William C Summers MD, PhD

Professor of Therapeutic Radiology, in the History of Medicine and of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry; Lecturer in History

Departments & Organizations

Yale Combined Program in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences (BBS): Microbiology | Biochemistry, Biophysics and Structural BiologyAnthropology & CultureInfectious DiseasesEast Asian StudiesHistory of Medicine | Molecular Biophysics and BiochemistryTherapeutic Radiology/Radiation Oncology: Radiobiology

Research Interests

History of molecular biology; Development of target theory; History of Manchurian Plague, 1910-1911 more...


  • BS, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1961
  • M.S., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1963
  • M.D., University of Wisconsin, 1967
  • Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1967

Selected Publications

  • Summers, W.C. (2010). Physics and Genes: Einstein to Delbrück. In Sloan, Philip (ed.) The Three Man Paper. Univ of Chicago Press, [in press]
  • Schaechter, M., Summers, W.C., et al. eds. (2009). Encyclopedia of Microbiology, Third Edition. New York and London: Elsevier. Six volumes.
  • Summers, W.C. (2007). Antibiotic Resistance: A Historical Introduction. In: Lewis, K., Salyers, A.A., Taber, H.W., and Wax, R.G (eds) Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobials: Mechanisms, Genetics, Medical Practice, and Public Health, Second Ed.. New York: Marcel Dekker.



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