Our research seeks answers to a fundamental biological question: How does an organism know when, where and for long to turn a gene on or off? We address this question by investigating bacterial species that establish intimate interactions with animal hosts.

All organisms respond to a change in their environment by modifying their behavior. We are interested in identifying the specific signals that denote a given environment, the nature of the sensors that detect such signals, and how the sensors transmit this information to the regulators implementing a response that enables the organism to survive and prosper in the new condition.

We investigate the gastroenteritis- and typhoid fever-causing Salmonella enterica and the gut symbiotic bacteria Escherichia coli and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron.

We have been examining protein sensors that detect extracellular signals and RNA sensors that monitor cellular metabolites and ions. These investigations led both to the discovery of the first signal transduction systems that sense extracytoplasmic magnesium and ferric iron and to the first mRNAs that respond to cytoplasmic magnesium and ATP.

Our research focuses on understanding:

  • how bacteria integrate multiple signals into a cellular response,
  • the mechanisms by which a given signal elicits distinct responses from co-regulated targets,
  • how bacteria from the gut microbiome compete for resources,
  • the genetic basis for phenotypic differences that distinguish closely related bacterial species, such as a pathogen and a symbiont,
  • the biochemical function of novel proteins and
  • the genetic control of virulence factors.


Kriner MA, Sevostyanova A, Groisman EA: Learning from the Leaders: Gene Regulation by the Transcription Termination Factor Rho. Trends Biochem Sci. 2016 Jun 17; 2016 Jun 17. PMID: 27325240

Choi J, Groisman EA: Acidic pH sensing in the bacterial cytoplasm is required for Salmonella virulence. Mol Microbiol. 2016 Jun 10; 2016 Jun 10. PMID: 27282333

Sevostyanova A, Groisman EA: An RNA motif advances transcription by preventing Rho-dependent termination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Dec 15; 2015 Nov 16. PMID: 26630006

Kriner MA, Groisman EA: The Bacterial Transcription Termination Factor Rho Coordinates Mg(2+) Homeostasis with Translational Signals. J Mol Biol. 2015 Dec 4; 2015 Oct 30. PMID: 26523680

Pontes MH, Sevostyanova A, Groisman EA: When Too Much ATP Is Bad for Protein Synthesis. J Mol Biol. 2015 Aug 14; 2015 Jul 4. PMID: 26150063

Raghavan V, Groisman EA: Species-specific dynamic responses of gut bacteria to a mammalian glycan. J Bacteriol. 2015 May; 2015 Feb 17. PMID: 25691527

Pontes MH, Lee EJ, Choi J, Groisman EA: Salmonella promotes virulence by repressing cellulose production. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Apr 21; 2015 Apr 6. PMID: 25848006

Park SY, Pontes MH, Groisman EA: Flagella-independent surface motility in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Feb 10; 2015 Jan 26. PMID: 25624475

Zwir I, Yeo WS, Shin D, Latifi T, Huang H, Groisman EA: Bacterial nucleoid-associated protein uncouples transcription levels from transcription timing. MBio. 2014 Oct 7; 2014 Oct 7. PMID: 25293763

Raghavan V, Lowe EC, Townsend GE 2nd, Bolam DN, Groisman EA: Tuning transcription of nutrient utilization genes to catabolic rate promotes growth in a gut bacterium. Mol Microbiol. 2014 Sep; 2014 Aug 12. PMID: 25041429

Hollands K, Sevostiyanova A, Groisman EA: Unusually long-lived pause required for regulation of a Rho-dependent transcription terminator. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 May 13; 2014 Apr 28. PMID: 24778260

Lee EJ, Choi J, Groisman EA: Control of a Salmonella virulence operon by proline-charged tRNA(Pro). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Feb 25; 2014 Feb 10. PMID: 24516160

Park SY, Groisman EA: Signal-specific temporal response by the Salmonella PhoP/PhoQ regulatory system. Mol Microbiol. 2014 Jan; 2013 Nov 20. PMID: 24256574

Lee EJ, Pontes MH, Groisman EA: A bacterial virulence protein promotes pathogenicity by inhibiting the bacterium's own F1Fo ATP synthase. Cell. 2013 Jul 3. PMID: 23827679

Choi J, Groisman EA: The lipopolysaccharide modification regulator PmrA limits Salmonella virulence by repressing the type three-secretion system Spi/Ssa. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jun 4; 2013 May 20. PMID: 23690578

