montain SJ and Stachenfeld NS: American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and fluid replacement. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007 Feb;39 (2) :377-90. PMID: 17277604

Loucks AB, Stachenfeld NS and DiPietro L: The female athlete triad: do female athletes need to take special care to avoid low energy availability? Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006 Oct;38 (10) :1694-700. PMID: 17019289


DiPietro L and Stachenfeld NS: The female athlete triad myth. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006 Apr;38 (4) :795; author reply 796. PMID: 16679999

D'Ambrosio C, Stachenfeld NS, Pisani M and Mohsenin V: Sleep, breathing, and menopause: the effect of fluctuating estrogen and progesterone on sleep and breathing in women. Gend Med. 2005 Dec;2 (4) :238-45. PMID: 16464735


Di Pietro L, Stachenfeld N and Pierce JB: The female athlete triad revisited. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005 Sep;37 (9) :1643; author reply 1644. PMID: 16177622


Stachenfeld NS and Taylor HS: Progesterone increases plasma volume independent of estradiol. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2005 Jun;98 (6) :1991-7. Epub 2005 Feb 17. PMID: 15718411


Stachenfeld NS, Keefe DL and Taylor HS: Responses to a saline load in gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist-pretreated premenopausal women receiving progesterone or estradiol-progesterone therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Jan;90 (1) :386-94. Epub 2004 Oct 14. PMID: 15486051

Stachenfeld NS and Taylor HS: Effects of estrogen and progesterone administration on extracellular fluid. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2004 Mar;96 (3) :1011-8. Epub 2003 Dec 5. PMID: 14660504

Stachenfeld NS, Taylor HS, Leone CA and Keefe DL: Oestrogen effects on urine concentrating response in young women. J Physiol. 2003 Nov 1;552 (Pt 3) :869-80. Epub 2003 Aug 15. PMID: 12923212

Stachenfeld NS and Keefe DL: Estrogen effects on osmotic regulation of AVP and fluid balance. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Oct;283 (4) :E711-21. PMID: 12217888