Richard Allan Ehrenkranz MD

Professor of Pediatrics (Neonatology) and of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences

Research Interests

Clinical trials in neonatal-perinatal medicine; Nutritional needs of very low birth weight infants; Bronchopulmonary dysplasia; Neurodevelopmental follow-up of Newborn Special Care Unit graduates

Current Projects

Neonatal Biomarkers in Extremely Preterm Babies Predict Childhood Brain Disorders (ELGAN-2 Study)

This multicenter, neuroepidemiologic study is designed to test the hypothesis that children with elevated concentrations of inflammation-associated biomarkers in the blood in the highest quartile during the first 2 postnatal weeks, as compared to those without such elevations, have general cognitive ability deficits at 9 years. Study participants were enrolled in the ELGAN-1 Study and were all seen for neurodevelopmental follow-up at about 24 months corrected age.


Research Summary

My research interests include the nutritional requirements of very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight < 1,500 gm) preterm infants, prevention of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in preterm infants, prevention and management of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD; also referred to as chronic lung disease (CLD)) in preterm infants, strategies to reduce blood transfusions in VLBW infants, retinopathy of prematurity, and neuroprotective therapies such as whole body cooling for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

I coordinated Yale's participation in a multicenter research network of newborn intensive care units sponsored by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development from 1991-2011. The purpose of this network was to design and perform collaborative clinical research investigations, both randomized clinical trials and observational studies. Examples of on-going or recently completed randomized clinical trials include projects evaluating the efficacy of parenteral glutamine supplementation in reducing the incidence of death or late-onset infection in extremely low birth weight infants, the efficiacy of induced hypothermia (body cooling) for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in term infants, the efficacy of early erythropoietin therapy in reducing blood transfusions in infants <= 1250 gm birthweight, the efficacy of supplemental vitamin A therapy in the prevention of CLD, and the efficacy of dexamethasone therapy in the treatment of CLD, a randomized trial of aggressive vs conservative phototherapy in extremely low birth weight infants (BW < 1000 gm), and the SUPPORT trial that compared ventilation strategies and oxygenation target ranges beginning in the delivery room.

Extensive Research Description

My research interests include the nutritional requirements of very low birthweight (VLBW, birthweight < 1,500 gm) preterm infants, prevention of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in preterm infants, prevention and management of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD; also referred to as chronic lung disease (CLD)) in preterm infants, strategies to reduce blood transfusions in VLBW infants, retinopathy of prematurity, and neuroprotective strategies such as whole body cooling for the treatment of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

I also coordinate Yale's participation in a multicenter research network of newborn intensive care units sponsored by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. The purpose of this network is to design and perform collaborative clinical research investigations, both randomized clinical trials and observational studies.

Examples of on-going or recently completed randomized clinical trials include projects evaluating the efficacy of parenteral glutamine supplementation in reducing the incidence of death or late-onset infection in extremely low birth weight infants, the benefit of early vs. late inhaled nitric oxide therapy in the treatment of severe respiratory failure in term and near-term infants, the efficiacy of induced hypothermia (body cooling) for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in term infants, the efficacy of early erythropoietin therapy in reducing blood transfusions in infants <= 1250 gm birthweight, the efficacy of supplemental vitamin A therapy in the prevention of CLD, and the efficacy of dexamethasone therapy in the treatment of CLD, a randomized trial of aggressive vs conservative phototherapy in extremely low birth weight infants (BW < 1000 gm), and the SUPPORT trial that compared ventilation strategies and oxygenation target ranges beginning in the delivery room.

Examples of recently completed observational studies include the development of growth curves for VLBW infants and the validation of scales to assess gestational age and severity of illness in VLBW infants.


Selected Publications

  • Streimish I, Bizzarro M, Northrup V, Wang C, Renna S, Koval N, Li FY, Ehrenkranz RA, Rinder HM, Bhandari V. Neutrophil CD64 with hematologic criteria for diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. Am J Perinatol. 2014;31(1):21-30. doi: 10.1055/s-0033-1334453. PubMed PMID: 23456906.
  • Thompson A, Silva CT, Gork AS, Wang D, Ehrenkranz RA. Intestinal blood flow by Doppler ultrasound: the impact of gestational age and time from first enteral feeding in preterm neonates. Am J Perinatol. 2014;31(4):261-8. doi: 10.1055/s-0033-1347365. PubMed PMID: 23729284
  • Stark AR, Carlo WA, Vohr BR, Papile LA, Saha S, Bauer CR, Oh W, Shankaran S, Tyson JE, Wright LL, Poole WK, Das A, Stoll BJ, Fanaroff AA, Korones SB, Ehrenkranz RA, Stevenson DK, Peralta-Carcelen M, Wilson-Costello DE, Bada HS, Heyne RJ, Johnson YR, Lee KG, Steichen JJ, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child H, Human Development Neonatal Research N. Death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months corrected age in a randomized trial of early dexamethasone to prevent death or chronic lung disease in extremely low birth weight infants. J Ped. 2014;164(1):34-9 e2. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.07.027. PubMed PMID: 23992673.
  • Sylvester KG, Ling XB, Liu GY, Kastenberg ZJ, Ji J, Hu Z, Peng S, Lau K, Abdullah F, Brandt ML, Ehrenkranz RA, Harris MC, Lee TC, Simpson J, Bowers C, Moss RL. A novel urine peptide biomarker-based algorithm for the prognosis of necrotising enterocolitis in human infants. Gut. 2014;63(8):1284-92. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2013-305130. PubMed PMID: 24048736.
  • Bizzarro MJ, Li FY, Katz K, Shabanova V, Ehrenkranz RA, Bhandari V. Temporal quantification of oxygen saturation ranges: an effort to reduce hyperoxia in the neonatal intensive care unit. J Perinatol : official journal of the California Perinatal Association. 2014;34(1):33-8. doi: 10.1038/jp.2013.122. PubMed PMID: 24071904.
  • Bizzarro MJ, Ehrenkranz RA, Gallagher PG. Concurrent bloodstream infections in infants with necrotizing enterocolitis. J Ped. 2014;164(1):61-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.09.020. PubMed PMID: 24139563.
  • Ehrenkranz RA. Extrauterine growth restriction: is it preventable? Jornal de pediatria. 2014;90(1):1-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jped.2013.10.003. PubMed PMID: 24156834.
  • Cotten CM, Goldstein RF, McDonald SA, Goldberg RN, Salhab WA, Carlo WA, Tyson JE, Finer NN, Walsh MC, Ehrenkranz RA, Laptook AR, Guillet R, Schibler K, Van Meurs KP, Poindexter BB, Stoll BJ, O'Shea TM, Duara S, Das A, Higgins RD, Shankaran S, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child H, Human Development Neonatal Research N. Apolipoprotein E genotype and outcome in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Ped Res. 2014;75(3):424-30. doi: 10.1038/pr.2013.235. PubMed PMID: 24322171; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4095992.
  • Levit OL, Calkins KL, Gibson LC, Kelley-Quon L, Robinson DT, Elashoff DA, Grogan TR, Li N, Bizzarro MJ, Ehrenkranz RA. Low-Dose Intravenous Soybean Oil Emulsion for Prevention of Cholestasis in Preterm Neonates. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutrit. 2014. doi: 10.1177/0148607114540005. PubMed PMID: 24963025.
  • Nzegwu NI, Ehrenkranz RA. Post-discharge nutrition and the VLBW infant: To supplement or not supplement?: a review of the current evidence. Clinics in perinatology. 2014;41(2):463-74. doi: 10.1016/j.clp.2014.02.008. PubMed PMID: 24873844.

Edit Profile