May JF, Groisman EA: Conflicting roles for a cell surface modification in Salmonella. Mol Microbiol. 2013 Jun; 2013 May 5. PMID: 23646936

Townsend GE 2nd, Raghavan V, Zwir I, Groisman EA: Intramolecular arrangement of sensor and regulator overcomes relaxed specificity in hybrid two-component systems. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jan 8; 2012 Dec 19. PMID: 23256153

Groisman EA, Hollands K, Kriner MA, Lee EJ, Park SY, Pontes MH: Bacterial Mg2+ homeostasis, transport, and virulence. Annu Rev Genet. 2013; 2013 Sep 20. PMID: 24079267

Chen HD, Groisman EA: The biology of the PmrA/PmrB two-component system: the major regulator of lipopolysaccharide modifications. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2013; 2013 Jun 17. PMID: 23799815

Choi Y, Choi J, Groisman EA, Kang DH, Shin D, Ryu S: Expression of STM4467-encoded arginine deiminase controlled by the STM4463 regulator contributes to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium virulence. Infect Immun. 2012 Dec; 2012 Sep 24. PMID: 23006851

Lee EJ, Groisman EA: Tandem attenuators control expression of the Salmonella mgtCBR virulence operon. Mol Microbiol. 2012 Oct; 2012 Aug 26. PMID: 22857388

Kato A, Chen HD, Latifi T, Groisman EA: Reciprocal control between a bacterium's regulatory system and the modification status of its lipopolysaccharide. Mol Cell. 2012 Sep 28; 2012 Aug 23. PMID: 22921935

Lee EJ, Groisman EA: Control of a Salmonella virulence locus by an ATP-sensing leader messenger RNA. Nature. 2012 Jun 13; 2012 Jun 13. PMID: 22699622

Tang YT, Gao R, Havranek JJ, Groisman EA, Stock AM, Marshall GR: Inhibition of bacterial virulence: drug-like molecules targeting the Salmonella enterica PhoP response regulator. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2012 Jun; 2012 Mar 21. PMID: 22339993

Zwir I, Latifi T, Perez JC, Huang H, Groisman EA: The promoter architectural landscape of the Salmonella PhoP regulon. Mol Microbiol. 2012 May; 2012 Mar 27. PMID: 22435712

Hollands K, Proshkin S, Sklyarova S, Epshtein V, Mironov A, Nudler E, Groisman EA: Riboswitch control of Rho-dependent transcription termination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Apr 3; 2012 Mar 19. PMID: 22431636

Yeo WS, Zwir I, Huang HV, Shin D, Kato A, Groisman EA: Intrinsic negative feedback governs activation surge in two-component regulatory systems. Mol Cell. 2012 Feb 10. PMID: 22325356

Chen HD, Jewett MW, Groisman EA: An allele of an ancestral transcription factor dependent on a horizontally acquired gene product. PLoS Genet. 2012; 2012 Dec 27. PMID: 23300460

Raghavan R, Groisman EA, Ochman H: Genome-wide detection of novel regulatory RNAs in E. coli. Genome Res. 2011 Sep; 2011 Jun 10. PMID: 21665928

Chen HD, Jewett MW, Groisman EA: Ancestral genes can control the ability of horizontally acquired loci to confer new traits. PLoS Genet. 2011 Jul; 2011 Jul 21. PMID: 21811415

Park SY, Cromie MJ, Lee EJ, Groisman EA: A bacterial mRNA leader that employs different mechanisms to sense disparate intracellular signals. Cell. 2010 Sep 3. PMID: 20813261

Mitrophanov AY, Hadley TJ, Groisman EA: Positive autoregulation shapes response timing and intensity in two-component signal transduction systems. J Mol Biol. 2010 Aug 27; 2010 Jun 30. PMID: 20600106

Harari O, Park SY, Huang H, Groisman EA, Zwir I: Defining the plasticity of transcription factor binding sites by Deconstructing DNA consensus sequences: the PhoP-binding sites among gamma/enterobacteria. PLoS Comput Biol. 2010 Jul 22; 2010 Jul 22. PMID: 20661307

Lee EJ, Groisman EA: An antisense RNA that governs the expression kinetics of a multifunctional virulence gene. Mol Microbiol. 2010 May; 2010 Apr 14. PMID: 20398218

