Through the section of stereotactic and functional neurosurgery, there are a number of different research projects that seek to advance the leading edge of treatment for patients with these disorders. There is an ongoing NIH-sponsored Bioengineering Research Partnership between Yale, BrainLab and other companies to develop advanced MRI and other imaging techniques and utilize them directly within the neuronavigation systems deployed in OR's in ways not commercially available. Additional translational research is continuing in Parkinson's disease with very promising subhuman primate studies completing looking at the effects of AAV5-GDNF injections into the striatum as a means to reverse the effects of MPTP. A phase I clinical trial is in preparation to follow.