Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms; Cognition; Psycholinguistics; Psychophysics; Sensory Thresholds; Olfactory Perception; Taste Perception
Public Health Interests
Professor Marks develops quantitative, psychophysical models to account for sensory and perceptual responses to environmental stimuli. His current research is directed in particular at elucidating the mechanisms by which perceptual systems combine information from multiple sensory modalities and by which cognitive processes then modify and modulate perceptual information. Of special interest are the mechanisms of multisensory integration and interaction involved in the perception of flavors. The flavors of foods and beverages come partly from molecules that stimulate gustatory (taste) receptors on the tongue, but importantly – often most importantly – from molecules that stimulate olfactory receptors in the nose. Cognitive processes are also important, as flavor perception depends not only on sensory signals, but also, for example, on verbal labels, which modulate expectations, and on processes underlying perceptual decision-making, The perception of flavor is a critical factor controlling the intake of food. And the intake of food, in turn, is critical to the energy balance of the body, a topic central to the current mission of the John B. Pierce Laboratory.
Extensive Research Description
- Mechanisms of Multisensory Flavor Identification
- Interactions of Cognitive and Sensory Processes in Flavor Perception
- Marks, L.E., & Mulvenna, C.M. (2013). Synesthesia on our mind. Theoria et Historia Scientiarum, 10, 13-35.
Identification of gustatory-olfactory flavor mixtures: effects of linguistic labeling.
Brewer, J., Shepard, T.G., Shavit, A.Y., Veldhuizen, M.G., Parikh, R. & Marks, L.E. (2013). Identification of gustatory-olfactory flavors mixtures: Effects of linguistic labeling. Chemical Senses, 38, 305-313.
Synesthesia, at and near its borders
Marks, L.E., & Mulvenna, C.M. (2013). Synesthesia, at and near its borders. Frontiers in Psychology, doi: 10.3389/fsyg.2013.00651
- Weak synesthesia in the general population Marks, L.E. (2013). In J. Simner and E. Hubbard (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Synesthesia. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 761-789.
Response times to gustatory-olfactory flavor mixtures: Role of congruence
Shepard, T.G., Veldhuizen, M.G., & Marks, L.E. (2015) Response times to gustatory-olfactory flavor mixtures: Role of congruence. Chemical Senses, 40, 565-575.
- Contextual effects in judgments of taste intensity: No assimilation, sometimes contrast. Shepard, T.G, Shavit, A.Y., Veldhuizen, M.G., & Marks, L.E. (2017) Perception, 46, 268-282
- Synesthesia: Then and now Marks, L.E. (2017). Synesthesia: Then and now. In O. Deroy (Ed.), Sensory Blending: On Synaesthesia and Related Phenomena. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 13-44.
- Synesthesia: A teeming multiplicity Marks, L.E. (2014). Synesthesia: A teeming multiplicity. In E. Cardeña, S.J. Lynn, & S.C. Krippner (Eds.), Varieties of Anomalous Experience: Examining the Scientific Evidence, Revised Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, pp. 79-108.
- The semantic basis of taste-shape associations Velasco, C., Woods, A.T., Marks, L.E., Cheok, A.D, & Spence, C. (2016). The semantic basis of taste-shape associations. PeerJ, 4:e1644 (online).
- Flavor identification and intensity: Effects of stimulus context Hallowell, E.S., Parikh, R., Veldhuizen, M.G., & Marks, L.E. (2016). Flavor identification and intensity: Effects of stimulus context. Chemical Senses, 41, 249-259.
- Lower pitch is larger, yet falling pitches shrink: Interaction of pitch change and size change in speeded discrimination Eitan, Z., Schupak, A., Gotler, A., & Marks, L.E. (2014). Lower pitch is larger, yet falling pitches shrink: Interaction of pitch change and size change in speeded discrimination. Experimental Psychology, 61, 273-284
Full List of PubMed Publications
- Shepard TG, Shavit AY, Veldhuizen MG, Marks LE: Contextual Effects in Judgments of Taste Intensity: No Assimilation, Sometimes Contrast. Perception. 2017 Mar-Apr; 2016 Dec 26. PMID: 28024444
- Hallowell ES, Parikh R, Veldhuizen MG, Marks LE: Flavor Identification and Intensity: Effects of Stimulus Context. Chem Senses. 2016 Mar; 2016 Jan 31. PMID: 26830499
- Velasco C, Woods AT, Marks LE, Cheok AD, Spence C: The semantic basis of taste-shape associations. PeerJ. 2016; 2016 Feb 4. PMID: 26966646
- Shepard TG, Veldhuizen MG, Marks LE: Response Times to Gustatory-Olfactory Flavor Mixtures: Role of Congruence. Chem Senses. 2015 Oct; 2015 Aug 24. PMID: 26304508
- Eitan Z, Schupak A, Gotler A, Marks LE: Lower pitch is larger, yet falling pitches shrink. Exp Psychol. 2014. PMID: 24351984
- Marks LE, Mulvenna CM: Synesthesia, at and near its borders. Front Psychol. 2013; 2013 Sep 26. PMID: 24133467
- Wang MF, Marks LE, Frank ME: Taste coding after selective inhibition by chlorhexidine. Chem Senses. 2009 Oct; 2009 Aug 24. PMID: 19703921
- Ross DA, Marks LE: Absolute pitch in children prior to the beginning of musical training. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009 Jul. PMID: 19673781
- Marks LE, Elgart BZ, Burger K, Chakwin EM: Human flavor perception: Application of information integration theory. Teor Model. 2007. PMID: 19079746
- Ross DA, Gore JC, Marks LE: Absolute pitch: music and beyond. Epilepsy Behav. 2005 Dec; 2005 Aug 15. PMID: 16103017
- Ross DA, Olson IR, Marks LE, Gore JC: A nonmusical paradigm for identifying absolute pitch possessors. J Acoust Soc Am. 2004 Sep. PMID: 15478446
- Odgaard EC, Arieh Y, Marks LE: Brighter noise: sensory enhancement of perceived loudness by concurrent visual stimulation. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 2004 Jun. PMID: 15460919
- Ashkenazi A, Marks LE: Effect of endogenous attention on detection of weak gustatory and olfactory flavors. Percept Psychophys. 2004 May. PMID: 15311659
- Ashkenazi A, Fritz M, Buckley J, Marks LE: The Temporal Automated System for Taste Experiments (TASTE). Behav Res Methods Instrum Comput. 2004 Feb. PMID: 15190702
- Marks LE, Ben-Artzi E, Lakatos S: Cross-modal interactions in auditory and visual discrimination. Int J Psychophysiol. 2003 Oct. PMID: 14511841
- Arieh Y, Marks LE: Time course of loudness recalibration: implications for loudness enhancement. J Acoust Soc Am. 2003 Sep. PMID: 14514208
- Jiang Y, Chun MM, Marks LE: Visual marking: selective attention to asynchronous temporal groups. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 2002 Jun. PMID: 12075898
- Jiang Y, Chun MM, Marks LE: Visual marking: dissociating effects of new and old set size. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn. 2002 Mar. PMID: 11911385