Raghavan V, Groisman EA: Orphan and hybrid two-component system proteins in health and disease. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2010 Apr; 2010 Jan 19. PMID: 20089442

Mitrophanov AY, Groisman EA: Response acceleration in post-translationally regulated genetic circuits. J Mol Biol. 2010 Mar 12; 2009 Nov 20. PMID: 19932119

Cromie MJ, Groisman EA: Promoter and riboswitch control of the Mg2+ transporter MgtA from Salmonella enterica. J Bacteriol. 2010 Jan; 2009 Nov 6. PMID: 19897653

Jarvik T, Smillie C, Groisman EA, Ochman H: Short-term signatures of evolutionary change in the Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium 14028 genome. J Bacteriol. 2010 Jan; 2009 Nov 6. PMID: 19897643

Choi E, Groisman EA, Shin D: Activated by different signals, the PhoP/PhoQ two-component system differentially regulates metal uptake. J Bacteriol. 2009 Dec; 2009 Oct 2. PMID: 19801407

Perez JC, Groisman EA: Evolution of transcriptional regulatory circuits in bacteria. Cell. 2009 Jul 23. PMID: 19632175

Harari O, del Val C, Romero-Zaliz R, Shin D, Huang H, Groisman EA, Zwir I: Identifying promoter features of co-regulated genes with similar network motifs. BMC Bioinformatics. 2009 Apr 29; 2009 Apr 29. PMID: 19426448

Fass E, Groisman EA: Control of Salmonella pathogenicity island-2 gene expression. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2009 Apr; 2009 Mar 4. PMID: 19264535

Perez JC, Groisman EA: Transcription factor function and promoter architecture govern the evolution of bacterial regulons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Mar 17; 2009 Feb 27. PMID: 19251636

Perez JC, Shin D, Zwir I, Latifi T, Hadley TJ, Groisman EA: Evolution of a bacterial regulon controlling virulence and Mg(2+) homeostasis. PLoS Genet. 2009 Mar; 2009 Mar 20. PMID: 19300486

Jeon J, Kim H, Yun J, Ryu S, Groisman EA, Shin D: RstA-promoted expression of the ferrous iron transporter FeoB under iron-replete conditions enhances Fur activity in Salmonella enterica. J Bacteriol. 2008 Nov; 2008 Sep 12. PMID: 18790861

Mitrophanov AY, Groisman EA: Signal integration in bacterial two-component regulatory systems. Genes Dev. 2008 Oct 1. PMID: 18832064

Mitrophanov AY, Jewett MW, Hadley TJ, Groisman EA: Evolution and dynamics of regulatory architectures controlling polymyxin B resistance in enteric bacteria. PLoS Genet. 2008 Oct; 2008 Oct 24. PMID: 18949034

Mitrophanov AY, Groisman EA: Positive feedback in cellular control systems. Bioessays. 2008 Jun. PMID: 18478531

Perez JC, Latifi T, Groisman EA: Overcoming H-NS-mediated transcriptional silencing of horizontally acquired genes by the PhoP and SlyA proteins in Salmonella enterica. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 18; 2008 Feb 11. PMID: 18270203

Kato A, Groisman EA, Howard Hughes Medical Institute: The PhoQ/PhoP regulatory network of Salmonella enterica. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2008. PMID: 18792679

Kato A, Mitrophanov AY, Groisman EA: A connector of two-component regulatory systems promotes signal amplification and persistence of expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jul 17; 2007 Jul 5. PMID: 17615238

Coppins RL, Hall KB, Groisman EA: The intricate world of riboswitches. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2007 Apr; 2007 Mar 23. PMID: 17383225

Zwir I, Harari O, Groisman EA: Gene promoter scan methodology for identifying and classifying coregulated promoters. Methods Enzymol. 2007. PMID: 17628149

Perez JC, Groisman EA: Acid pH activation of the PmrA/PmrB two-component regulatory system of Salmonella enterica. Mol Microbiol. 2007 Jan. PMID: 17229213

Shin D, Lee EJ, Huang H, Groisman EA: A positive feedback loop promotes transcription surge that jump-starts Salmonella virulence circuit. Science. 2006 Dec 8. PMID: 17158330

Tu X, Latifi T, Bougdour A, Gottesman S, Groisman EA: The PhoP/PhoQ two-component system stabilizes the alternative sigma factor RpoS in Salmonella enterica. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Sep 5; 2006 Aug 28. PMID: 16938894

