Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Ever since the discovery of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), the field of MR has diverged into MRI and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS). Whereas MRI typically observes a water signal, MRS detects all chemicals above a minimum concentration threshold. The members of the Yale MRS group have been pioneers in many of the applications of MRS to the study of metabolism in vivo. The detection of glycogen has been a breakthrough in the non-invasive study of liver and muscle function. The development of 13C MRS methods to study dynamic metabolic fluxes provides unique insights into metabolism that can not be obtained by any other technique. Combining MRS methods with other modalities, like electrophysiology, enhances the understanding of the relation between metabolism and function. And while the current applications of MRS are already many and diverse, the future holds even more promise with the exploration of other nuclei and improved hardware.