Cilia; Heart Defects, Congenital; Lasers; Respiratory System; Developmental Biology; Tomography, Optical Coherence; Optics and Photonics
Many pediatric diseases are poorly understood, in part because they involve processes that occur at small, microscopic scales. In addition, the causes often involve small motions and fluid flows. For example, an early embryonic heart has a diameter of about 100 micrometers, which is about the diameter of a human hair. The cilia that move mucus out of our airways are even smaller- about 10 micrometers long. In order to better study pediatric disease at such small scales, we develop innovative optical imaging methods to visualize and quantify disease at these microscopic scales.
We have three areas of active research.
- First, we develop new laser sources for microscopy and biological imaging.
- Second, using sophisticated optical imaging methods, we study abnormal embryonic heart function in different animal models of human disease, including the tadpole Xenopus tropicalis. In particular, we study the role that specific human genes play in abnormal embryo heart development and physiology.
- Third, we are developing imaging methods to better diagnose abnormalities in respiratory cilia function. Since cilia expel mucus that contains allergens, viruses, and bacteria, they are essential to keeping lungs healthy.
The overall impact of our work is two-fold. First, we are developing core optical technologies that may find widespread use in microscopy. Second, our cilia and heart imaging research has the potential to personalize the diagnosis and treatment of a wide-variety of pediatric diseases.
Extensive Research Description
- Optical imaging of microfluidic-scale biological fluid flow
- Quantitative imaging of embryo heart physiology and pathophysiology
- Diagnostic imaging of pathologic cilia-driven fluid flow
- Developing novel light sources for biological imaging
- Huang B, Choma MA, “Resolving directional ambiguity in dynamic light scattering-based transverse motion velocimetry in optical coherence tomography,” Optics Letters, 39: 521-524 2014.
- Jonas S, Zhou E, Deniz E, Huang B, Chandrasekera K, Bhattacharya D, Wu Y, Fan R, Deserno TM, Khokha MK, Choma MA, “A novel approach to quantifying ciliary physiology: microfluidic mixing driven by a ciliated biological surface,” Lab on a Chip, 13: 4160-4
- Redding B, Choma MA*, Cao H* “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination.” Nature Photonics, 6:355–359, 2012. *Equal contributors.
- Deniz E, Jonas S, Khokha M, Choma MA, “Endogenous contrast blood flow imaging in embryonic hearts using hemoglobin contrast subtraction angiography,” Optics Letters, 37: 2979- 2981, 2012.
- Jonas S, Bhattacharya D, Khokha MK, Choma MA “Microfluidic characterization of cilia-driven fluid flow using optical coherence tomography-based particle tracking velocimetry.” Biomedical Optics Express 2: 2022-2034, 2011.
- Choma MA, Suter MJ, Vakoc BJ, Bouma BE, Tearney GJ. “Physiological homology between Drosophila melanogaster and vertebrate cardiovascular systems.” Disease Models and Mechanisms 4: 411-20, 2011.
- Choma MA, Ellerbee AK, Yang C, Izatt JA. “Spectral domain phase microscopy,” Optics Letters 30: 1162-1164, 2005.
- Choma MA, Sarunic MV, Yang C, Izatt JA. “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Optics Express 11: 2183-2189, 2003.