Groisman EA, Mouslim C: Sensing by bacterial regulatory systems in host and non-host environments. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2006 Sep; 2006 Aug 7. PMID: 16894339

Nishino K, Hsu FF, Turk J, Cromie MJ, Wösten MM, Groisman EA: Identification of the lipopolysaccharide modifications controlled by the Salmonella PmrA/PmrB system mediating resistance to Fe(III) and Al(III). Mol Microbiol. 2006 Aug; 2006 Jun 27. PMID: 16803591

Cromie MJ, Shi Y, Latifi T, Groisman EA: An RNA sensor for intracellular Mg(2+). Cell. 2006 Apr 7. PMID: 16615891

Delgado MA, Mouslim C, Groisman EA: The PmrA/PmrB and RcsC/YojN/RcsB systems control expression of the Salmonella O-antigen chain length determinant. Mol Microbiol. 2006 Apr. PMID: 16556219

Groisman EA, Cromie MJ, Shi Y, Latifi T: A Mg2+-responding RNA that controls the expression of a Mg2+ transporter. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 2006. PMID: 17381304

Nishino K, Latifi T, Groisman EA: Virulence and drug resistance roles of multidrug efflux systems of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Mol Microbiol. 2006 Jan. PMID: 16359323

Zwir I, Huang H, Groisman EA: Analysis of differentially-regulated genes within a regulatory network by GPS genome navigation. Bioinformatics. 2005 Nov 15; 2005 Sep 13. PMID: 16159917

Bijlsma JJ, Groisman EA: The PhoP/PhoQ system controls the intramacrophage type three secretion system of Salmonella enterica. Mol Microbiol. 2005 Jul. PMID: 15948951

Winfield MD, Latifi T, Groisman EA: Transcriptional regulation of the 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose biosynthetic genes in Yersinia pestis. J Biol Chem. 2005 Apr 15; 2005 Feb 14. PMID: 15710615

Hsu FF, Turk J, Rhoades ER, Russell DG, Shi Y, Groisman EA: Structural characterization of cardiolipin by tandem quadrupole and multiple-stage quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2005 Apr. PMID: 15792718

Groisman EA, Casadesús J: The origin and evolution of human pathogens. Mol Microbiol. 2005 Apr. PMID: 15773974

Zwir I, Shin D, Kato A, Nishino K, Latifi T, Solomon F, Hare JM, Huang H, Groisman EA: Dissecting the PhoP regulatory network of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Feb 22; 2005 Feb 9. PMID: 15703297

Shin D, Groisman EA: Signal-dependent binding of the response regulators PhoP and PmrA to their target promoters in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2005 Feb 11; 2004 Nov 29. PMID: 15569664

Winfield MD, Groisman EA: Phenotypic differences between Salmonella and Escherichia coli resulting from the disparate regulation of homologous genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Dec 7; 2004 Nov 29. PMID: 15569938

Winfield MD, Groisman EA: Evolution and Ecology of Salmonella. EcoSal Plus. 2004 Dec. PMID: 26443365

Mouslim C, Delgado M, Groisman EA: Activation of the RcsC/YojN/RcsB phosphorelay system attenuates Salmonella virulence. Mol Microbiol. 2004 Oct. PMID: 15469511

Kato A, Groisman EA: Connecting two-component regulatory systems by a protein that protects a response regulator from dephosphorylation by its cognate sensor. Genes Dev. 2004 Sep 15. PMID: 15371344

Shi Y, Latifi T, Cromie MJ, Groisman EA: Transcriptional control of the antimicrobial peptide resistance ugtL gene by the Salmonella PhoP and SlyA regulatory proteins. J Biol Chem. 2004 Sep 10; 2004 Jun 18. PMID: 15208313

Lee H, Hsu FF, Turk J, Groisman EA: The PmrA-regulated pmrC gene mediates phosphoethanolamine modification of lipid A and polymyxin resistance in Salmonella enterica. J Bacteriol. 2004 Jul. PMID: 15205413

Shi Y, Cromie MJ, Hsu FF, Turk J, Groisman EA: PhoP-regulated Salmonella resistance to the antimicrobial peptides magainin 2 and polymyxin B. Mol Microbiol. 2004 Jul. PMID: 15225317

Uchiya K, Groisman EA, Nikai T: Involvement of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 in the up-regulation of interleukin-10 expression in macrophages: role of protein kinase A signal pathway. Infect Immun. 2004 Apr. PMID: 15039316

