Young Choi MD

Professor of Pathology and of Laboratory Medicine; Director, Bridgeport Hospital Clinical Laboratories

Research Interests

Immunopathology; Molecular Pathology; Cytopathology and Clinical Pathology; Breast Cancer; Immunopathology; Molecular Pathology; Immunopathology; Molecular Pathology


Research Summary

One of the major treatment tools for breast cancer is antiestrogen treatment against estrogen Receptor-alpha (ERa) and it is the accepted therapeutic prognostic marker to predict the response of an individual breast cancer to antiestrogen therapy. However, approximately 50% of ERa positive breast cancers are de novo resistant to selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and many breast cancers acquire tamoxifen (Tam) resistance during progression due to de novo and acquired resistance to tamoxifen and seriously limit the efficacy of this treatment. The reasons for this lack of response are poorly understood. One of the mechanisms may be related to the second receptor ER-beta. I am pursuing the receptor to determine a possible targeted therapy for breast cancer.

Extensive Research Description

Currently, ERa is the main therapeutic and prognostic marker for breast cancer but about 30% do not respond to the antiestrogens. Some studies have shown that ERb isoforms are predictive marker to antiestrogens. ERb isoforms also are significantly expressed in ERa negative tumors. Thus, ERb may be the potential targeted therapy in some ERa and ERa negative breast cancers. ERb isoforms mRNA by qPCR and protein expression by immunohistochemistry will be tested in both ERa positive and ERa negative breast cancer tissues, and also breast cancer cell lines (BCC). Then BCC will be subjected to estrogens and different antiestrogens to determine their responses, and their effects and analyzed for their potential therapeutic effects. We hypothesize that ERß will eventually play an important role in controlling growth of breast cancers. We believe that ERb isoforms may be new potential therapeutic targets to the patients with non-responder to the current available ERa targeted antiestrogen therapy, and also ERa negative breast cancers who have not received the benefit of the current antiestrogen therapy.


Selected Publications

  • ChoiY, Krause L. Evidence-based medical practice and the outcomes of education. Modern Pathol 2011; 24:129A
  • Choi Y. ERß1, AIB-1 and TIF-2 expression in breast cancer-associated myofibroblasts. Modern Pathol 2010; 23:40A.
  • Choi Y. Tissue –specific expression of estrogen receptor-ß wild type and its isoforms.Arch Pathol Lab Med 2009; 133:1632.
  • Choi Y, Pinto M, Hao L, Riba A. Interobserver variability and aberrant E-cadherin immunostaining of lobular neoplasia and infiltrating lobular carcinoma. Modern Pathol 2008; 21:1224-1237.
  • 57. Choi Y, Expression of Estrogen receptor beta and its isoforms in breast cancers. Modern Pathol 2009; 22: 33A. 58. Choi Y. Tissue –specific expression of estrogen receptor-ß wild type and its isoforms. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2009; 133:1632. 59. Choi,Y. Cytoplasmic expression of estrogen receptors in breast cancers. Modern Pathol 2010; 23: 40A. 60. Choi Y. Relevance of multiple breast cancer cell lines as models for breast cancers. Modern Pathol 2010;23: 40A 61. Choi Y. ERß1, AIB-1 and TIF-2 expression in breast cancer-associated myofibroblasts. Modern Pathol 2010; 23:40A. 62. Choi Y, Krause L: The benefit of computer physician order entry in blood management. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2010; 134:1396
  • Choi YJ: In situ hybridization using biotinylated HBV DNA probe on formalin-fixed Paraffin-embeddded sections of liver biopsies: In-situ hybridization superior to Immunohistochemistry. Modern Pathology 3: 343-347, 1990
  • Choi YJ: Detection of Human Papilloma virus DNA on routine Papanicolaou smears by in situ hybridization using biotinylated probes. Amer J Clin Pathol 96: 403, 1991
  • Choi YJ, Hu Y, Mahmood A.: Clinical significance of PCR detection of Mycobacterial infection. Amer J Clin Pathol 105:200-204, 1996
  • Sagerman P, Choi YJ, Hu Y, Niedt G.: Differential expression of Human Papilloma Virus in the presence and absence of squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva Gynecologic Oncology 61: 328-332, 1996
  • Choi Y. Diets and growth factors in breast cancer.J of KAMA 2003, 9:27-34

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