Slide 16

Extracellular Levels of ACh and NE Increase with Walking

Using CNiFERs, which are HEK293 cells engineered to detect ACh (through muscarinic receptors) or NE (through alpha1-receptors) we were able to demonstrate that walking is associated with large increases in extracellular ACh and NE concentrations.  The slow kinetics of CNiFERs precludes them from use for detecting the rapid changes in NE and ACh that may occur with rapid changes in arousal (e.g. microdilations).