Chacón MR, Soler L, Groisman EA, Guarro J, Figueras MJ: Type III secretion system genes in clinical Aeromonas isolates. J Clin Microbiol. 2004 Mar. PMID: 15004096

Hsu FF, Turk J, Shi Y, Groisman EA: Characterization of acylphosphatidylglycerols from Salmonella typhimurium by tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2004 Jan. PMID: 14698549

Mouslim C, Latifi T, Groisman EA: Signal-dependent requirement for the co-activator protein RcsA in transcription of the RcsB-regulated ugd gene. J Biol Chem. 2003 Dec 12; 2003 Sep 26. PMID: 14514676

Ingersoll MA, Moss JE, Weinrauch Y, Fisher PE, Groisman EA, Zychlinsky A: The ShiA protein encoded by the Shigella flexneri SHI-2 pathogenicity island attenuates inflammation. Cell Microbiol. 2003 Nov. PMID: 14531895

Groisman EA, Ehrlich SD: Genomics. A global view of gene gain, loss, regulation and function. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2003 Oct. PMID: 14572540

Shotland Y, Krämer H, Groisman EA: The Salmonella SpiC protein targets the mammalian Hook3 protein function to alter cellular trafficking. Mol Microbiol. 2003 Sep. PMID: 12950921

Bijlsma JJ, Groisman EA: Making informed decisions: regulatory interactions between two-component systems. Trends Microbiol. 2003 Aug. PMID: 12915093

Winfield MD, Groisman EA: Role of nonhost environments in the lifestyles of Salmonella and Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003 Jul. PMID: 12839733

Kato A, Latifi T, Groisman EA: Closing the loop: the PmrA/PmrB two-component system negatively controls expression of its posttranscriptional activator PmrD. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Apr 15; 2003 Apr 3. PMID: 12676988

Chamnongpol S, Cromie M, Groisman EA: Mg2+ sensing by the Mg2+ sensor PhoQ of Salmonella enterica. J Mol Biol. 2003 Jan 24. PMID: 12507481

Mouslim C, Groisman EA: Control of the Salmonella ugd gene by three two-component regulatory systems. Mol Microbiol. 2003 Jan. PMID: 12519186

Mouslim C, Hilbert F, Huang H, Groisman EA: Conflicting needs for a Salmonella hypervirulence gene in host and non-host environments. Mol Microbiol. 2002 Aug. PMID: 12180921

Chamnongpol S, Dodson W, Cromie MJ, Harris ZL, Groisman EA: Fe(III)-mediated cellular toxicity. Mol Microbiol. 2002 Aug. PMID: 12139617

Chamnongpol S, Groisman EA: Mg2+ homeostasis and avoidance of metal toxicity. Mol Microbiol. 2002 Apr. PMID: 11972791

Ingersoll M, Groisman EA, Zychlinsky A: Pathogenicity islands of Shigella. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2002. PMID: 12014181

Cano DA, Martínez-Moya M, Pucciarelli MG, Groisman EA, Casadesús J, García-Del Portillo F: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium response involved in attenuation of pathogen intracellular proliferation. Infect Immun. 2001 Oct. PMID: 11553591

Groisman EA: The pleiotropic two-component regulatory system PhoP-PhoQ. J Bacteriol. 2001 Mar. PMID: 11222580

Moss JE, Fisher PE, Vick B, Groisman EA, Zychlinsky A: The regulatory protein PhoP controls susceptibility to the host inflammatory response in Shigella flexneri. Cell Microbiol. 2000 Dec. PMID: 11207599

Groisman EA, Mouslim C: Molecular mechanisms of Salmonella pathogenesis. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2000 Oct. PMID: 11964823

Wösten MM, Kox LF, Chamnongpol S, Soncini FC, Groisman EA: A signal transduction system that responds to extracellular iron. Cell. 2000 Sep 29. PMID: 11051552

Chamnongpol S, Groisman EA: Acetyl phosphate-dependent activation of a mutant PhoP response regulator that functions independently of its cognate sensor kinase. J Mol Biol. 2000 Jul 7. PMID: 10873466

Ochman H, Lawrence JG, Groisman EA: Lateral gene transfer and the nature of bacterial innovation. Nature. 2000 May 18. PMID: 10830951

Kox LF, Wösten MM, Groisman EA: A small protein that mediates the activation of a two-component system by another two-component system. EMBO J. 2000 Apr 17. PMID: 10775270

Buchmeier N, Blanc-Potard A, Ehrt S, Piddington D, Riley L, Groisman EA: A parallel intraphagosomal survival strategy shared by mycobacterium tuberculosis and Salmonella enterica. Mol Microbiol. 2000 Mar. PMID: 10760138

Wösten MM, Groisman EA: Molecular characterization of the PmrA regulon. J Biol Chem. 1999 Sep 17. PMID: 10480935

Uchiya K, Barbieri MA, Funato K, Shah AH, Stahl PD, Groisman EA: A Salmonella virulence protein that inhibits cellular trafficking. EMBO J. 1999 Jul 15. PMID: 10406797

Moss JE, Cardozo TJ, Zychlinsky A, Groisman EA: The selC-associated SHI-2 pathogenicity island of Shigella flexneri. Mol Microbiol. 1999 Jul. PMID: 10411725

Hilbert F, García-del Portillo F, Groisman EA: A periplasmic D-alanyl-D-alanine dipeptidase in the gram-negative bacterium Salmonella enterica. J Bacteriol. 1999 Apr. PMID: 10094694

Blanc-Potard AB, Solomon F, Kayser J, Groisman EA: The SPI-3 pathogenicity island of Salmonella enterica. J Bacteriol. 1999 Feb. PMID: 9922266

Groisman EA, Kayser J, Soncini FC: Regulation of polymyxin resistance and adaptation to low-Mg2+ environments. J Bacteriol. 1997 Nov. PMID: 9371451

Groisman EA: A green light for virulence gene expression. Nat Med. 1997 Nov. PMID: 9359685

Blanc-Potard AB, Groisman EA: The Salmonella selC locus contains a pathogenicity island mediating intramacrophage survival. EMBO J. 1997 Sep 1. PMID: 9311997

Groisman EA, Ochman H: How Salmonella became a pathogen. Trends Microbiol. 1997 Sep. PMID: 9294889

Véscovi EG, Ayala YM, Di Cera E, Groisman EA: Characterization of the bacterial sensor protein PhoQ. Evidence for distinct binding sites for Mg2+ and Ca2+. J Biol Chem. 1997 Jan 17. PMID: 8999810

Groisman EA, Aspedon A: The genetic basis of microbial resistance to antimicrobial peptides. Methods Mol Biol. 1997. PMID: 9276306

Ochman H, Groisman EA: Distribution of pathogenicity islands in Salmonella spp. Infect Immun. 1996 Dec. PMID: 8945597

Soncini FC, Groisman EA: Two-component regulatory systems can interact to process multiple environmental signals. J Bacteriol. 1996 Dec. PMID: 8955299

Aspedon A, Groisman EA: The antibacterial action of protamine: evidence for disruption of cytoplasmic membrane energization in Salmonella typhimurium. Microbiology. 1996 Dec. PMID: 9004502

Groisman EA, Ochman H: Pathogenicity islands: bacterial evolution in quantum leaps. Cell. 1996 Nov 29. PMID: 8945505

Soncini FC, García Véscovi E, Solomon F, Groisman EA: Molecular basis of the magnesium deprivation response in Salmonella typhimurium: identification of PhoP-regulated genes. J Bacteriol. 1996 Sep. PMID: 8752324

Ochman H, Soncini FC, Solomon F, Groisman EA: Identification of a pathogenicity island required for Salmonella survival in host cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Jul 23. PMID: 8755556

Groisman EA: Bacterial responses to host-defense peptides. Trends Microbiol. 1996 Apr. PMID: 8728603

García Véscovi E, Soncini FC, Groisman EA: Mg2+ as an extracellular signal: environmental regulation of Salmonella virulence. Cell. 1996 Jan 12. PMID: 8548821

Soncini FC, Véscovi EG, Groisman EA: Transcriptional autoregulation of the Salmonella typhimurium phoPQ operon. J Bacteriol. 1995 Aug. PMID: 7543474

Li J, Ochman H, Groisman EA, Boyd EF, Solomon F, Nelson K, Selander RK: Relationship between evolutionary rate and cellular location among the Inv/Spa invasion proteins of Salmonella enterica. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Aug 1. PMID: 7638176

Ochman H, Groisman EA: The evolution of invasion by enteric bacteria. Can J Microbiol. 1995 Jul. PMID: 7641138

Groisman EA: How bacteria resist killing by host-defense peptides. Trends Microbiol. 1994 Nov. PMID: 7866702

Parra-Lopez C, Lin R, Aspedon A, Groisman EA: A Salmonella protein that is required for resistance to antimicrobial peptides and transport of potassium. EMBO J. 1994 Sep 1. PMID: 8076592

Groisman EA, Ochman H: How to become a pathogen. Trends Microbiol. 1994 Aug. PMID: 7981972

Garcia Véscovi E, Soncini FC, Groisman EA: The role of the PhoP/PhoQ regulon in Salmonella virulence. Res Microbiol. 1994 Jun-Aug. PMID: 7855434

Ochman H, Groisman EA: The origin and evolution of species differences in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. EXS. 1994. PMID: 7994120

Parra-Lopez C, Baer MT, Groisman EA: Molecular genetic analysis of a locus required for resistance to antimicrobial peptides in Salmonella typhimurium. EMBO J. 1993 Nov. PMID: 8223423

Groisman EA, Ochman H: Cognate gene clusters govern invasion of host epithelial cells by Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella flexneri. EMBO J. 1993 Oct. PMID: 8404849

Groisman EA, Sturmoski MA, Solomon FR, Lin R, Ochman H: Molecular, functional, and evolutionary analysis of sequences specific to Salmonella. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Feb 1. PMID: 8430070

Groisman EA, Parra-Lopez C, Salcedo M, Lipps CJ, Heffron F: Resistance to host antimicrobial peptides is necessary for Salmonella virulence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Dec 15. PMID: 1465423

Groisman EA, Saier MH Jr, Ochman H: Horizontal transfer of a phosphatase gene as evidence for mosaic structure of the Salmonella genome. EMBO J. 1992 Apr. PMID: 1339343

Groisman EA, Heffron F, Solomon F: Molecular genetic analysis of the Escherichia coli phoP locus. J Bacteriol. 1992 Jan. PMID: 1530848

Vartak NB, Reizer J, Reizer A, Gripp JT, Groisman EA, Wu LF, Tomich JM, Saier MH Jr: Sequence and evolution of the FruR protein of Salmonella typhimurium: a pleiotropic transcriptional regulatory protein possessing both activator and repressor functions which is homologous to the periplasmic ribose-binding protein. Res Microbiol. 1991 Nov-Dec. PMID: 1805309

Groisman EA, Pagratis N, Casadaban MJ: Genome mapping and protein coding region identification using bacteriophage Mu. Gene. 1991 Mar 1. PMID: 1827084

Groisman EA: In vivo genetic engineering with bacteriophage Mu. Methods Enzymol. 1991. PMID: 1834917

Groisman EA, Saier MH Jr: Salmonella virulence: new clues to intramacrophage survival. Trends Biochem Sci. 1990 Jan. PMID: 2180148

Groisman EA, Chiao E, Lipps CJ, Heffron F: Salmonella typhimurium phoP virulence gene is a transcriptional regulator. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Sep. PMID: 2674945

Fields PI, Groisman EA, Heffron F: A Salmonella locus that controls resistance to microbicidal proteins from phagocytic cells. Science. 1989 Feb 24. PMID: 2646710

Wang BM, Liu L, Groisman EA, Casadaban MJ, Berg CM: High frequency generalized transduction by miniMu plasmid phage. Genetics. 1987 Jun. PMID: 3301525

Groisman EA, Casadaban MJ: Cloning of genes from members of the family Enterobacteriaceae with mini-Mu bacteriophage containing plasmid replicons. J Bacteriol. 1987 Feb. PMID: 3542967

Groisman EA, Casadaban MJ: In vivo DNA cloning with a mini-Mu replicon cosmid and a helper lambda phage. Gene. 1987. PMID: 2954879

Groisman EA, Casadaban MJ: Mini-mu bacteriophage with plasmid replicons for in vivo cloning and lac gene fusing. J Bacteriol. 1986 Oct. PMID: 3020001

Cossart P, Groisman EA, Serre MC, Casadaban MJ, Gicquel-Sanzey B: crp genes of Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1986 Aug. PMID: 3525518

Groisman EA, Castilho BA, Casadaban MJ: In vivo DNA cloning and adjacent gene fusing with a mini-Mu-lac bacteriophage containing a plasmid replicon. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Mar. PMID: 6324195